William Lane Craig

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William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig.jpg
Born (1949-08-23) August 23, 1949 (age 65)[1]
Peoria, Illinois[2]
Religion Christianity (Evangelicalism)
Era 20th-century philosophy
21st-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Analytic Philosophy
Main interests
Philosophy of religion
Natural theology
Philosophy of time
Christian apologetics

William Lane Craig /krɡ/ (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytical philosopher,[3] theologian,[4] and Christian apologist. Craig's philosophical work focuses primarily on philosophy of religion, but also on metaphysics and philosophy of time. His theological interests are in historical Jesus studies and philosophical theology. He is known for his debates on theology with public figures such as Christopher Hitchens,[5] Lawrence Krauss,[6] and others.

Craig established an online apologetics ministry, Reasonable Faith.Org, where he contributes and advocates his positions on the cosmological argument for God's existence, divine omniscience, theories of time and eternity, and the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus. His current research deals with divine aseity and the challenge posed by Platonist accounts of abstract objects. Craig is also an author of several books, including Reasonable Faith,[7] which began as a set of lectures for his apologetics classes.

Life and career[edit]

Craig in Middle School
East Peoria Community High School Math Club. Craig is in the top row.

Craig is the second of three children born to Mallory and Doris Craig in Peoria, Illinois.[8] Mr. Craig's work with the T. P. & W. railroad took the family to Keokuk, Iowa, until his transfer to the home office in East Peoria in 1960. While a student at East Peoria Community High School (1963–67)[9] Craig became a championship debater and public speaker, being named his senior year to the all-state debate team and winning the state championship in oratory.[10] On the night of September 11, 1965, his junior year, he underwent a dramatic Christian conversion experience which re-directed the course of his life.[11][12][13][14]

After graduating from high school, Craig attended Wheaton College, a Christian college[15] west of Chicago, where he continued his debate activities, majoring in communications, where he was later named alumnus of the year.[1][16][17] At Wheaton, Craig studied under Stuart Hackett, whose Resurrection of Theism (1957) was to exert a major philosophical influence upon Craig's thought. It was his study of Edward John Carnell's An Introduction to Christian Apologetics (1948) while at Wheaton that sparked Craig's interest in Christian apologetics.[18] Craig graduated in 1971 and the following year married his wife Jan, whom he met on the staff of Campus Crusade for Christ.[19]

In 1973 Craig entered the program in Philosophy of Religion at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School north of Chicago, where he studied under Norman Geisler.[20] Craig simultaneously pursued theological studies under David Wells, Clark Pinnock, Murray Harris, and John Warwick Montgomery, graduating with a master's degrees in Philosophy of Religion and in Church History and the History of Christian Thought.

In 1975 Craig commenced doctoral studies in Philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England, writing on the cosmological argument under the direction of John Hick. Out of this study came his first book The Kalam Cosmological Argument (1979), a defense of the argument he first encountered in Hackett's work. Craig was awarded a post-doctoral fellowship in 1978 from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation to pursue research on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus under the direction of Wolfhart Pannenberg at the Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München in Germany. His study in Munich led to a second doctorate, this one in theology,[16][21] awarded in 1984 with the publication of his doctoral thesis The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist Controversy (1985).[22]

Craig joined the faculty of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in 1980, where he taught philosophy of religion for the next seven years. During these years, he embarked on a long-range research program of a philosophical analysis of the principal divine attributes, beginning with God's omniscience. The initial fruit borne by this study was his Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom (1990).[23] In 1982 Craig received an invitation to debate Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary, Canada, on the question of God's existence. Craig has participated in debates on philosophical and theological questions with philosophers, scientists, and biblical scholars including Antony Flew, E. M. Curley, Richard Taylor, Quentin Smith, Michael Tooley, Paul Draper, Shelly Kagan, Peter Millican, Paul Kurtz, Peter Atkins, Lawrence Krauss, Francisco Ayala, John Dominic Crossan, Marcus Borg, Ray Hoover, Bart Ehrman, Gerd Lüdemann, Christopher Hitchens, Ray Bradley, and Sean Carroll. He has also engaged in debates on Islam, having engaged academic and Islamic scholar Shabir Ally, Jamal Badawi and South African Muslim apologist, Yusuf Ismail on the divinity of Christ.

