Pakatan Harapan

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Alliance of Hope
Malay namePakatan Harapan
ڤاكتن هارڤن
Chinese name希望聯盟
希望联盟
Xīwàng liánméng
Tamil nameநம்பிக்கை கூட்டணி
AbbreviationPH
ChairmanAnwar Ibrahim
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Deputy PresidentsLim Guan Eng
Mohamad Sabu
Vice-PresidentsChong Chieng Jen
Salahuddin Ayub
M. Kulasegaran
Christina Liew[1]
Founded22 September 2015 (2015-09-22)
Legalised16 May 2018 (2018-05-16)[2]
Preceded byPakatan Rakyat
HeadquartersKuala Lumpur (DAP and AMANAH)
Petaling Jaya (PKR)
NewspaperThe Rocket
Roketkini
Suara Keadilan
Suara Amanah
Keadilan Daily
Suara Pakatan Daily
Student wingMahasiswa Pakatan Harapan
Youth wingPemuda Pakatan Harapan[3][4]
Women's wingWanita Pakatan Harapan[5]
IdeologySocial democracy
Progressivism
Reformism
Multiracialism
Factions:
Left-wing nationalism
Secularism
Islamic Modernism
Islamic democracy
Democratic socialism
Political positionCentre-left
Colours  Red and white
SloganPakatan Harapan Rakyat!
Dewan Negara
20 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
108 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri
227 / 607
Chief minister of states
3 / 13
Election symbol
Pakatan Harapan Logo.svg
Website
pakatanharapan.com.my

Pakatan Harapan (PH) is a Malaysian political coalition which is preceded by the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. At the federal level, it was shortly the government and ruling coalition from its victory in the 2018 Malaysian general election in May 2018 to February 2020 for almost 22 months when Mahathir Mohamad, the 7th Prime Minister in its administration and from it resigned and triggered the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. It was established in September 2015 as an opposition political coalition against the then-ruling Barisan Nasional coalition that ruled the nation from its independence in August 1957 (BN's direct predecessor was known as the ALLIANCE coalition) to its defeat in the 2018 Malaysian general election in May 2018 for almost 61 years. Its main allied political parties are the Sabah Heritage Party, United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation, Homeland Fighters' Party and Malaysian United Democratic Alliance. It is also the largest political coalition with 91 seats in the Dewan Rakyat. While at the state level, it is the state government and ruling coalition in three of the 13 states across the nation, they are Penang, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. [note 1] It also garners the two-thirds majority in the state legislative assemblies of Penang and Selangor to form the strong, formidable and convincing state governments.

The coalition consists of the Democratic Action Party, People's Justice Party, National Trust Party and formerly Malaysian United Indigenous Party which left the coalition and its federal administration collapsed in February 2020, triggering the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. [6] The coalition was formed as an alliance of centre-left to centre-right parties to contest the 2018 Malaysian general election. The coalition contested the election under the logo of a component party, the PKR, due to its inability to register as an official political coalition.

After the 2018 Malaysian general election, its Chairman, 4th and former Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad was reappointed to the office as the 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia while its President, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, was appointed the 12th Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia. Following the takeover of government, a series of records was created, an opposition coalition gained victory in a general election to form a government and a change of government took place at the very first time in the history of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad became the first and only Prime Minister in the Pakatan Harapan administration and from Pakatan Harapan coalition, from two opposing and different political coalitions (formerly from the opposing Barisan Nasional from 1981 to 2003), served twice and separately, the oldest-serving as well as the oldest state leader in the world to take office at the age of 92, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail became the first female Deputy Prime Minister, the highest and most powerful ever political officeholder, Syed Saddiq became the youngest Minister to take office at the age of 25 and P Prabakaran became the youngest Member of Parliament to take office at the age of 22 and lastly, Pakatan Harapan administration is the shortest-serving in the history of Malaysia by only serving for almost 22 months, not even reaching two years and half of its term as a government.

On 24 February 2020, Mahathir resigned as Prime Minister. BERSATU and 10 MPs from PKR subsequently withdrew from the Pakatan Harapan coalition, depriving the government of its majority in Parliament.[7][8][9]

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

Pakatan Harapan is a direct successor to the three-party Pakatan Rakyat coalition that consisted of the People's Justice Party, the Democratic Action Party and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Pakatan Harapan was founded on 22 September 2015, two years after the 2013 general election, due to disagreements and conflicts between PAS and DAP mainly regarding the issue of the implementation of the sharia law, resulting in PAS splitting off from Pakatan Rakyat and the break-up of the coalition on 16 June 2015.[10][11] The dissolution resulted in the formation of a new coalition named Pakatan Harapan, consisting the former Pakatan Rakyat parties, PKR and DAP, and a PAS split-off party, the National Trust Party.[12][13]

