Pope Innocent II
|Bishop of Rome|
|Papacy began||14 February 1130|
|Papacy ended||24 September 1143|
|Ordination||22 February 1130|
|Consecration||23 February 1130|
by Giovanni Vitale
by Urban II
|Birth name||Gregorio Papareschi|
|Born||Rome, Papal States|
|Died||24 September 1143|
Rome, Papal States
|Other popes named Innocent|
Pope Innocent II (Latin: Innocentius II; died 24 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 February 1130 to his death in 1143. His election as pope was controversial and the first eight years of his reign were marked by a struggle for recognition against the supporters of Anacletus II. He reached an understanding with King Lothair III of Germany who supported him against Anacletus and whom he crowned as Holy Roman emperor. Innocent went on to preside over the Second Lateran council.
Gregorio Papareschi came from a Roman family, probably of the rione Trastevere. Formerly a Cluniac monk, he was made cardinal deacon of San Angelo in 1116 by Pope Paschal II. Gregorio was selected by Pope Callixtus II for various important and difficult missions, such as the one to Worms for the conclusion of the Concordat of Worms, the peace accord made with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V in 1122, and also the one that made peace with King Louis VI of France in 1123. In 1124, he became a close advisor to Pope Honorius II.
Election as Pope
In February 1130, as Pope Honorius II lay dying, Gregorio was hastily elected as Pope Innocent II by a commission of six cardinals led by papal chancellor Haimeric. He was consecrated on 14 February, the day after Honorius' death. The other cardinals announced that Innocent had not been canonically elected and chose Anacletus II, a Roman whose family were the enemy of Haimeric's supporters, the Frangipani. Anacletus' mixed group of supporters were powerful enough to take control of Rome while Innocent was forced to flee north.
Anacletus had control of Rome, so Innocent II took ship for Pisa, and thence sailed by way of Genoa to France, where the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux readily secured his cordial recognition by the clergy and the court. In October of 1130, he was duly acknowledged by King Lothair III of Germany and his bishops at the synod of Würzburg. In January 1131, he had also a favourable interview with Henry I of England at Chartres, and in August 1132 Lothar III undertook an expedition to Italy for the double purpose of setting aside Anacletus as antipope and of being crowned by Innocent. Anacletus and his supporters being in secure control of St. Peter's Basilica, the coronation ultimately took place in the Lateran Church (4 June 1133), but otherwise the expedition proved abortive. Innocent II invested Lothair as emperor and the territories belonging to Matilda of Tuscany in return for an annuity of 100 pounds of silver paid to the pope.
After Lothar's hasty departure from Rome, Innocent fled to Pisa. In May 1135, Innocent convened the council of Pisa, which was attended by over one hundred clerics and abbots. Innocent II had the council declare antipope Anacletus II and his supporters excommunicated.
The second expedition by Lothar III in 1136 was no more decisive in its results, and the protracted struggle between the rival pontiffs was terminated only by the death of Anacletus II on 25 January 1138.
In March 1139 that, in the Omne Datum Optimum, Innocent II declared that the Knights Templar—a religious and military organization then twenty-one years old—should in the future be answerable only to the papacy.
Second Lateran Council
At the Second Lateran council of April 1139, King Roger II of Sicily, Innocent II's most uncompromising foe, was excommunicated. Can. 29 of the Second Lateran Council under Pope Innocent II in 1139 banned the use of crossbows, as well as slings and bows, against Christians.
Treaty of Mignano
On 22 July 1139, at Galluccio, Roger II's son Roger III of Apulia ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured Innocent. On 25 July 1139, Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano. Innocent II died on 24 September 1143 and was succeeded by Pope Celestine II.
Innocent elevated as cardinal-nephew was his nephew, Gregorio Papareschi, whom he made cardinal in 1134, and then his brother Pietro Papareschi, whom he made cardinal in 1142. Another nephew, Cinthio Capellus (died 1182), was also a cardinal, raised to the cardinalate in 1158, after Innocent's death.