After a one-year stint at Westmont College on the outskirts of Santa Barbara,[24] Craig moved in 1987 with his wife and two young children back to Europe, where he pursued research for the next seven years as a visiting scholar at the Katholiecke Universiteit Leuven (Louvain) in Belgium. Out of that period of research issued seven books, among them God, Time, and Eternity (2001). In 1994 Craig accepted the invitation of J. P. Moreland and R. Douglas Geivett to join the department of Philosophy and Ethics at Talbot School of Theology in suburban Los Angeles as Research Professor of Philosophy, a position he currently holds.[11]

Craig established an online apologetic ministry, ReasonableFaith.org, to articulate his views on "biblical Christianity in the public arena," to "challenge unbelievers with the truth of biblical Christianity," and to "train Christians to state and defend Christian truth claims with greater effectiveness."[25]


The Kalam cosmological argument[edit]

Craig is best known for his resuscitation of a version of the cosmological argument for the existence of an uncaused first cause. In recognition of the medieval Islamic contribution to the development of this version of the argument, Craig coined the name "kalam cosmological argument" (kalam being medieval Islamic theology), an appellation which has stuck. The distinctive feature of this argument is its premise "The universe began to exist," where "the universe" designates the whole of contiguous spacetime reality,[26] a premise which Craig defends both philosophically and scientifically.[27][28]

In The Kalām Cosmological Argument, he formulates the argument in the following manner:

  1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence.[29]

Philosophically, Craig refurbishes two traditional kalam arguments for the finitude of the temporal series of past events: an argument based on the metaphysical impossibility of the existence of what modern mathematicians call an actual infinite and an argument based on the metaphysical impossibility of the formation of an actual infinite by a process of successive addition.[30]

Granting the strict logical consistency of post-Cantorian, axiomatized infinite set theory, Craig says that the existence of an actually infinite number of things is nonetheless metaphysically impossible in view of counter-intuitive absurdities that would otherwise be possible.[31] One of Craig's favorite examples is the notorious Hilbert's Hotel, which can be fully occupied and yet, through the mere transposition of lodgers, accommodate endless infinities of additional guests. Craig pushes the illustration a notch beyond the original story by David Hilbert by inquiring what would happen if inverse arithmetical operations like subtraction were applied to the hotel. By envisioning different groups of guests checking out of the hotel, Craig says that one could subtract identical quantities from identical quantities and have non-identical quantities as remainders, which is absurd.[32] Stating that the mathematical conventions stipulated to ensure the logical consistency of transfinite arithmetic have no ontological force, Craig concludes that finitism is most plausibly true. Thus, the series of past events must be finite and the universe began to exist.[33]

Even if an actual infinite were metaphysically possible, the temporal nature of the series of past events, which has been formed by the successive addition of one event after another, raises peculiar problems. Craig says that just as it is impossible, despite the proponents of "super-tasks," to count to infinity, so it is metaphysically impossible to count down from infinity.[34] Craig says that an inversion of Russell's story of Tristram Shandy, who writes his autobiography so slowly that it takes him a whole year to record the events of a single day, is a counter-intuitive absurdity that could result from the formation of an actual infinite by successive addition. If it be eternal, the universe has endured through precisely such a temporal sequence in order for the present event or moment to arrive. It follows that the temporal sequence must not be infinite and therefore the universe began to exist.[35] Craig's development of this particular argument makes evident what is implicit throughout the kalam argument, namely, his presupposition of a tensed theory of time. This presupposition would later become a major research focus.