On 12 November 2016, a United Malays National Organisation split-off party, the Malaysian United Indigenous Party, founded and led by former Malaysian Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, confirmed that the party was committed to joining the opposition bloc Pakatan Harapan.[14][15] Later, on 13 December, the party formed an electoral pact with Pakatan Harapan,[16] and finally on 14 March 2017, BERSATU officially joined Pakatan Harapan as a member party.[17]

2018 general election[edit]

On 14 July 2017, the Presidential council line-up was confirmed. A common logo was also introduced with the word “Harapan” with the “A” shaped as a chevron in white on a red background. The logo was initially planned to be used by all participating candidates for the 2018 general election, but the use of the logo and registration of the coalition was denied by the Election Commission.[18] To pursue the coalition's plan to contest under a common logo, Pakatan announced that the PKR logo will be used by all component parties of the coalition as its election symbol in the elections,[19] excluding for DAP who chose to contest under their own party flag in Sabah and Sarawak.[20][21][22]

The coalition secured an electoral pact with the Sabah-based Sabah Heritage Party for the 2018 general election. WARISAN's president, Shafie Apdal, promised that the party would be represented on the federal cabinet if the coalition came to power,[23] adding that through the electoral pact they will only co-operate with Pakatan as an ally, and not joining the pact as a component party since they will only contest in Sabah, not in Peninsular Malaysia.[24] In that election, Pakatan Harapan swept the election and formed the government in a surprise upset overturning the former ruling party UMNO's decades of uninterrupted rule, as the Malay vote was dissatisfied and mainly went to Amanah and popular former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's party Bersatu, while the Chinese vote was solidly behind parties like DAP and PKR. Following the surprise victory of Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN in the general election, the United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation announced that they have left Barisan Nasional and will form a new Sabah state government with WARISAN and Pakatan Harapan.[25] UPKO and WARISAN are currently both the allies for Pakatan Harapan since both parties are also allied towards each others in Sabah.[26]

At the state level, due to 2018 general election results the coalition formed the government in the states of Kedah, Penang, Perak, Selangor, Melaka Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Sabah.[note 2] Pakatan Harapan also forms a government with a two-thirds majority in the states of Penang, Selangor and Johor.

Post-election[edit]

On 16 May 2018, the coalition was officially registered.[27]

On 24 February 2020, Mahathir resigned as the Prime Minister. PPBM, which had 26 MPs, withdrew from the ruling Pakatan Harapan coalition. In addition, 11 MPs from PKR resigned from the party to form an independent bloc. This leaves Pakatan Harapan 37 seats short of the 112 seats needed to form a government. The surprise announcement came amid speculation that Mahathir was attempting to form a new ruling coalition that would exclude his designated successor Anwar Ibrahim.[7][8][9] However, Anwar later clarified to reporters that Mahathir did not orchestrate the act. These events also resulted in the number of Pakatan Harapan coalition member parties returned to the original three.[28]

At the state level, Pakatan Harapan lost control of Johor, Melaka, Kedah and Perak. A few PKR, DAP and AMANAH representatives in the state legislative assemblies quit their party and expressed support for the new government Perikatan Nasional in those four states.[29][30][31][32]

Member parties, allied parties and strategic partners[edit]

Flag Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
contested
2018 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
Democratic Action Party Flag.svg
DAP Democratic Action Party
Parti Tindakan Demokratik
Social democracy Lim Guan Eng 47 17.37%
42 / 222
42 / 108
Bendera Parti Keadilan Rakyat PKR 4975x2490 px.svg
PKR People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
Social justice Anwar Ibrahim 71 16.94%
47 / 222
38 / 108
Parti Amanah Negara Flag.svg
AMANAH National Trust Party
Parti Amanah Negara
Islamic modernism Mohamad Sabu 34 5.43%
11 / 222
11 / 108
Allied parties (PH Plus)
Sabah Heritage Party Logo.png
WARISAN Sabah Heritage Party
Parti Warisan Sabah
Sabah regionalism Shafie Apdal 17 2.32%
8 / 222
8 / 108
PPTA Party Logo.svg
PEJUANG Homeland Fighters' Party
Parti Pejuang Tanah Air[33][34]
National conservatism Mahathir Mohamad N/A N/A
0 / 222
4 / 108
PSB Sarawak United Party
Parti Sarawak Bersatu
Sarawakian Regionalism Wong Soon Koh N/A N/A
0 / 222
2 / 108
United Progressive People of Kinabalu Organisation.jpg
UPKO United Progressive Kinabalu Organisation
Pertubuhan Kinabalu Progresif Bersatu
Sabah regionalism Wilfred Madius Tangau 4
(under BN)
0.47%
1 / 222
1 / 108
Malaysian United Democratic Alliance.svg
MUDA Malaysian United Democratic Alliance
Ikatan Demokratik Malaysia[35][36]
Youth politics Syed Saddiq N/A N/A
0 / 222
1 / 108
Malaysian Advancement Party.png
MAP Malaysian Advancement Party
Parti Kemajuan Malaysia
Egalitarianism Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 108
Strategic partners
MIRA Minority Rights Action Party
Parti Tindakan Hak Minoriti
Liberal democracy S. Gobi Krishnan N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 108
HINDRAF Logo.jpg
HINDRAF Hindu Rights Action Force
Barisan Bertindak Hak-Hak Hindu
Indian interests Uthayakumar Ponnusamy
Vasantha Kumar Krishnan
Waytha Moorthy Ponnusamy
Manoharan Malayaram
Ganabatirau Veraman
N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 108
Bebas.svg
IND Independent
Ahli Parlimen Bebas
N/A Maszlee Malik
(P151 Simpang Renggam)
24 0.59%
3 / 222
1 / 108

