Wawasan 2020 or Vision 2020 is a Malaysian ideal introduced by the fourth and seventh Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad during the tabling of the Sixth Malaysia Plan in 1991. The vision calls for the nation to achieve a self-sufficient industrialised nation by the year 2020, encompasses all aspects of life, from economic prosperity, social well-being, educational worldclass, political stability, as well as psychological balance. To achieve Vision 2020, Mahathir lamented that the nation required an annual growth of 7% (in real terms) over the thirty-year period 1990–2020, so that the economy would be eightfold stronger than its 1990 GDP of RM115 billion. This would translate to a GDP of RM920 billion (in 1990 Ringgit terms) in 2020. Under Vision 2020 from 1991 to 2020, there are 3 sub 10 year development policy namely National development Policy 1991-2000 with OPP2, National Vision Policy 2001-2010 with OPP3 and New Economic Model 2011-2020 with National Transformation Programme NTP and UTP.
Mahathir outlined nine strategic challenges that Malaysia must overcome to achieve Vision 2020.
- Challenge 1: Establishing a united Malaysian nation made up of one Bangsa Malaysia (Malaysian Race).
- Challenge 2: Creating a psychologically liberated, secure and developed Malaysian society.
- Challenge 3: Fostering and developing a mature democratic society.
- Challenge 4: Establishing a fully moral and ethical society.
- Challenge 5: Establishing a matured liberal and tolerant society.
- Challenge 6: Establishing a scientific and progressive society.
- Challenge 7: Establishing a fully caring society.
- Challenge 8: Ensuring an economically just society, in which there is a fair and equitable distribution of the wealth of the nation.
- Challenge 9: Establishing a prosperous society with an economy that is fully competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient.
Revisions to the vision
In view of changing global conditions amid the financial crisis of 2007–2010, Prime Minister of the then ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) government, Tun Mahathir Mohamad had in August 2009, said that there was now a need to redefine and recalibrate the vision in terms of how to achieve it, as well as its timeline. Najib, who said that it was necessary for Malaysia to undertake bold economic reforms, had tasked the National Economic Advisory Council (NEAC) to carry out a review of the vision. The NEAC is expected to publish its report by end 2009, with a second report on implementation 6 months after that. Najib also said that in order for Malaysia to achieve a developed nation status by 2020, the country has to grow at an annual rate of 8% over the next 10 years. He cited that a lower hypothetical growth of 6% per annum would delay Malaysia's vision to become a developed country by 10 years to 2030. Malaysia’s GDP growth rate averaged 7.2% per annum in the 1990s, and slowed to 5.4% per annum in the following decade.
Just before the downfall of BN federal government in the 2018 general election (GE14), Najib had launched the National Transformation 2050 or Transformasi Nasional 2050 (TN50) initiative, where by 2050 Malaysia will be "a nation of calibre, with a new mindset". The TN50 was allegedly initiated by Najib to undermine Mahathir Mohamad's Wawasan 2020 legacy. The TN50 had somehow fallen through and was officially dismantled with some aspirations maintained by the Pakatan Harapan (PH)'s Malaysia Baharu government after the GE14.
References and sources
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- Jeong Chun Hai @ Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2007). Principles of Public Administration. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications. Also see, Jeong Chun Hai. (2007). Fundamental of Development Administration. Selangor: Scholar Press. Also see, Mohamed Jawhar Hassan. (1995). 'Malaysia in 1994: Staying in Course.' Asian Survey, Vol.35, No.2, A Survey of Asia in 1994: Part II (Feb. 1995), 186–193.
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