One of Craig's contributions to the historic kalam cosmological argument is his use of empirical evidence from contemporary astrophysics in support of the universe's beginning. He uses two lines of evidence from current cosmology: the expansion of the universe and the thermodynamic properties of the universe.[36]

With respect to the universe's expansion, Craig says that the standard Friedman-LeMaître Big Bang model based on a cosmological application of Albert Einstein's gravitational field equations from his General Theory of Relativity predicts a cosmic singularity which constitutes a past bound to spacetime and therefore marks the absolute origin of the universe in the finite past. According to the model, nothing existed prior to the initial cosmological singularity, in the sense that it is false that anything existed prior to the singularity; spacetime and all its contents come into being at that point.[37] Craig then examines the history of attempts to escape the prediction of an absolute beginning on the part of the standard model and says that these competing models have either proved to be untenable (such as the steady state model and vacuum fluctuation models) or implied the very beginning of the universe they were designed to avoid (oscillating models, inflationary models, quantum gravity models). Craig says that the Borde-Guth-Vilenkin theorem of 2003 requires that any universe which has on average been in a state of cosmic expansion cannot be past eternal but must have a past boundary point.[38] This theorem, which applies both to inflationary multiverse models and to higher dimensional brane cosmologies, holds independent of any physical description of the universe in its earliest phase prior to the Planck time.[39]

With respect to the large scale thermodynamic properties of the universe, Craig traces the physical discussion from the conundrum facing nineteenth century physics of why the universe, if it will reach a state of thermodynamic equilibrium or heat death in a finite time, is not now in such a state, given that it has already existed for infinite time. He says that the advent of relativity theory altered the description of the universe's thermodynamic extinction, but did not affect the fundamental question.[40] Indeed, Craig says that the recent discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating only piques the problem by speeding up the universe's disintegration into causally isolated islands destined to a cold, dark death. He says that most physicists therefore take the universe's observed disequilibrium as evidence that the universe is not, after all, past eternal and its low entropy was simply put in as an initial condition.[41] Craig says that attempts to avoid this conclusion by postulating a multiverse of worlds in varying thermodynamic states encounter the problem of Boltzmann brains — that it becomes highly probable for any observer that the entire observable universe is but an illusion of his own brain, a solipsistic conclusion which no rational person would embrace.[42]

On the basis of these four lines of evidence, Craig concludes that the premise that the universe began to exist is more plausible than not. Conjoined with the premise that whatever begins to exist has a cause, a premise which Craig again defends both philosophically and scientifically,[43] the cosmic beginning implies the existence of an supernatural cause. By the nature of the case, such a cause must be an uncaused, beginningless, changeless, timeless, spaceless, immaterial being of enormous power.[44] Finally, Craig says, appealing to the "Principle of Determination" described by medieval Muslim theologians, that the only way to explain the origin of an effect with a beginning from a beginningless cause is if the cause is a personal agent endowed with freedom of the will. Thus, he arrives at a personal Creator of the universe.[45]

Divine omniscience[edit]

One of the central questions raised by the classical doctrine of divine omniscience is the compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom. The question subdivides into two:
(1) If God foreknows the occurrence of some event E, does E happen necessarily?,[46] and
(2) If some event E is contingent, how can God foreknow E's occurrence? Craig has addressed each of these questions at considerable length.[47]

The first question raises the issue of theological fatalism. Craig attempts to reduce this problem to the problem of logical fatalism, which holds that if it is true that E will happen, then E will happen necessarily. He challenges theological fatalists to show how the addition of God's knowing some future-tense statement to be true adds anything essential to the problem over and above that statement's being true. Craig then examines logical fatalism[48] He says that fatalism must be fallacious because it posits a non-causal constraint on human freedom which is unintelligible. He says that the flaw in logical fatalism is in a mistaken analysis of what it means for an act to be "within one's power," and that logical fatalists misconstrue the impossibility of bringing about a logical contradiction as an infringement of personal ability.[49][50]

Returning to theological fatalism, Craig says that fatalists have misunderstood "temporal necessity," or the necessity of the past. Craig says that our intuitions of the past's necessity are rooted in the causal closedness of the past, and that the impossibility of backward causation does not imply that I cannot have a sort of counterfactual power over past events.[51] That is, if God has foreknowledge of a person's acts, then they have the ability to act in such a way that, if they were to act in that way, then the past would have been different. Building on the work of Alfred Freddoso, Craig offers an analysis of temporal necessity according to which many past, historical events are not, at this point, temporally necessary. He says that it is still possible for an agent to act in such a way, that were he to do so, that event would never have occurred, and that from the fact that the event has occurred we can know that the agent will not in fact so act, but it remains nevertheless within his power to do so.