Leadership structure[edit]

Anwar Ibrahim, the incumbent Chairman of Pakatan Harapan.

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Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Senators[edit]

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

Pakatan Harapan has 108 members in the House of Representatives (with allied parties).

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P002 Kangar Noor Amin Ahmad PKR
 Kedah P004 Langkawi Mahathir Mohamad PEJUANG
P005 Jerlun Mukhriz Mahathir PEJUANG
P006 Kubang Pasu Amiruddin Hamzah PEJUANG
P008 Pokok Sena Mahfuz Omar AMANAH
P009 Alor Setar Chan Ming Kai PKR
P010 Kuala Kedah Azman Ismail PKR
P014 Merbok Nor Azrina Surip PKR
P015 Sungai Petani Johari Abdul PKR
P017 Padang Serai Karuppaiya Muthusamy PKR
P018 Kulim-Bandar Baharu Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR
 Penang P043 Bagan Lim Guan Eng DAP
P044 Permatang Pauh Nurul Izzah Anwar PKR
P045 Bukit Mertajam Steven Sim Chee Keong DAP
P046 Batu Kawan Kasthuriraani Patto DAP
P048 Bukit Bendera Wong Hon Wai DAP
P049 Tanjong Chow Kon Yeow DAP
P050 Jelutong Sanisvara Nethaji Rayer Rajaji Rayer DAP
P051 Bukit Gelugor Ramkarpal Singh DAP
P052 Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR
P053 Balik Pulau Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik PKR
 Perak P057 Parit Buntar Mujahid Yusof Rawa AMANAH
P060 Taiping Teh Kok Lim DAP
P062 Sungai Siput Kesavan Subramaniam PKR
P064 Ipoh Timor Wong Kah Woh DAP
P065 Ipoh Barat Kulasegaran Murugeson DAP
P066 Batu Gajah Sivakumar Varatharaju Naidu DAP
P068 Beruas James Ngeh Koo Ham DAP
P070 Kampar Thomas Su Keong Siong DAP
P071 Gopeng Lee Boon Chye PKR
P074 Lumut Mohd Hatta Ramli AMANAH
P076 Teluk Intan David Nga Kor Ming DAP
P077 Tanjong Malim Chang Lih Kang PKR
 Pahang P080 Raub Tengku Zulpuri Shah Raja Puji DAP
P083 Kuantan Fuziah Salleh PKR
P088 Temerloh Anuar Tahir AMANAH
P089 Bentong Wong Tack DAP
 Selangor P094 Hulu Selangor June Leow Hsiad Hui PKR
P096 Kuala Selangor Dzulkefly Ahmad AMANAH
P097 Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR
P100 Pandan Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR
P101 Hulu Langat Hasanuddin Mohd. Yunus AMANAH
P102 Bangi Ong Kian Ming DAP
P103 Puchong Gobind Singh Deo DAP
P104 Subang Wong Chen PKR
P105 Petaling Jaya Maria Chin Abdullah PKR
P106 Damansara Tony Pua Kiam Wee DAP
P107 Sungai Buloh Sivarasa Rasiah PKR
P108 Shah Alam Khalid Samad AMANAH
P109 Kapar Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid PKR
P110 Klang Charles Anthony Santiago DAP
P111 Kota Raja Mohamad Sabu AMANAH
