Pakatan Harapan

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Alliance of Hope

Pakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
希望联盟
பாக்காத்தான் ஹரப்பான
AbbreviationPH
ChairmanMahathir Mohamad
LeaderAnwar Ibrahim
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Deputy PresidentsLim Guan Eng
Mohamad Sabu
Muhyiddin Yassin
Vice-PresidentsChong Chieng Jen
Mohamed Azmin Ali
Salahuddin Ayub
Mukhriz Mahathir
M. Kulasegaran
Christina Liew[1]
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[2]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
HeadquartersKuala Lumpur (DAP and AMANAH)
Petaling Jaya (PKR)
Putrajaya (BERSATU)
NewspaperThe Rocket
Roketkini
Suara Keadilan
Suara Amanah
Keadilan Daily
Student wingMahasiswa Pakatan Harapan
Youth wingPemuda Pakatan Harapan[3][4]
Women's wingWanita Pakatan Harapan[5]
IdeologySocial democracy
Social liberalism
Progressivism
Reformism
Political positionCentre to Centre-left
Colours     Red
SloganPakatan Harapan Rakyat
Dewan Negara:
25 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
129 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
275 / 591
Election symbol
Pakatan Harapan Logo.svg
Website
pakatanharapan.com.my
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia

The Alliance of Hope (Malay: Pakatan Harapan; abbrev: PH) is a political coalition in Malaysia. It is a successor to Pakatan Rakyat (the other being Gagasan Sejahtera). It was established in 2015 as an opposition to the former-ruling Barisan Nasional. It is the largest bloc in the Dewan Rakyat and is the current ruling party of Malaysia. The coalition is allied with the Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) and the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) in the state of Sabah. At the state level, the coalition is the largest party in 8 of 13 state legislative assemblies and forms the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Johor and Sabah.[note 1] Pakatan Harapan also form a government with two-thirds majority in the states of Penang and Selangor.

The coalition was formed on 22 September 2015, consisting of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party and Malaysian United Indigenous Party.[6] The coalition was formed as an alliance of centre-left to centre-right parties to contest the 2018 Malaysian general election. The coalition contested the election under the logo of a component party, the People's Justice Party (PKR), due to inability to register as an official coalition.

After the 2018 general elections, Pakatan Harapan chairman Mahathir Mohamad was appointed as the Prime Minister of Malaysia while its president, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, was appointed as the Deputy Prime Minister. Mahathir Mohamad became the first prime minister from Pakatan Harapan, and the first prime minister to have tenures with two different parties.

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party (PKR), the Democratic Action Party (DAP) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[7][8] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party (AMANAH).[9][10]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU), founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[11][12] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[13] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[14]

2018 general election[edit]

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word “Harapan” with the “A” shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[15] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[16] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[17][18][19]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party (WARISAN) for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[20] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[21] Following the victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO) announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[22] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each others in Sabah.[23]

Registration[edit]

On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[24]

Member parties[edit]

Flag Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
contested
2018 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Bendera Parti Keadilan Rakyat PKR 4975x2490 px.svg PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Progressivism Anwar Ibrahim 71 16.937%
47 / 222
50 / 128
Democratic Action Party Flag.svg DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy Lim Guan Eng 47 17.365%
42 / 222
42 / 128
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia Flag.svg BERSATU Malaysian United Indigenous Party
Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia
Ketuanan Melayu Mahathir Mohamad 52 5.948%
13 / 222
16 / 128
Parti Amanah Negara Flag.svg AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Islamic modernism Mohamad Sabu 34 5.426%
11 / 222
11 / 128
Allied parties
N/A WARISAN Sabah Heritage Party
Parti Warisan Sabah
Sabahan Regionalism Shafie Apdal 17 2.322%
8 / 222
9 / 128
United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation Logo.svg UPKO United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation
Pertubuhan Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Bersatu
Sabahan Regionalism Madius Tangau 4
(under BN)
0.472%
1 / 222
1 / 128
Strategic partners
N/A HINDRAF Hindu Rights Action Force
Barisan Bertindak Hak-Hak Hindu
Human rights Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy - -
0 / 222
0 / 125
N/A MIRA Minority Rights Action Party
Parti Tindakan Hak Minoriti
Liberal democracy S. Gobi Krishnan - -
0 / 222
0 / 125