One of Craig's contributions to the discussion of theological fatalism is his survey of the rejection of parallel fatalistic arguments in fields other than theology or philosophy of religion. He reviews discussions of backward causation,[52] time travel,[53] the special theory of relativity, precognition,[54] and Newcomb's paradox to conclude that fatalistic reasoning has failed.[55]

The second question arising from divine foreknowledge of future contingents concerns the means by which God knows such events.[56] Craig says that the question presupposes a tensed or A-Theory of time, for on a tenseless or B-Theory of time there is no ontological distinction between past, present, and future, so that contingent events which are future relative to us are no more difficult for God to know than contingent events which are, relative to us, past or present. Distinguishing between perceptualist and conceptualist models of divine cognition, Craig says that models which construe God's foreknowledge of the future along perceptualist lines (God foresees what will happen) are difficult to reconcile with a tensed theory of time (though one might say that God perceives the present truth-values of future contingent propositions). He does not similarly challenge a conceptualist model which construes God's knowledge along the lines of innate ideas.[57]

The doctrine of middle knowledge is one such conceptualist model of divine cognition which Craig has explored. Formulated by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina, the doctrine of middle knowledge holds that logically prior to his decree to create a world God knew what every possible creature he might create would freely do in any possible set of circumstances in which God might place him. On the basis of his knowledge of such counterfactuals of creaturely freedom[58] and his knowledge of his own decree to create certain creatures in certain circumstances, along with his own decision how he himself shall act, God automatically knows everything that will actually and contingently happen, without any perception of the world.[59]

Craig has become a proponent of Molinism, supporting middle knowledge and also applying it to a wide range of theological issues, such as divine providence[60] and predestination,[61] biblical inspiration,[62] perseverance of the saints,[63] and Christian particularism.[64]

Divine eternity[edit]

Craig's earlier work on the kalam cosmological argument and on divine omniscience intersected significantly with theories of time and the nature of divine eternity. A number of unresolved issues remained to be taken up through an exploration of time and God's relation to it.[65]

Differentiating between two senses of "eternal" as either timeless or infinitely omnitemporal, Craig first examines a plethora of arguments aimed at showing either that God is timeless or omnitemporal.[66] Craig defends the coherence of a timeless, personal being, but says that the arguments for divine timelessness are unsound or inconclusive.[67] By contrast, he gives two arguments in favor of divine temporality. First, Craig says that if a temporal world exists, then in virtue of his real relations to that world, God cannot remain untouched by its temporality.[68] Given his changing relations with the world, God must change at least extrinsically, which is sufficient for his existing temporally. Second, Craig says that if a temporal world exists, then in virtue of his omniscience, God must know tensed facts about the world, such as what is happening now, which is, again, sufficient for his being temporally located. Since a temporal world does exist, it follows that God exists in time.[69]

Craig says that there is one way of escape from these arguments for a defender of divine timelessness. The first argument based on God's relation to the world presupposes the reality of temporal becoming, and the second argument based on God's knowledge of the world presupposes the objectivity of tensed facts. In other words, both arguments presuppose an A-Theory of time. The defender of divine timelessness can avert their force by embracing a B-Theory of time and denying the objective reality of tensed facts and temporal becoming.[70] Craig concludes that one's theory of time is a watershed issue for one's doctrine of divine eternity.[71]

In his twin volumes The Tensed Theory of Time (2000) and The Tenseless Theory of Time (2000) Craig therefore undertakes a thorough examination of the arguments for and against the A- and B-Theories of time respectively.

