William Lane Craig

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William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig.jpg
Born (1949-08-23) August 23, 1949 (age 69)
ResidenceMarietta, Georgia, US[1]
EducationWheaton College (B.A. 1971)
Trinity Evangelical Divinity School
(M.A. 1974; M.A. 1975)
University of Birmingham (Ph.D. 1977)
University of Munich (D.Theol. 1984)
Notable work
Reasonable Faith (1994)
Jan Craig (m. 1972)
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolAnalytic philosophy
Doctoral advisor
Other academic advisorsNorman Geisler
Main interests
Notable ideas
Kalam Cosmological Argument

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher[6] and Christian theologian.[7] He holds faculty positions at Talbot School of Theology (Biola University) and Houston Baptist University.[8] Craig has updated and defended the Kalam Cosmological Argument for the existence of God.[1][9][10][11][12] He has also published work where he argues in favor of the historical plausibility of the resurrection of Jesus.[13] His study of divine aseity and Platonism culminated with his book God Over All.[14][15] Craig has debated the existence of God with public figures such as Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens, Lawrence M. Krauss[1] and A. C. Grayling.[16] Craig established and runs the online apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org.[8]


Born August 23, 1949, in Peoria, Illinois, Craig is the second of three children[citation needed] born to Mallory and Doris Craig.[17][18] His father's work with the T. P. & W. railroad took the family to Keokuk, Iowa, until his transfer to the home office in East Peoria in 1960. While a student at East Peoria Community High School (1963–1967),[19] Craig became a championship debater and public speaker,[20] being named his senior year to the all-state debate team and winning the state championship in oratory.[21] In September 1965, his junior year, he converted to Christianity,[22][23] and after graduating from high school, attended Wheaton College, majoring in communications.[12] Craig graduated in 1971[20] and the following year married his wife Jan,[18] whom he met on the staff of Campus Crusade for Christ.[20][24] In 2014, he was named alumnus of the year by Wheaton.[25]

In 1973 Craig entered the program in philosophy of religion at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School north of Chicago, where he studied under Norman Geisler.[26][27] In 1975 Craig commenced doctoral studies in philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England,[28] writing on the Cosmological Argument[1] under the direction of John Hick.[20][29] He was awarded a doctorate in 1977.[30] Out of this study came his first book, The Kalam Cosmological Argument (1979), a defense of the argument he first encountered in Hackett's work.[1] Craig was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship in 1978 from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation to pursue research on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus under the direction of Wolfhart Pannenberg at the Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München in Germany.[28][31] His studies in Munich under Pannenberg's supervision led to a second doctorate, this one in theology,[25][32][1] awarded in 1984[12] with the publication of his doctoral thesis, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1985).[33]


Craig joined the faculty of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in 1980, where he taught philosophy of religion for the next seven years.[34][12] In 1982 Craig received an invitation to debate Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary, Canada, on the question of God's existence,[citation needed] and has since then debated many philosophers, scientists, and biblical scholars [35][12]

After a one-year stint at Westmont College[18] on the outskirts of Santa Barbara, Craig moved in 1987 with his wife and two young children back to Europe,[12] where he pursued research for the next seven years as a visiting scholar at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Louvain) in Belgium.[12] Out of that period of research issued seven books, among them God, Time, and Eternity (2001).[citation needed] In 1994, Craig joined the Department of Philosophy and Ethics at Talbot School of Theology in suburban Los Angeles as a Research Professor of Philosophy, a position he currently holds,[22][8][36] and he went on to become a Professor of Philosophy at Houston Baptist University in 2014.[8][36] In 2016, Craig was named Alumnus of the Year by Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.[37] In 2017, Biola created a permanent faculty position and endowed chair, the William Lane Craig Endowed Chair in Philosophy, in honor of Craig's academic contributions.[38]

Craig served as president of the Philosophy of Time Society from 1999 to 2006.[39] He helped found the Evangelical Philosophical Society and served as its president from 1996 to 2005.[39]


Kalam Cosmological Argument[edit]

