East African lion
|East African lion|
|A male at Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda|
|Lioness at Samburu National Reserve, Kenya|
|Subspecies:||P. l. melanochaita|
|Panthera leo melanochaita|
(Ch. H. Smith, 1842)
The East African lion is a Panthera leo melanochaita population in East Africa. During the 20th century, lion populations in this part of Africa became fragmented and declined in several range countries due to loss of habitat and prey base, poaching and killing of lions to protect livestock and human life. In 2005, a Lion Conservation Strategy was developed for East and Southern Africa. Today, lion populations are stable only in large protected area complexes.
The scientific name P. l. melanochaita was proposed for the Cape lion in 1842 that was eradicated in the mid-19th century. P. l. melanochaita differs genetically from P. leo leo; the two subspecies probably diverged at least 50,000 years ago.
Charles Hamilton Smith described the type specimen for Panthera leo melanochaita in 1842 using the scientific name Felis (Leo) melanochaitus. In the 19th and 20th centuries, several naturalists described zoological specimens from East Africa and proposed subspecies, including:
- Felis leo somaliensis (Noack 1891), based on two lion specimens from Somalia
- Felis leo massaicus (Neumann 1900), based on two lions killed near Kibaya and the Gurui River in Kenya
- Felis leo sabakiensis (Lönnberg 1910), based on two lions from the environs of Mount Kilimanjaro
- Felis leo bleyenberghi (Lönnberg 1914), a male lion from the Katanga Province of Belgian Congo
- Felis leo roosevelti (Heller 1914), a lion from the Ethiopian Highlands presented to Theodore Roosevelt
- Felis leo nyanzae (Heller 1914), a lion skin from Kampala, Uganda
- Leo leo hollisteri (Joel Asaph Allen 1924), a male lion from the area of Lime Springs, Sotik on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria
- Panthera leo webbensies Ludwig Zukowsky 1964, two lions from Somalia, one in the Natural History Museum, Vienna that originated in Webi Shabeelle, the other kept in a German zoo that had been imported from the hinterland of Mogadishu.
In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group revised lion taxonomy based on results of phylogeographic research on lion samples. Two lion subspecies are now recognised:
- P. l. melanochaita is understood as comprising lion populations in the contemporary Southern and East African range countries;
- P. l. leo comprises lion populations in North, West and Central Africa and Asia.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, several phylogenetic studies were conducted to aid clarifying the taxonomic status of lion samples kept in museums and collected in the wild. Scientists analysed between 32 and 480 lion samples from up to 22 countries. They all agree that the species lion comprises two evolutionary groups, one in East and Southern Africa, and the other in the northern and eastern parts of its historical range; these groups diverged about 50,000 years ago. They assume that tropical rainforest and the East African Rift constituted major barriers between the two groups.
Among six samples from captive lions that originated in Ethiopia, five samples clustered with samples from East Africa, but one clustered with samples from the Sahel. For a subsequent study, also eight wild lion samples from the Ethiopian Highlands were included in the analysis. Of these, three clustered with the Central African lion and five with samples from East Africa. Scientists therefore assume that the Ethiopian Highlands east and west of the Rift Valley is a genetic admixture zone between both phylogeographic groups.
The lion's fur varies in colour from light buff to dark brown. It has rounded ears and a black tail tuft. Average head-to-body length of male lions is 2.47–2.84 m (8.1–9.3 ft) with a weight of 148.2–190.9 kg (327–421 lb). Females are smaller and less heavy. Until the late 20th century, mane colour and size was thought to be a distinct subspecific characteristic.
Male lions killed in East Africa were less heavy than lions killed by hunters in Southern Africa.
In 2002, research in Serengeti National Park revealed that mane darkens with age; its colour and size are influenced by environmental factors like temperature and climate, but also by individual testosterone production, sexual maturity and genetic precondition. Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male–male relationships.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, lion type specimen were described on the basis of mane size and colour. Male East African lions are known for a great range of mane types. Mane development is related to age: older males have more extensive manes than younger ones; manes continue to grow up to the age of four to five years, long after lions have become sexually mature. Males living in the highlands above 800 m (2,600 ft) elevation develop heavier manes than lions in the more humid and warmer lowlands of eastern and northern Kenya. The latter have thinner manes, or are even completely maneless. Hence, lion manes reflect ambient temperature. The mane colour is also influenced by nutrition and testosterone. Its length is an indicator for age and fighting ability of the lion.