Leadership Structure[edit]

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Senators[edit]

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

Pakatan Harapan has 129 members in the House of Representatives. (with allied parties)

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P002 Kangar Noor Amin Ahmad PKR
 Kedah P004 Langkawi Mahathir Mohamad BERSATU
P005 Jerlun Mukhriz Mahathir BERSATU
P006 Kubang Pasu Amiruddin Hamzah BERSATU
P008 Pokok Sena Mahfuz Omar AMANAH
P009 Alor Setar Chan Ming Kai PKR
P010 Kuala Kedah Azman Ismail PKR
P014 Merbok Nor Azrina Surip PKR
P015 Sungai Petani Johari Abdul PKR
P017 Padang Serai Karuppaiya Muthusamy PKR
P018 Kulim-Bandar Baharu Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR
 Kelantan P030 Jeli Mustapa Mohamed BERSATU
 Penang P043 Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP
P044 Permatang Pauh Nurul Izzah Anwar PKR
P045 Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Keong DAP
P046 Batu Kawan Kasthuriraani Patto DAP
P047 Nibong Tebal Mansor Othman PKR
P048 Bukit Bendera Wong Hon Wai DAP
P049 Tanjong Chow Kon Yeow DAP
P050 Jelutong Sanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji Rayer DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor Ramkarpal Singh DAP
P052 Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR
P053 Balik Pulau Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik PKR
 Perak P057 Parit Buntar Mujahid Yusof Rawa AMANAH
P058 Bagan Serai Noor Azmi Ghazali BERSATU
P060 Taiping Teh Kok Lim DAP
P062 Sungai Siput Kesavan Subramaniam PKR
P063 Tambun Ahmad Faizal Azumu BERSATU
P064 Ipoh Timor Wong Kah Woh DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat M. Kulasegaran DAP
P066 Batu Gajah V. Sivakumar DAP
P068 Beruas Ngeh Koo Ham DAP
P070 Kampar Su Keong Siong DAP
P071 Gopeng Lee Boon Chye PKR
P074 Lumut Mohd Hatta Ramli AMANAH
P076 Telok Intan Nga Kor Ming DAP
P077 Tanjong Malim Chang Lih Kang PKR
 Pahang P080 Raub Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji DAP
P082 Indera Mahkota Saifuddin Abdullah PKR
P083 Kuantan Fuziah Salleh PKR
P088 Temerloh Anuar Tahir AMANAH
P089 Bentong Wong Tack DAP
 Selangor P093 Sungai Besar Muslimin Yahya BERSATU
P094 Hulu Selangor June Leow Hsiad Hui PKR
P096 Kuala Selangor Dzulkefly Ahmad AMANAH
P097 Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR
P098 Gombak Mohamed Azmin Ali PKR
P099 Ampang Zuraida Kamaruddin PKR
P100 Pandan Dr. Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR
P101 Hulu Langat Hasanuddin Mohd Yunus AMANAH
P102 Bangi Ong Kian Ming DAP
P103 Puchong Gobind Singh Deo DAP
P104 Subang Wong Chen PKR
P105 Petaling Jaya Maria Chin Abdullah PKR
P106 Damansara Tony Pua Kiam Wee DAP
P107 Sungai Buloh Sivarasa Rasiah PKR
P108 Shah Alam Khalid Samad AMANAH
P109 Kapar Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid PKR
P110 Klang Charles Anthony Santiago DAP
P111 Kota Raja Mohamad Sabu AMANAH
P112 Kuala Langat Xavier Jayakumar Arulanandam PKR
P113 Sepang Mohamed Hanipa Maidin AMANAH
 Kuala Lumpur P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng DAP
P115 Batu P. Prabakaran M. Parameswaran PKR
P116 Wangsa Maju Tan Yee Kew PKR
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan DAP