Craig has worked extensively on a version of the Cosmological Argument called the Kalam Cosmological Argument.[40][41] While the Kalam has a venerable history in medieval Islamic philosophy, Craig updated the argument to reference contemporary scientific and philosophical ideas.[1][12] Craig's popularization resulted in renewed contemporary interest in the argument, and in cosmological arguments in general; the philosopher Quentin Smith states: "a count of the articles in the philosophy journals shows that more articles have been published about Craig's defence of the Kalam argument than have been published about any other philosopher's contemporary formulation of an argument for God's existence."[42]

The classical form of the argument, as well as Craig's, "[attempt] to prove God's existence by showing that the world must have a beginning in time."[43] Craig supports its premises by appealing to his interpretation of the Big Bang model.[43] Craig believes that a cosmic singularity marks an origin of the universe in the finite past.[44][9] He also proposes the universe cannot be infinite in part because an actual infinity of items cannot be formed by successive addition.[43] Craig argues that the premise that the universe began to exist is more plausible than not, and the beginning of the universe implies the existence of a cause. Craig claims that, due to its nature, the cause must be a personal being which he refers to as God.[9][43]

Divine omniscience[edit]

Craig is a proponent of Molinism,[12] supporting the doctrine of middle knowledge and also applying it to a wide range of theological issues,[12] such as divine providence[45] and predestination,[46] biblical inspiration,[47] perseverance of the saints,[48] Christian particularism,[49] and the problem of evil.[50] Formulated by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, the doctrine of middle knowledge holds that logically prior to his decree to create a world God knew what every possible creature he might create would freely do in any possible set of circumstances in which God might place him.[12] On the basis of his knowledge of such counterfactuals of free will[51] and his knowledge of his own decree to create certain creatures in certain circumstances, along with his own decision how he himself shall act, God automatically knows everything that will actually and contingently happen, without any perception of the world.[52][39]

Divine eternity[edit]

Craig's thesis is "God is timeless without creation and temporal since creation."[53][54][55][56] He has examined arguments aimed at showing either that God is timeless or omnitemporal.[53][55][57] He defends the coherence of a timeless and personal being, but holds that the arguments for divine timelessness are unsound or inconclusive and instead argues in favor of divine temporality.[53][55][58] Craig believes that acceptance of a B-theory of time would moot these arguments, and thus concludes that a theory of time is a watershed issue for one's doctrine of divine eternity.[59] According to philosopher Quentin Smith, "Craig has made some important and positive contributions to the tensed theory of time in general."[60] Craig defends his adoption of A-Theory of time in The Tensed Theory of Time (2000),[61][62][63] and critiques arguments for the B-Theory of time in The Tenseless Theory of Time.[64]

Resurrection of Jesus[edit]

Craig's two volumes The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus (1985) and Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (3rd ed., 2002) are said by the Christian reviewers Gary Habermas and Christopher D. Price to be among the most thorough investigations of the event of Jesus' resurrection.[13][verification needed][65][unreliable source?] In the former volume, Craig describes the history of the discussion, including David Hume's arguments against the identification of miracles. The latter volume is an exegetical study of the New Testament material pertinent to the resurrection. Craig believes that there was a literal resurrection,[66] rejecting some alternative explanations such as Gerd Lüdemann's hallucination hypothesis.[67]

Divine aseity[edit]

Craig has focused on the challenge posed by platonism to divine aseity or self-existence.[68][verification needed][69] Craig rejects the view that God creates abstract objects[70] and defends nominalistic perspectives on abstract objects.[71] Stating that the Quine–Putnam indispensability thesis is the chief support of platonism,[72] Craig criticizes Willard Van Orman Quine's naturalized epistemology and confirmational holism, and also rejects the metaontological criterion of ontological commitment.[73]

Craig favors a neutral logic, according to which the formal quantifiers of first-order logic, as well as the informal quantifiers of ordinary language, are not ontologically committing.[74][69] He also advocates a deflationary theory of reference,[69] according to which referring is a speech act rather than a word-world relation, so that singular terms may be used in true sentences without commitment to corresponding objects in the world.[75] If one stipulates that first-order quantifiers are being used as devices of ontological commitment, then Craig adverts to fictionalism,[69] in particular pretense theory,[69] according to which statements about abstract objects are expressions of make-believe, imagined to be true, though literally false.[76]

Other views[edit]