P112 Kuala Langat Xavier Jayakumar Arulanandam PKR
P113 Sepang Mohamed Hanipa Maidin AMANAH
 Kuala Lumpur P114 Kepong Lim Lip Eng DAP
P115 Batu Prabakaran M. Parameswaran PKR
P116 Wangsa Maju Tan Yee Kew PKR
P117 Segambut Hannah Yeoh Tseow Suan DAP
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad PKR
P120 Bukit Bintang Fong Kui Lun DAP
P121 Lembah Pantai Fahmi Fadzil PKR
P122 Seputeh Teresa Kok Suh Sim DAP
P123 Cheras Tan Kok Wai DAP
 Negeri Sembilan P128 Seremban Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
P130 Rasah Cha Kee Chin DAP
P132 Port Dickson Anwar Ibrahim PKR
P133 Tampin Hasan Baharom AMANAH
 Malacca P136 Tangga Batu Rusnah Aluai PKR
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin PKR
P138 Kota Melaka Khoo Poay Tiong DAP
 Johor P141 Sekijang Natrah Ismail PKR
P142 Labis Pang Hok Liong DAP
P144 Ledang Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh PKR
P145 Bakri Yeo Bee Yin DAP
P146 Muar Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman MUDA
P149 Sri Gading Shahruddin Md Salleh PEJUANG
P151 Simpang Renggam Maszlee Malik IND
P152 Kluang Wong Shu Qi DAP
P158 Tebrau Steven Choong Shiau Yoon PKR
P159 Pasir Gudang Hassan Abdul Karim PKR
P160 Johor Bahru Akmal Nasrullah Mohd Nasir PKR
P161 Pulai Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
P162 Iskandar Puteri Lim Kit Siang DAP
P163 Kulai Teo Nie Ching DAP
 Labuan P166 Labuan Rozman Isli WARISAN
 Sabah P169 Kota Belud Isnaraissah Munirah Majilis @ Fakharuddy WARISAN
P170 Tuaran Wilfred Madius Tangau UPKO
P171 Sepanggar Mohd. Azis Jamman WARISAN
P172 Kota Kinabalu Chan Foong Hin DAP
P173 Putatan Awang Husaini Sahari PKR
P174 Penampang Darell Leiking WARISAN
P175 Papar Ahmad Hassan WARISAN
P181 Tenom Noorita Sual DAP
P186 Sandakan Vivian Wong Shir Yee DAP
P188 Lahad Datu (Silam) Mohammadin Ketapi WARISAN
P189 Semporna Mohd. Shafie Mohd. Apdal WARISAN
P190 Tawau Christina Liew Chin Jin PKR
P191 Kalabakan Ma'mun Sulaiman WARISAN
 Sarawak P192 Mas Gading Mordi Bimol DAP
P195 Bandar Kuching Kelvin Yii Lee Wuen DAP
P196 Stampin Chong Chieng Jen DAP
P202 Sri Aman Masir Kujat PSB
P208 Sarikei Wong Ling Biu DAP
P209 Julau Larry Sng Wei Shien PKR
P211 Lanang Alice Lau Kiong Yieng DAP
P212 Sibu Oscar Ling Chai Yew DAP
P214 Selangau Baru Bian PSB
P219 Miri Michael Teo Yu Keng PKR
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (10), Penang (10), Perak (12), Pahang (4), Selangor (17), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (9), Negeri Sembilan (4), Malacca (3), Johor (14), F.T. Labuan (1), Sabah (13), Sarawak (8)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