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad PKR
P119 Titiwangsa Rina Mohd Harun BERSATU
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP
P121 Lembah Pantai Fahmi Fadzil PKR
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP
P124 Bandar Tun Razak Kamarudin Jaffar PKR
 Negeri Sembilan P128 Seremban Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
P129 Kuala Pilah Eddin Syazlee Shith BERSATU
P130 Rasah Cha Kee Chin DAP
P132 Port Dickson Anwar Ibrahim PKR
P133 Tampin Hasan Baharom AMANAH
 Malacca P134 Masjid Tanah Mas Ermieyati Samsudin BERSATU
P135 Alor Gajah Mohd Redzuan Md Yusof BERSATU
P136 Tangga Batu Rusnah Aluai PKR
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin PKR
P138 Kota Melaka Khoo Poay Tiong DAP
 Johor P140 Segamat Edmund Santhara Kumar Ramanaidu PKR
P141 Sekijang Natrah Ismail PKR
P142 Labis Pang Hok Liong DAP
P143 Pagoh Muhyiddin Yassin BERSATU
P144 Ledang Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh PKR
P145 Bakri Yeo Bee Yin DAP
P146 Muar Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman BERSATU
P149 Sri Gading Shahruddin Md Salleh BERSATU
P150 Batu Pahat Mohd Rashid Hasnon PKR
P151 Simpang Renggam Maszlee Malik BERSATU
P152 Kluang Wong Shu Qi DAP
P158 Tebrau Steven Choong Shiau Yoon PKR
P159 Pasir Gudang Hassan Abdul Karim PKR
P160 Johor Bahru Ahmad Akmal Nasrullah Mohd. Nasir PKR
P161 Pulai Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
P162 Iskandar Puteri Lim Kit Siang DAP
P163 Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP
P165 Tanjong Piai Mohamed Farid Md Rafik BERSATU
 Labuan P166 Labuan Rozman Isli WARISAN
 Sabah P169 Kota Belud Isnaraissah Munirah Majilis WARISAN
P170 Tuaran Wilfred Madius Tangau UPKO
P171 Sepanggar Azis Jamman WARISAN
P172 Kota Kinabalu Chan Foong Hin DAP
P173 Putatan Awang Husaini Sahari PKR
P174 Penampang Ignatius Dorell Leiking WARISAN
P175 Papar Ahmad Hassan WARISAN
P179 Ranau Jonathan Yasin PKR
P181 Tenom Noorita Sual DAP
P185 Batu Sapi Liew Vui Keong WARISAN
P186 Sandakan Wong Tien Fatt DAP
P188 Silam Mohammadin Ketapi WARISAN
P189 Semporna Shafie Apdal WARISAN
P190 Tawau Christina Liew Chin Jin PKR
P191 Kalabakan Ma'mun Sulaiman WARISAN
 Sarawak P192 Mas Gading Mordi Bimol DAP
P195 Bandar Kuching Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen DAP
P196 Stampin Chong Chieng Jen DAP
P198 Puncak Borneo Willie Mongin PKR
P203 Lubok Antu Jugah Muyang PKR
P205 Saratok Ali Biju PKR
P208 Sarikei Wong Ling Biu DAP
P209 Julau Larry Sng Wei Shien PKR
P211 Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP
P212 Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP
P214 Selangau Baru Bian PKR
P219 Miri Michael Teo Yu Keng PKR
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (10), Kelantan(1), Penang (11), Perak (14), Pahang (5), Selangor (20), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (11), Negeri Sembilan (5), Malacca (5), Johor (18), F.T. Labuan (1), Sabah (15), Sarawak (12)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2016
10 / 82
2018
3 / 15
18 / 36
1 / 45
0 / 32
37 / 40
30 / 59
9 / 42
51 / 56
20 / 36
15 / 28
39 / 56
40 / 60
241 / 587

Pakatan Harapan state governments[edit]