Craig is a critic of metaphysical naturalism,[77] New Atheism,[78] and prosperity theology,[79] as well as a defender of Reformed epistemology.[80] He also states that being a confessing Christian is not compatible with practicing homosexuality.[81][page range too broad][82][83][84] Craig maintains that the theory of evolution is compatible with Christianity.[85][86] Craig has an agnostic position on the creation account.[87][88][not specific enough to verify] He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture[89] and was a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design.[90]

As a divine command theorist, Craig believes God had the moral right to command the killing of the Canaanites if they refused to leave their land, as depicted in the Book of Deuteronomy.[91][92] This has led to some controversy. The prominent atheist Richard Dawkins has repeatedly refused to debate Craig, and has given what he calls Craig's defense of genocide as one of his reasons.[93][94]

Craig has also proposed an Apollinarian Christology in which the divine logos stands in for the human soul of Christ and completes his human nature.[95]


According to Nathan Schneider, "[many] professional philosophers know about him only vaguely, but in the field of philosophy of religion, [Craig's] books and articles are among the most cited".[1] Sam Harris has described Craig as the only Christian apologist who many of his atheist acquaintances were apprehensive of.[1]

Some scholars, such as Wes Morriston of the University of Colorado Boulder, have challenged some of Craig's views, such as the Kalam Cosmological argument,[96] the foundation of God for morality,[97] the alleged genocide of the Canaanites,[98] as well as Craig's views on actual infinites,[99] his fine-tuning argument,[100] and his arguments for the resurrection of Jesus.[101]