State No. State Constituency Member Party
 Perlis N7 Sena Asrul Nizan Abd Jalil PKR
N8 Indera Kayangan Gan Ay Ling PKR
N9 Kuala Perlis Nor Azam Karap PKR
 Kedah N3 Kota Siputeh Salmee Said AMANAH
N6 Jitra Mukhriz Mahathir PEJUANG
N11 Derga Tan Kok Yew DAP
N12 Suka Menanti Zamri Yusuf PKR
N13 Kota Darul Aman Teh Swee Leong DAP
N14 Alor Mengkudu Phahrolrazi Zawawi AMANAH
N15 Anak Bukit Amiruddin Hamzah PEJUANG
N16 Kubang Rotan Mohd. Asmirul Anuar Rais AMANAH
N17 Pengkalan Kundor Ismail Salleh AMANAH
N22 Gurun Johari Abdul PKR
N25 Bukit Selambau Summugam Rengasamy PKR
N28 Bakar Arang Ooi Tze Min PKR
N35 Kulim Yeo Keng Chuan PKR
 Penang N2 Pinang Tunggal Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman PKR
N6 Telok Ayer Tawar Mustapha Kamal Ahmad PKR
N7 Sungai Puyu Phee Boon Poh DAP
N8 Bagan Jermal Soon Lip Chee DAP
N9 Bagan Dalam Satees Muniandy DAP
N11 Permatang Pasir Muhammad Faiz Mohamed Fadzil AMANAH
N12 Penanti Norlela Ariffin PKR
N13 Berapit Heng Lee Lee DAP
N14 Machang Bubok Lee Khai Loon PKR
N15 Padang Lalang Chong Eng DAP
N16 Perai Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP
N17 Bukit Tengah Gooi Hsiao-Leung PKR
N18 Bukit Tambun Goh Choon Aik PKR
N19 Jawi H’ng Mooi Lye DAP
N21 Sungai Bakap Amar Pritpal Abdullah PKR
N22 Tanjong Bunga Zairil Khir Johari DAP
N23 Air Putih Lim Guan Eng DAP
N24 Kebun Bunga Ong Khan Lee PKR
N25 Pulau Tikus Lee Chun Kit DAP
N26 Padang Kota Chow Kon Yeow DAP
N27 Pengkalan Kota Gooi Zi Sen DAP
N28 Komtar Teh Lai Heng DAP
N29 Datok Keramat Jagdeep Singh Deo DAP
N30 Sungai Pinang Lim Siew Khim DAP
N31 Batu Lancang Ong Ah Teong DAP
N32 Seri Delima Syerleena Abdul Rashid DAP
N33 Air Itam Joseph Ng Soon Seong DAP
N34 Paya Terubong Yeoh Soon Hin DAP
N35 Batu Uban Kumaresan Aramugam PKR
N36 Pantai Jerejak Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR
N37 Batu Maung Abdul Halim Hussain PKR
N38 Bayan Lepas Azrul Mahathir Aziz AMANAH
N39 Pulau Betong Mohd.Tuah Ismail PKR
 Perak N16 Kamunting Mund. Fadhil Nuruddin AMANAH
N17 Pokok Assam Leow Thye Yih DAP
N18 Aulong Nga Kor Ming DAP
N22 Jalong Loh Sze Yee DAP
N23 Manjoi Asmuni Awi AMANAH
N24 Hulu Kinta Muhamad Arafat Varisai Mahamad PKR
N25 Canning Jenny Choy Tsi Jen DAP
N26 Tebing Tinggi Abdul Aziz Bari DAP
N27 Pasir Pinji Howard Lee DAP
N28 Bercham Ong Boon Piow DAP
N29 Kepayang Ko Chung Sen DAP
N31 Jelapang Cheah Poh Hian DAP
N32 Menglembu Chaw Kam Foon DAP
N37 Pantai Remis Wong May Ing DAP
N38 Astaka Teoh Yee Chern DAP
N42 Keranji Chong Zhemin DAP
N44 Sungai Rapat Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin AMANAH
N45 Simpang Pulai Tan Kar Hing PKR
N46 Teja Ng Shy Ching PKR
N51 Pasir Panjang Yahaya Mat Nor AMANAH
N55 Pasir Bedamar Terence Naidu Rajan Naidu @ Rajanaidu DAP
N57 Sungkai Sivanesan Achalingam DAP
N59 Behrang Aminuddin Zulkipli AMANAH