Elements of Craig's philosophy of time include his differentiation between time itself and our measures thereof (a classical Newtonian theme), his reductive analysis of spatial "tenses" to the location of the "I-now," his defense of presentism on the basis of the presentness of experience, his analysis of McTaggart's paradox[72] as an instance of the problem of temporary intrinsics, his defense of a neo-Lorentzian interpretation of special relativity, and his formulation of a tensed possible worlds semantics.[73]

Having concluded that time is tensed, Craig turns to articulating a doctrine of divine eternity and God's relationship to time. Defending Leibniz's anti-Newtonian argument against God's enduring for infinite time prior to creation and appealing to kalam arguments against infinite, past metric time, Craig says that God exists timelessly sans the universe and temporally since the moment of creation.[74] Craig says that cosmic time, which registers the proper time of the universe's duration in general relativistic cosmological models, is the measure of God's time. The universe is, Craig concludes, God's clock.[75]

The resurrection of Jesus[edit]

Craig's two volumes The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus (1985) and Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (3d ed., 2002) are said by Christian reviewers Gary Habermas and Christopher Price to be among the most thorough investigations of the event of Jesus' resurrection.[76][77] In the former volume, Craig describes the history of the discussion, including Humean arguments against the identification of the miraculous. The latter volume is an exegetical study of the New Testament material pertinent to the resurrection.

Craig summarizes the relevant evidence under three major heads:[78]

(1) The tomb of Jesus was found empty by a group of his female followers on the Sunday after his crucifixion.[79]
(2) Various individuals and groups experienced appearances of Jesus alive after his death.
(3) The earliest disciples came to believe that God had raised Jesus from the dead despite strong predispositions to the contrary.

Craig's discussion of the evidence for each of these events includes a defense of the traditions of Jesus' burial by Joseph of Arimathea, a close exegesis of the Pauline doctrine of the resurrection body, and an investigation of pagan and Jewish notions of resurrection from the dead.[80]

Craig then says that the best explanation of these three events is that God raised Jesus from the dead.[81] This involves him in a critique of rival hypotheses, in particular Lüdemann's hallucination hypothesis.[82] Craig says that the resurrection hypothesis best meets the standard criteria for weighing historical hypotheses such as explanatory power, explanatory scope, degree of ad hoc-ness, plausibility, and so forth.[83] In response to those who would regard a miraculous hypothesis as excessively improbable, Craig says that given the existence of a personal Creator of the universe, as demonstrated by arguments of natural theology, and the higher probability of the evidence on the resurrection hypothesis than on its negation, the resurrection hypothesis cannot be said to be improbable.[84] He says that the probability of a miraculous explanation of the evidence is increased when one locates the resurrection of Jesus in its religio-historical context of Jesus' ministry and personal statements, whose authenticity Craig defends.[85] That context also provides the interpretive key to the meaning of Jesus' resurrection, which Craig says is the divine vindication of the allegedly blasphemous statements for which Jesus was tried and sent to his death.[86]

Divine aseity[edit]

Craig's current research is on the challenge posed by platonism to the classic doctrine of divine aseity or self-existence.[87] In Craig's analysis that challenge stems, not so much from abstract objects' eternality or necessity as from, in many cases, their uncreatability. Rejecting Absolute Creationism, the view that God creates abstract objects, as caught in a vicious circle,[88] Craig defends the viability of various nominalistic perspectives on abstract objects.[89] Stating that the Quine-Putnam Indispensability Argument is the chief support of platonism,[90] Craig criticizes Quine's naturalized epistemology and confirmational holism, which undergirded the original argument, and also rejects the metaontological criterion of ontological commitment at the heart of all versions of the argument.[91]

Craig favors a neutral logic, according to which the formal quantifiers of first-order logic, as well as the informal quantifiers of ordinary language, are not ontologically committing.[92] He also advocates a deflationary theory of reference, according to which referring is a speech act rather than a word-world relation, so that singular terms may be used in true sentences without commitment to corresponding objects in the world.[93] If one stipulates that first-order quantifiers are being used as devices of ontological commitment, then Craig adverts to Fictionalism, in particular Pretense Theory, according to which statements about abstract objects are expressions of make-believe, imagined to be true, though literally false.[94] Craig's work in this area is ongoing, so that his final positions are yet to be determined.[95]

Other views[edit]