Aside from the complete rebuilding of the ancient church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, which boldly features Ionic capitals from former colonnades in the Baths of Caracalla and other richly detailed spolia from Roman monuments, the remaining years of Innocent's life were almost as barren of permanent political results as the first had been. His efforts to undo the mischief wrought in Rome by the long schism were almost entirely neutralized by a quarrel with his erstwhile supporter, Louis VII of France over the candidate for archbishop of Bourges, in the course of which that kingdom was laid under an interdict to press for the papal candidate, and by a struggle with the town of Tivoli in which he became involved. As a result, Roman factions that wished Tivoli annihilated took up arms against Innocent.
In 1143, as the pope lay dying, the Commune of Rome, to resist papal power, began deliberations that officially reinstated the Roman Senate the following year. The pope was interred in a porphyry sarcophagus that contemporary tradition asserted had been the Emperor Hadrian's.
- Robinson 1990, p. 72.
- Aurell 2020, p. 176.
- Duggan 2016, p. 272.
- Robinson 1990, p. 75.
- Robinson 1990, p. 361.
- Somerville 1970, p. 101.
- Clark 2016, p. 11.
- Lees 1998, p. 34.
- Truax 2017, p. 27.
- Robinson 1990, p. 246.
- Somerville 1970, p. 100-101.
- Robinson 1990, p. 138.
- Bagni 2020, p. 6.
- Houben 2002, p. 70.
- Schroeder 1937, p. 195-213.
- Rogers 1997, p. 118.
- Pacaut 2002, p. 784.
- Robinson 1990, p. 525.
- Robinson 1990, p. 206.
- Duggan 2000, p. 277.
- Kinney 1986, p. 379-397.
- Cotts 2012, p. 31.
- Aurell, Jaume (2020). Medieval Self-Coronations: The History and Symbolism of a Ritual. Cambridge University Press.
- Bagni, Giampiero (2020). "A multidisciplinary approach to the production of wine on Templar estates: The Bologna commandery". In Morton, Nicholas (ed.). The Military Orders Volume VII: Piety, Pugnacity and Property. Routledge.
- Clark, Anne L. (2016). Elisabeth of Schonau: A Twelfth-Century Visionary. University of Pennsylvania Press.
- Cotts, John D. (2012). Europe's Long Twelfth Century: Order, Anxiety and Adaptation, 1095-1229. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Duggan, Anne J., ed. (2000). The Correspondence of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1162-1170: Letters. I: 1-175. Clarendon Press.
- Duggan, Anne J. (2016). "Jura sua unicuique tribuat: Innocent II and the advance of the learned laws". In Doran, John; Smith, Damian J. (eds.). Pope Innocent II (1130-43), The World vs The City. Routledge.
- Lees, Jay Terry (1998). Anselm of Havelberg: Deeds Into Words in the Twelfth Century. Brill.
- Houben, Hubert (2002). Roger II of Sicily: Ruler between East and West. Translated by Loud, Graham A.; Milburn, Diane. Cambridge University Press.
- Kinney, Dale (1986). "Spolia from the Baths of Caracalla in Sta. Maria in Trastevere". The Art Bulletin. 68.3 (September): 379–397.
- Pacaut, Marcel (2002). "Innocent II". In Levillain, Philippe (ed.). The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. 2: Gaius-Proxies. Routledge. p. 783-785.
- Robinson, I.S. (1990). The Papacy, 1073-1198. Cambridge University Press.
- Rogers, Randall (1997). Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century. Clarendon Press.
- Schroeder, H. J. (1937). Disciplinary Decrees of the General Councils: Text, Translation and Commentary. B. Herder.
- Somerville, Robert (1970). "The Council of Pisa, 1135: A Re-Examination of the Evidence for the Canons". Speculum. The University of Chicago Press. 45, No. 1 (Jan.): 98-114.
- Truax, Jean (2017). Aelred the Peacemaker: The Public Life of a Cistercian Abbot. Liturgical Press.
- Wheeler, Bonnie; McLaughlin, Mary Martin, eds. (2009). The Letters of Heloise and Abelard: A Translation of Their Collected Correspondence and Related Writings. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Tenth Ecumenical Council: Lateran II 1139. Internet Medieval Source Book. 1 November 1996. Retrieved 5 May 2007.