 Pahang N1 Tanah Rata Chiong Yoke Kong DAP
N7 Tras Chow Yu Hui DAP
N13 Semambu Lee Chean Chung PKR
N14 Teruntum Sim Chon Siang PKR
N30 Mentakab Woo Chee Wan DAP
N33 Bilut Lee Chin Chen DAP
N34 Ketari Young Syefura Othman DAP
N35 Sabai Kamache Doray Rajoo DAP
N36 Triang Leong Yu Man DAP
 Selangor N2 Sabak Ahmad Mustain Othman PKR
N4 Sekinchan Ng Suee Lim DAP
N6 Kuala Kubu Baharu Lee Kee Hiong DAP
N7 Batang Kali Harumaini Omar PEJUANG
N9 Permatang Rozana Zainal Abidin PKR
N10 Bukit Melawati Juwairiya Zulkifli PKR
N11 Ijok Idris Ahmad PKR
N12 Jeram Mohd Shaid Rosli PEJUANG
N13 Kuang Sallehudin Amiruddin PEJUANG
N14 Rawang Chua Wei Kiat PKR
N15 Taman Templer Mohd Sany Hamzan AMANAH
N16 Sungai Tua Amirudin Shari PKR
N18 Hulu Kelang Saari Sungib AMANAH
N21 Pandan Indah Izham Hashim AMANAH
N22 Teratai Lai Wai Chong DAP
N23 Dusun Tua Edry Faizal Eddy Yusof DAP
N25 Kajang Hee Loy Sian PKR
N26 Sungai Ramal Mazwan Johar AMANAH
N27 Balakong Wong Siew Ki DAP
N28 Seri Kembangan Ean Yong Hiah Wah DAP
N29 Seri Serdang Siti Mariah Mahmud AMANAH
N30 Kinrara Ng Sze Han DAP
N31 Subang Jaya Michelle Ng Mei Sze DAP
N32 Seri Setia Halimey Abu Bakar PKR
N33 Taman Medan Syamsul Firdaus Mohamed Supri PKR
N34 Bukit Gasing Rajiv Rishyakaran DAP
N35 Kampung Tunku Lim Yi Wei DAP
N36 Bandar Utama Jamaliah Jamaluddin DAP
N37 Bukit Lanjan Elizabeth Wong PKR
N38 Paya Jaras Mohd.Khairuddin Othman PKR
N39 Kota Damansara Shatiri Mansor PKR
N40 Kota Anggerik Najwan Halimi PKR
N41 Batu Tiga Rodziah Ismail PKR
N42 Meru Mohd. Fakhrulrazi Mohd. Mokhtar PKR
N45 Bandar Baru Klang Teng Chang Khim DAP
N46 Pelabuhan Klang Azmizam Zaman Huri PKR
N47 Pandamaran Leong Tuck Chee DAP
N48 Sentosa Gunaraj George PKR
N49 Sungai Kandis Mohd.Zawawi Ahmad Mughni PKR
N50 Kota Kemuning Ganabatirau Veraman DAP
N51 Tanjong Sepat Borhan Ahmad Shah PKR
N52 Banting Lau Weng San DAP
N53 Morib Hasnul Baharuddin AMANAH
N56 Sungai Pelek Ronnie Liu Tian Khiew DAP
 Negeri Sembilan N1 Chennah Anthony Loke Siew Fook DAP
N4 Kelawang Bakri Sawir AMANAH
N8 Bahau Teo Kok Seong DAP
N9 Lenggeng Suhaimi Kassim AMANAH
N10 Nilai Arul Kumar Jambunathan DAP
N11 Lobak Chew She Yong DAP
N12 Temiang Ng Chin Tsai DAP
N13 Sikamat Aminuddin Harun PKR
N14 Ampangan Mohamad Rafie Ab. Malik PKR
N18 Pilah Mohamad Nazaruddin Sabtu PKR
N20 Labu Ismail Ahmad PKR
N21 Bukit Kepayang Nichole Tan Lee Koon DAP
N22 Rahang Mary Josephine Pritam Singh DAP
N23 Mambau Yap Yew Weng DAP
N24 Seremban Jaya Gunasekaren Palasamy DAP
N25 Paroi Mohd Taufek Abd Ghani AMANAH
N29 Chuah Yek Diew Ching PKR
N30 Lukut Choo Ken Hwa DAP
N33 Sri Tanjong Ravi Munasamy PKR
N36 Repah Veerapan Superamaniam DAP
 Melaka N7 Gadek Saminathan Ganesan DAP
N8 Machap Jaya Ginie Lim PKR
N9 Durian Tunggal Mohd Sofi Abdul Wahab AMANAH
N14 Klebang Gue Teck PKR
N16 Ayer Keroh Kerk Chee Yee DAP
N17 Bukit Katil Adly Zahari AMANAH