Selected publications[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist: How William Lane Craig Became Christian Philosophy's Boldest Apostle". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  2. ^ Craig & Carroll 2016, p. 102.
  3. ^ a b c Craig, William Lane (August 23, 2011). "Dr. Craig's Favorite Philosopher, Debate, and Books". Reasonable Faith (podcast). Interviewed by Harris, Kevin. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  4. ^ Alvarez 2013, p. 238.
  5. ^ Roach, David (September 8, 2014). "Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg Dies". Baptist Press. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  6. ^ Schneider, Nathan (1 July 2013). "The New Theist". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 11 June 2019. The result is a person [Craig] ... who cannot only hold his own against fellow analytic philosophers...
  7. ^ Creel 2014, p. 205.
  8. ^ a b c d Murashko, Alex (5 February 2014). "Leading Apologist William Lane Craig to Join Houston Baptist U's School of Christian Thought Faculty". The Christian Post. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Reichenbach, Bruce. "Cosmological Argument". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University. Retrieved 12 June 2019. In his widely discussed writings William Lane Craig marshals multidisciplinary evidence for the truth of the premises found in the kalām argument.... [much more discussion follows]
  10. ^ Sun, Eryn (30 Sep 2011). "Dawkins defends decision not to debate apologist William Lane Craig". Christianity Today. Retrieved 12 June 2019. ...[Craig is the] the leading Christian apologist, famous for his revival of the Kalam cosmological argument which asserts that God caused the universe to first exist.
  11. ^ Horn, Trent (17 July 2013). "New Support for the Cosmological Argument". catholic.com. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Although the argument fell into relatively obscurity after it was promoted in the Middle Ages, it received new life through William Lane Craig’s 1979 book The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Craig has become the argument’s leading proponent, and thanks to his famous debates with atheists that end up on YouTube, the kalam argument has become well-known and is vigorously dissected by critics.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 212.
  13. ^ a b Habermas 1988.
  14. ^ Craig 2016.
  15. ^ McNabb, Tyler Dalton. "Review of God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism by William Lane Craig". Journal of Biblical and Theological Studies. ISSN 2572-2832.
  16. ^ Premier. "Unbelievable? 5 Jul 2011 - William Lane Craig vs AC Grayling debate on God & Evil: Tuesday 05 July 2011 2:30:00 am". Premier Christian Radio.
  17. ^ "William Lane Craig" 2007.
  18. ^ a b c Craig, William Lane. "Curriculum Vitae". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on June 1, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  19. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Debating". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  20. ^ a b c d Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 211.
  21. ^ "Records and History – Original Oratory". Illinois High School Association. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  22. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". La Mirada, California: Biola University. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  23. ^ "William Lane Craig and Sean McDowell". Fervr. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  24. ^ Schneider, Nathan (July 12, 2013). "7 Habits of a Highly Effective Philosopher". Killing the Buddha. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  25. ^ a b "Dr. William Lane Craig Named Alumnus of the Year". Wheaton, Illinois: Wheaton College. May 7, 2014. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  26. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, pp. 211–212.
  27. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Double Doctorates". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  28. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". calvin.edu. Calvin College. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  29. ^ Cramer, David C. "John Hick (1922—2012)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Many of [Hick's] former students are now established Christian philosophers in their own right, including ... William Lane Craig...
  30. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 211; "William Lane Craig" 2007.
  31. ^ Sanders, Fred (18 September 2014). "The Strange Legacy of Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Accordingly, Pannenberg marshaled the available evidence and argued that the most rational interpretation of it is that Christ actually rose from the dead. That a high-level German theologian would defend Christ’s resurrection as a knowable fact was headline news in the religious press of the 1970s. It’s no surprise, then, that Pannenberg’s emphasis on the historical reliability of the Resurrection attracted students like apologist William Lane Craig.
  32. ^ Craig, William Lane (April 28, 2013). "Creation and Evolution (Part 2)". Defenders Podcast. Reasonable Faith. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  33. ^ "The historical argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist controversy". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  34. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Craig earned master’s degrees from TEDS in philosophy of religion, as well as in church history and the history of Christian thought. He taught philosophy of religion at TEDS from 1980–1986.
  35. ^ Stafforini, Pablo (August 18, 2016). "William Lane Craig: A Complete List of Debates". Pablo's Miscellany. Pablo Stafforini. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  36. ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (21 Dec 2018). "Professor, Was Jesus Really Born to a Virgin?". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. SR23. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Here’s my interview of William Lane Craig, professor of philosophy at Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University.
  37. ^ Trinity International University (July 22, 2016). "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Buffalo Grove Countryside. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  38. ^ Wu, Joanna (Spring 2017). "William Lane Craig Named in Biola's First Endowed Chair". Biola Magazine. La Mirada, California: Biola University. p. 15. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  39. ^ a b c Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 213.
  40. ^ Cowan & Spiegel 2009, pp. 268–269; Jackson 2014, p. 19; Peterson et al. 2013, pp. 86–89; Reichenbach 2017; Williams 2013, p. 89.
  41. ^ "Who's Who: Modern Authors: William Lane Craig (Entry 2)". Philosophy of Religion.info. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  42. ^ Smith 2007, p. 183.