Craig is a critic of metaphysical naturalism,[96] New Atheism,[97] prosperity theology,[98] and homosexuality,[99] as well as a defender of Reformed epistemology.[100] Craig maintains that the theory of evolution is compatible with Christianity.[101][102] Although he does not fully endorse intelligent design,[103] and is critical of Young Earth creationism,[104] he thinks that intelligent design may be a viable alternative to evolution.[105] He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture[106] and was a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information and Design (ISCID).[107]

As a Divine Command Theorist, Craig has expressed the hypothesis that God had the moral right to command the slaughter of the Canaanites if they refused to leave their land, as depicted in the Book of Deuteronomy.[108][109] This has led to some controversy.[110][111]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Curriculum vitae". Reasonable Faith. William Lane Craig. Retrieved 2012-05-25. 
  2. ^ "William Lane Craig". Contemporary Authors Online. Gale. 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2014. (subscription required)
  3. ^ Manning, Russell Re (2012). The Oxford handbook of natural theology. (1st ed. ed.). Corby: Oxford University Press. p. 249. ISBN 0199556938. 
  4. ^ "Biography". Closer to Truth. 
  5. ^ http://www.christianitytoday.com/gleanings/2009/april/hitchens-vs-craig-round-two.html Craig/Hitchens debate on existence of God
  6. ^ https://richarddawkins.net/2013/08/unbelieving-wlc-william-lane-craig-exposed-by-lawrence-krauss/ Krauss debates Craig
  7. ^ Poe, Harry Lee; Mattson, J. Stanley (2005). Time, Eternity, and Divine Knowledge. Baylor University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-1-932792-12-6. He is the founder of the Evangelical Association for the Promotion of Education (EAPE) and the author of many popular books, including A Reasonable Faith, It's Friday but Sunday's Coming, Let Me Tell You a Story, Carpe Diem, Which Jesus?, and Following Jesus Without Embarrassing God. 
  8. ^ "East Peoria, IL". City Data. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  9. ^ "Debating". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  10. ^ "Records and History - Original Oratory". Illinois High School Association. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "Faculty Profile". Biola University. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 
  12. ^ "William Lane Craig and Sean McDowell". Fervr. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "Biographical Sketch". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  14. ^ "Faith and Doubt". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  15. ^ "Top Ten Christian Colleges". Forbes. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  16. ^ a b "Dr. William Lane Craig Named Alumnus of the Year". Wheaton College. Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "Faculty Page". Biola University. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  18. ^ "William Lane Craig's Favorite Philosopher, Debate, and Books". Retrieved 11 May 2014. 
  19. ^ Schneider, Nathan. "7 Habits of a Highly Effective Philosopher". Killing the Buddha. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  20. ^ "Double Doctorates". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  21. ^ "Author Profile". IVP. Retrieved 8 May 2014After failing his initial oral exams, he retook the exam a year later and passed 
  22. ^ "What is the Meaning of Failure for the Christian?". Johnson Ferry Baptist Church. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  23. ^ "Faculty Page". Houston Baptist University. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  24. ^ "Apologetics Videos". Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  25. ^ "About Reasonable Faith". ReasonableFaith.Org. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  26. ^ "What Does One Mean by The Universe?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  27. ^ "How Did the Universe Begin?". Saddleback Church. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  28. ^ Moreland, J.P. (1994). The Creation hypothesis. IVP. p. 17. ISBN 0830816984. 
  29. ^ Craig outlines this argument and seven others for the existence of God in Philosophy Now magazine, December 2013
  30. ^ Craig, edited by William Lane; Moreland, J.P. (2011). The Blackwell companion to natural theology ([Pbk. ed.] ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-4443-5085-2. 
  31. ^ Craig, edited by William Lane; Moreland, J.P. (2011). The Blackwell companion to natural theology ([Pbk. ed.] ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-1-4443-5085-2. 