N19 Kesidang Seah Shoo Chin DAP
N20 Kota Laksamana Low Chee Leong DAP
N21 Duyong Damian Yeo Shen Li DAP
N22 Bandar Hilir Tey Kok Kiew DAP
N24 Bemban Wong Fort Pin DAP
 Johor N2 Jementah Tan Chen Choon DAP
N4 Kemelah Sulaiman Mohd Nor AMANAH
N6 Bekok Ramakrishnan Suppiah DAP
N10 Tangkak Ee Chin Li DAP
N11 Serom Faizul Amri Adnan AMANAH
N12 Bentayan Ng Yak Howe DAP
N13 Simpang Jeram Salahuddin Ayub AMANAH
N14 Bukit Naning Md.Ysahrudin Kusni PKR
N15 Maharani Nor Hayati Bachok AMANAH
N17 Semerah Mohd. Khuzzan Abu Bakar PKR
N19 Yong Peng Chew Peck Choo DAP
N21 Parit Yaani Amunolhuda Hassan AMANAH
N23 Penggaram Gan Peck Cheng DAP
N24 Senggarang Khairuddin A. Rahim AMANAH
N28 Mengkibol Chew Chong Sin DAP
N29 Mahkota Muhamad Said Jonit AMANAH
N30 Paloh Sheikh Umar Bagharib Ali DAP
N40 Tiram Gopalakrishnan Subramaniam PKR
N42 Johor Jaya Liow Chai Tung DAP
N45 Stulang Chen Kah Eng DAP
N46 Perling Cheo Yee How DAP
N48 Skudai Tan Hong Pin DAP
N49 Kota Iskandar Dzulkefly Ahmad AMANAH
N51 Bukit Batu Jimmy Pua Wee Tse PKR
N52 Senai Tee Boon Tsong DAP
N54 Pulai Sebatang Muhammad Taqiuddin Che'man AMANAH
N55 Pekan Nanas Yeo Tung Siong DAP
 Sabah N1 Banggi Mohamad Mohammarin WARISAN
N4 Tanjong Kapor Ben Chong Chen Bin WARISAN
N11 Kadamaian Ewon Benedick UPKO
N17 Karambunai Azhar Matussin WARISAN
N18 Inanam Peto Galim PKR
N19 Likas Tan Lee Fatt DAP
N20 Api-Api Chtistiina Liew PKR
N21 Luyang Phoong Jin Zhe DAP
N22 Tanjong Aru Junz Wong Hong Bin WARISAN
N23 Petagas Awang Ahmad Sah WARISAN
N25 Kapayan Jannie Lasimbang DAP
N26 Moyog Darell Leiking WARISAN
N27 Limbahau Juil Nuatim WARISAN
N30 Bongawan Dr Daud Yusof WARISAN
N35 Sindumin Dr Yusof WARISAN
N42 Melalap Peter Anthony WARISAN
N50 Gum-Gum Arunarsin Taib WARISAN
N53 Sekong Alias Haji Sani WARISAN
N54 Karamunting Hiew Vun Zin WARISAN
N55 Elopura Calvin Chong Ket Kiun DAP
N56 Tanjong Papat Frankie Poon DAP
N60 Tungku Assaffal Samsul Kamal WARISAN
N61 Segama Mohammadin Ketapi WARISAN
N62 Silam Dumi Masdal WARISAN
N63 Kunak Norazlinah Arif WARISAN
N64 Sulabayan Jaujan Sambakong WARISAN
N65 Senallang Mohd Shafie Apdal WARISAN
N66 Bugaya Manis Muka Mohd Darah WARISAN
N69 Sri Tanjong Justin Wong Yung Bin DAP
N70 Kukusan Rina Jainal WARISAN
N72 Merotai Sarifudin Hata WARISAN
N73 Sebatik Hassan A Gani Pg Amir WARISAN
 Sarawak N1 Opar Ranum Mina PSB
N10 Pending Violet Yong Wui Wui DAP
N11 Batu Lintang See Chee How PSB
N12 Kota Sentosa Chong Chieng Jen DAP
N33 Engkilili Johnical Rayong Ngipa PSB
N51 Bukit Assek Irene Mary Chang Oi Ling DAP
N52 Dudong Tiong Thai King PSB
N53 Bawang Assan Wong Soon Koh PSB
N54 Pelawan David Wong Kee Woan DAP
N68 Tanjong Batu Chiew Chiu Sing DAP
N81 Ba'kelalan Baru Bian PSB
Total Perlis (3), Kedah (13), Penang (33), Perak (23), Pahang (9), Selangor (44), Negeri Sembilan (20), Malacca (11), Johor (27), Sabah (32), Sarawak (11)