  43. ^ a b c d Wainwright, William J. (May 1982). "Reviewed Work: The Kalām Cosmological Argument. by William Lane Craig". Noûs. Vol. 16 (No. 2): 328–334.
  44. ^ Craig 1992.
  45. ^ Craig, William Lane (April 19, 2010). "Molinism vs. Calvinism". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on June 25, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  46. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Molinism and Divine Election". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  47. ^ Craig, William Lane. "A Molinist Perspective on Biblical Inspiration". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  48. ^ Craig 1991.
  49. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Middle Knowledge and Christian Particularism". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  50. ^ Craig, William Lane (June 7, 2015). "Molinism and the Problem of Evil". Reasonable Faith (podcast). Interviewed by Harris, Kevin. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  51. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Does Correspondence Preclude the Truth of Counterfactuals of Freedom?". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  52. ^ Craig, William Lane (September 24, 2007). "Middle Knowledge". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on January 30, 2015. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  53. ^ a b c Quarum, Merrit (2003). "Review: Time and Eternity: Exploring God's Relationship to Time". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 46 (2): 746-749.
  54. ^ Ganssle, Gregory E. "God and Time". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002.
  55. ^ a b c Helm, Paul (2014). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Eternity". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University (Spring 2014 Edition). ISSN 1095-5054. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  56. ^ Helm 2011, pp. 220ff.
  57. ^ Craig 2000c.
  58. ^ Craig 1996.
  59. ^ Craig 2001c, p. 115.
  60. ^ Smith, Quentin (1999). "The "Sentence-Type Version" of the Tenseless Theory of Time". Synthese. 119 (3): 233–251.
  61. ^ Craig, William Lane (2000). The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination. ISBN 978-0792366348.
  62. ^ Dyke, Heather (2002). "Review of The Tensed Theory of Time". International Philosophical Quarterly. 42 (3): 404–406. doi:10.5840/ipq200242331.
  63. ^ Copan, Paul (2001). "Reviewed Work: The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination by William Lane Craig". The Review of Metaphysics. 55 (2): 384–385.
  64. ^ Copan, Paul (2001). "Reviewed Work: The Tenseless Theory of Time: A Critical Examination by William Lane Craig". The Review of Metaphysics. 55 (2): 386–388.
  65. ^ Price, Christopher (2005). "Review of The Son Rises: The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus by William L. Craig". Christian Colligation of Apologetics Debate Research & Evangelism. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  66. ^ Craig 2008, p. 360.
  67. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Visions of Jesus: A Critical Assessment of Gerd Lüdemann's Hallucination Hypothesis". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  68. ^ Craig 2014.
  69. ^ a b c d e Oppy, Graham (30 May 2017). "God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism: Reviewed by Graham Oppy, Monash University". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. ISSN 1538-1617. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  70. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, pp. 506–507.
  71. ^ Craig 2012a.
  72. ^ Liggins 2008.
  73. ^ Craig, William Lane (October 28, 2012). "Can We Refer to Things That Are Not Present?". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  74. ^ Craig 2012b.
  75. ^ Båve 2009.
  76. ^ Nichols & Stich 1999.
  77. ^ Craig & Moreland 2000.
  78. ^ Copan & Craig 2009.
  79. ^ Craig, William Lane (March 28, 2010). "Lightning Strikes Again". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  80. ^ "Religious Epistemology MP3 Audio by William Lane Craig". Apologetics 315. December 30, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  81. ^ Craig 2003, pp. 129–144.
  82. ^ Zaimov, Stoyan (April 9, 2013). "Christian Apologist Says Church 'Losing Battle' Against Hate Label for Homosexuality Stance". The Christian Post. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  83. ^ Craig, William Lane. "A Christian Perspective on Homosexuality". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  84. ^ Craig, William Lane (May 19, 2008). "Christian Homosexuals?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  85. ^ Stewart 2007.
  86. ^ Craig, William Lane (February 20, 2012). "Evolutionary Theory and Theism". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  87. ^ Craig, William Lane (2009). "William Lane Craig's View on Creation and Evolution". YouTube. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  88. ^ "Doctrine of Creation". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on December 18, 2015. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  89. ^ "William Lane Craig". Discovery Institute. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  90. ^ "Society Fellows". International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  91. ^ Copan & Flannagan 2014, pp. 81–82; Howson 2011, p. 11.
  92. ^ Craig, William Lane (August 8, 2011). "The 'Slaughter' of the Canaanites Re-visited". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  93. ^ Dawkins, Richard (October 20, 2011). "Why I Refuse to Debate with William Lane Craig". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  94. ^ Came, Daniel (October 22, 2011). "Richard Dawkins's Refusal to Debate Is Cynical and Anti-Intellectualist". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  95. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, p. 608.
  96. ^ Morriston 2013.
  97. ^ Morriston 2012.
  98. ^ Morriston 2009.
  99. ^ Morriston 2018.
  100. ^ Jantzen 2014.
  101. ^ Law 2011.


Alvarez, Daniel R. (2013). "A Critique of Wolfhart Pannenberg's Scientific Theology". Theology and Science. 11 (3): 224–250. doi:10.1080/14746700.2013.809950. ISSN 1474-6719.
Båve, Arvid (2009). "A Deflationary Theory of Reference". Synthese. 169 (1): 51–73. doi:10.1007/s11229-008-9336-4. ISSN 1573-0964.
Copan, Paul; Craig, William Lane, eds. (2009). Contending with Christianity's Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Academic. ISBN 978-0-8054-4936-5.
Copan, Paul; Flannagan, Matthew (2014). Did God Really Command Genocide? Coming to Terms with the Justice of God. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-8010-1622-6.
Cowan, Steven B.; Spiegel, James S. (2009). The Love of Wisdom: A Christian Introduction to Philosophy. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Academic. ISBN 978-0-8054-4770-5.

External links[edit]