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Johor Menteri Besar Osman Sapian BERSATU Kempas
 Kedah Menteri Besar Mukhriz Mahathir BERSATU Jitra
 Malacca Chief Minister Adly Zahari AMANAH Bukit Katil
 Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Aminuddin Harun PKR Sikamat
 Penang Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow DAP Padang Kota
 Perak Menteri Besar Ahmad Faizal Azumu BERSATU Chenderiang
 Sabah Chief Minister Shafie Apdal WARISAN Senallang
 Selangor Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari PKR Sungai Tua

General Election Results[edit]

Election Total seats won Seats Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
2018
121 / 222
56.34% 5,615,822 45.56% Increase125 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ram Anand (11 September 2017). "Pakatan Harapan adds two VPs to represent Indians, Sabahans". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  2. ^ Yimie Yong (17 May 2018). "It's official! Pakatan gets its certificate of registration from RoS". The Star. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  3. ^ Masriwanie Muhamading (12 May 2017). "Pakatan Harapan youth wings' economic model targeting 1mil jobs for youth". Astro Awani. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Senarai penuh Majlis Pimpinan Pemuda Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Wanita Pakatan pledges to raise women in politics, economy, social welfare". The Malaysian Insight. 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  6. ^ Melissa Goh (22 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition band together under new Pakatan Harapan alliance". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  7. ^ "Pakatan Rakyat Split Will Change Country's Political Landscape". Bernama. Malaysian Digest. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  8. ^ Asrul Hadi Abdullah Sani (18 June 2015). "Break up of Malaysia's opposition bloc Pakatan Rakyat: What happened and what's next?". The Straits Times. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  9. ^ Harits Asyraf Hasnan (22 September 2015). "New Pakatan Harapan coalition formed". Astro Awani. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  10. ^ Shannon Teoh (23 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition forms Pakatan Harapan alliance". The Straits Times. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  11. ^ Melissa Goh (12 November 2016). "'The only way to win is to unite and contest under one party': Mahathir". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  12. ^ Sheridan Mahavera (16 November 2016). "By courting rural Muslims, has Malaysia's opposition found key to winning power for first time in 60 years?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  13. ^ Hana Naz Harun (13 December 2016). "PPBM officially signs agreement to join Pakatan Harapan". New Straits Times. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  14. ^ "PPBM wants name change before joining Pakatan Harapan". Antara Pos. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Dr Mahathir Mohamad is Pakatan chairman, Dr Wan Azizah made president". The Malay Mail. Today Online. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  16. ^ Rizalman Hamim; Mohd Fahmi Mohd Yusof (6 April 2018). "Pakatan to use PKR logo in GE14". New Straits Times. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  17. ^ "Opposition Pact to unveil common logo for GE14 on Friday". New Straits Times. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. In a press conference at Parliament lobby on Thursday, Lim Guan Eng however said the change will only be for peninsula in the polls and the four parties will not use the common Pakatan Harapan logo in Sabah and Sarawak for GE14 election campaign. They’re different because they have autonomy. So we respect this and they can use the DAP rocket logo.
  18. ^ Julia Chan (6 April 2018). "Sabah, Sarawak Pakatan parties won't use common logo". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 20 April 2018. This was a big decision for us, to be able to exercise our autonomy and decide for ourselves. We chose to use our own respective party flags. So, PKR, DAP and Amanah flags will be used here.
  19. ^ Sharon Ling (9 April 2018). "Sarawak DAP to use rocket logo for GE14". The Star. Retrieved 20 April 2018. We have decided that DAP will use the rocket symbol while PKR and Amanah will both use the PKR logo.
  20. ^ "Warisan seals electoral pact with DAP and PKR". Malaysiakini. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018. (subscription required)
  21. ^ Suzianah Jiffar (2 April 2018). "Warisan will work only with Pakatan Harapan for GE14". New Straits Times. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  22. ^ Tan Su Lin (10 May 2018). "UPKO umum keluar BN, wujud kerajaan campuran dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  23. ^ "UPKO bentuk pakatan dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Berita Harian. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  24. ^ "Pakatan Harapan is officially registered". Free Malaysia Today. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.

External links[edit]