Pakatan Harapan state governments[edit]

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Negeri Sembilan Menteri Besar Aminuddin Harun PKR Sikamat
 Penang Chief Minister Chow Kon Yeow DAP Padang Kota
 Selangor Menteri Besar Amirudin Shari PKR Sungai Tua
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister I Ahmad Zakiyuddin Abdul Rahman PKR Pinang Tunggal
 Penang Deputy Chief Minister II Ramasamy Palanisamy DAP Perai

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Seats contesed Total votes Voting Percentage Outcome of election Election leader
2018
121 / 222
222 5,615,822 45.56% Increase125 seats; Governing coalition,
later Opposition coalition
Mahathir Mohamad

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2016
10 / 82
2018
3 / 15
18 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
37 / 40
29 / 59
9 / 42
51 / 56
20 / 36
15 / 28
36 / 56
29 / 60
241 / 587
2020
32 / 73
2021
? / 82
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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.
  2. ^ The state government of Sabah was formed with a confidence and supply agreement with WARISAN and UPKO.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ram Anand (11 September 2017). "Pakatan Harapan adds two VPs to represent Indians, Sabahans". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  2. ^ Yimie Yong (17 May 2018). "It's official! Pakatan gets its certificate of registration from RoS". The Star. Archived from the original on 18 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  3. ^ Masriwanie Muhamading (12 May 2017). "Pakatan Harapan youth wings' economic model targeting 1mil jobs for youth". Astro Awani. Archived from the original on 12 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Senarai penuh Majlis Pimpinan Pemuda Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. 31 October 2017. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  5. ^ "Wanita Pakatan pledges to raise women in politics, economy, social welfare". The Malaysian Insight. 11 October 2017. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  6. ^ Melissa Goh (22 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition band together under new Pakatan Harapan alliance". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  7. ^ a b "Malaysia's Mahathir submits resignation, 'quits' his party". Al Jazeera. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  8. ^ a b Teoh, Shannon (24 February 2020). "Mahathir resigns as Malaysian Prime Minister, PH loses majority after MPs leave". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  9. ^ a b Regan, Helen (24 February 2020). "Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigns". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Pakatan Rakyat Split Will Change Country's Political Landscape". Bernama. Malaysian Digest. 17 June 2015. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  11. ^ Asrul Hadi Abdullah Sani (18 June 2015). "Break up of Malaysia's opposition bloc Pakatan Rakyat: What happened and what's next?". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  12. ^ Harits Asyraf Hasnan (22 September 2015). "New Pakatan Harapan coalition formed". Astro Awani. Archived from the original on 26 October 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  13. ^ Shannon Teoh (23 September 2015). "Malaysia's opposition forms Pakatan Harapan alliance". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  14. ^ Melissa Goh (12 November 2016). "'The only way to win is to unite and contest under one party': Mahathir". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  15. ^ Sheridan Mahavera (16 November 2016). "By courting rural Muslims, has Malaysia's opposition found key to winning power for first time in 60 years?". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  16. ^ Hana Naz Harun (13 December 2016). "PPBM officially signs agreement to join Pakatan Harapan". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  17. ^ "PPBM wants name change before joining Pakatan Harapan". Antara Pos. 14 March 2017. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
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  19. ^ Rizalman Hamim; Mohd Fahmi Mohd Yusof (6 April 2018). "Pakatan to use PKR logo in GE14". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  20. ^ "Opposition Pact to unveil common logo for GE14 on Friday". New Straits Times. 5 April 2018. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. In a press conference at Parliament lobby on Thursday, Lim Guan Eng however said the change will only be for peninsula in the polls and the four parties will not use the common Pakatan Harapan logo in Sabah and Sarawak for GE14 election campaign. They’re different because they have autonomy. So we respect this and they can use the DAP rocket logo.
  21. ^ Julia Chan (6 April 2018). "Sabah, Sarawak Pakatan parties won't use common logo". The Malay Mail. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. This was a big decision for us, to be able to exercise our autonomy and decide for ourselves. We chose to use our own respective party flags. So, PKR, DAP and Amanah flags will be used here.
  22. ^ Sharon Ling (9 April 2018). "Sarawak DAP to use rocket logo for GE14". The Star. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. We have decided that DAP will use the rocket symbol while PKR and Amanah will both use the PKR logo.
  23. ^ "Warisan seals electoral pact with DAP and PKR". Malaysiakini. 2 April 2018. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.(subscription required)
  24. ^ Suzianah Jiffar (2 April 2018). "Warisan will work only with Pakatan Harapan for GE14". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  25. ^ Tan Su Lin (10 May 2018). "UPKO umum keluar BN, wujud kerajaan campuran dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Astro Awani. Archived from the original on 10 May 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  26. ^ "UPKO bentuk pakatan dengan Warisan" (in Malay). Berita Harian. 10 May 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  27. ^ "Pakatan Harapan is officially registered". Free Malaysia Today. 16 May 2018. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  28. ^ "Mahathir did not mastermind treacherous act, clarifies Anwar". malaysiakini. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  29. ^ "Johor's Pakatan Harapan state government falls, new coalition to take over". CNA. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Umno leader tipped to be new Melaka Chief Minister". New Straits Times. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Kerajaan Pakatan Harapan Perak tumbang (Perak Pakatan Harapan government collapses)". Berita Harian. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Four Perak PH assemblymen quit party, support Perikatan Nasional". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  33. ^ https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2020/08/07/dr-m-to-form-new-party/
  34. ^ https://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/category/nation/2020/08/07/dr-ms-new-party-may-be-included-in-ph-plus-says-anwar/
  35. ^ https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2020/09/17/syed-saddiq-registers-new-party-malaysian-united-democratic-alliance-muda
  36. ^ https://www.nst.com.my/news/politics/2020/09/625203/ready-syed-go-syed-saddiq-registers-new-party-muda

External links[edit]