Distribution and habitat
- Somalia since the early 20th century. Intensive poaching since the 1980s and civil unrest in El Buur District posed a threat to lion persistence.
- Uganda to near extinction due to poaching since the 1970s following civil unrest.
- Democratic Republic of Congo in the 1990s during the first and second civil wars.
- Kenya in the 1990s due to poisoning of lions and poaching of lion prey species. At least 108 lions were killed between 2001 and 2006 in the Amboseli-Tsavo East-Tsavo West protected area network.
- Rwanda and Tanzania due to killing of lions during the Rwandan Civil War and ensuing refugee crisis in the 1990s.
Contemporary lion distribution and habitat quality in East Africa was assessed in 2005, and Lion Conservation Units (LCU) mapped. Between 2002 and 2012, educated guesses for size of populations in the East African LCUs ranged from 20,485 to 18,308 individuals.
|Range countries||Lion Conservation Units||Area in km2|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||Massif D'itombwe, Luama||8,441|
|Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda||Queen Elizabeth-Virunga||5,583|
|Uganda||Toro-Semulik, Lake Mburo, Murchison Falls||4,800|
|Kenya||Laikipia-Samburu, Meru and Nairobi National Parks||43,706|
|Kenya, Tanzania||Serengeti-Mara and Tsavo-Mkomazi||75,068|
|Tanzania||Dar-Biharamulo, Ruaha-Rungwa, Mpanga-Kipengere, Tarangire, Wami Mbiki-Saadani, Selous||384,489|
The LCUs Serengeti-Mara, Tsavo-Mkomazi, Ruaha-Rungwa and Selous are currently considered lion strongholds in East Africa. They host more than 500 individuals each, and the population trend is stable.
Ecology and behaviour
In the Serengeti National Park, lion prides have been monitored since 1966. Between 1966 and 1972, two observed lion prides comprised between seven and 10 females each that had litters once in 23 months on average. Litters contained two to three cubs. Females suckled cubs of other females, when their cubs were of similar age. Of 87 cubs born until 1970, only 12 reached the age of two years. Cubs died due to starvation in months when large prey was not available, following take-over of prides by new males, or of unknown causes. Male lion coalitions were more successful in taking over prides than single males. Coalitions of six males stayed longer with a pride than smaller male groups. Between 1974 and 2012, 471 coalitions comprising 796 male lions entered a study area of 2,000 km2 (770 sq mi). Of these, 35 nomadic coalitions included male lions that were born in the area but had left and returned after about two years of absence. Coalitions became resident at between 3.5 and 7.3 years of age.
Attacks on humans
- A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April 2004. It is believed to have killed and eaten at least 35 people in a series of incidents covering several villages in the coastal of this region. Dr Rolf D. Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing". This lion was large, had no mane and a tooth problem.
- Tanzania (between 1930s and 1940s) was inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions". The hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1,500 to 2,000 people in Njombe district.
In Somalia's Lower Shabeelle area, hunters kill female lions and collect cubs to trade them in wildlife markets, where they fetch at between US$ 500 and 600 per cub. In southern Somalia, people also keep lion cubs for export.
All lion populations in Africa have been included in CITES Appendix II since 1975. Because of the negative impact of trophy hunting, it was proposed in 2004 to list them all in CITES Appendix I to reduce exports of lion trophies and implement a stricter permission process.
In 2006, a Lion Conservation Strategy for East and Southern Africa was developed in cooperation between IUCN regional offices and several wildlife conservation organisations. The strategy envisages to maintain sufficient habitat, ensure a sufficient wild prey base, make lion-human coexistence sustainable and reduce factors that lead to further fragmentation of populations.
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