  32. ^ Oppy, Graham (1995). "Inverse Operations With Transfinite Numbers And The Kalam Cosmological Argument". International Philosophical Quarterly 35 (2): 219–221. doi:10.5840/ipq19953526. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  33. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce (2010). Zalta, Edward N, ed. "Cosmological Argument". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 
  34. ^ "Pruss on Forming an Actual Infinite by Successive Addition". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  35. ^ "Wallace Matson and the Crude Cosmological Argument". Australasian Journal of Philosophy (57): 163–170. 
  36. ^ Craig, edited by William Lane; Moreland, J.P. (2011). The Blackwell companion to natural theology ([Pbk. ed.] ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-4443-5085-2. 
  37. ^ "God and the Initial Cosmological Singularity: A Reply to Quentin Smith". Faith and Philosophy: 237–247. 1992. 
  38. ^ Mitchell, Jacqueline. "In the Beginning Was the Beginning". Tufts Now. Retrieved 8 May 2014. 
  39. ^ "Contemporary Cosmology and the Beginning of the Universe". Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  40. ^ "Existence of God part 11". Defenders Podcast. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  41. ^ "The End of the World". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  42. ^ "Invasion of the Boltzmann Brains". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  43. ^ Craig, edited by William Lane; Moreland, J.P. (2009). The Blackwell companion to natural theology (1. publ. ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 188. ISBN 978-1405176576. 
  44. ^ "Must the Beginning of the Universe Have a Personal Cause?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  45. ^ "Must the Cause of the Universe Be Personal, Redux". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  46. ^ "Purtill on Fatalism and Truth". Faith and Philosophy: 229–234. 1990. 
  47. ^ Viney, Donald Wayne (Spring 1989). "Does Omniscience Imply Foreknowledge? Craig on Hartshorneby". Process Studies (Center for Process Studies) 18 (1): 30–37. doi:10.5840/process198918130. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  48. ^ Zagzebski, Linda (Fall 2011). Zalta, Edward N, ed. "Foreknowledge and Free Will". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  49. ^ "Doctrine of God Part 14". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  50. ^ "Doctrine of God Part 15". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  51. ^ "Molinism and Free Will". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  52. ^ Craig, William Lane (2000). The only wise God : the compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 83–88. ISBN 978-1-57910-316-3. 
  53. ^ Craig, William Lane (2000). The only wise God : the compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 89–96. ISBN 978-1-57910-316-3. 
  54. ^ Craig, William Lane (2000). The only wise God : the compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 97–104. ISBN 978-1-57910-316-3. 
  55. ^ "Divine Foreknowledge and Newcomb's Paradox". Philosophia (17): 331–350. 1987. 
  56. ^ "Participants: Craig, William Lane". Closer to Truth. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  57. ^ "Divine Eternity". The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology: 145–166. 
  58. ^ "Does Correspondence Preclude the Truth of Counterfactuals of Freedom?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  59. ^ "Middle Knowledge". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  60. ^ "Molinism vs. Calvinism". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  61. ^ "Molinism and Divine Election". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  62. ^ "A Molinist Perspective on Biblical Inspiration". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  63. ^ "'Lest Anyone Should Fall': A Middle Knowledge Perspective on Perseverance and Apostolic Warnings.". International Journal for Philosophy of Religion (29): 65–74. 1991. 
  64. ^ "Middle Knowledge and Christian Particularism". Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  65. ^ Craig, edited by William Lane; Moreland, J.P. (2011). The Blackwell companion to natural theology ([Pbk. ed.] ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-1-4443-5085-2. 
  66. ^ Craig, William Lane (2000). "Timelessness and Omnitemporality". Philosophia Christi. 2 2 (1): 29–33. 
  67. ^ "A Critique of Grudem's Formulation and Defense of the Doctrine of Eternity". Philosophia Christi (19): 33–38. 1996. 
  68. ^ Flint, edited by Thomas P.; Rea, Michael C. (2011). The Oxford handbook of philosophical theology (Repr. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 145–166. ISBN 978-0-19-959653-9. 
  69. ^ "Divine Timelessness and Personhood". International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 43: 109–124. 1998. 
  70. ^ "Omniscience, Tensed Facts, and Divine Eternity". Faith and Philosophy 17: 225–241. 2000. doi:10.5840/faithphil200017216. 
  71. ^ Craig, William Lane (2001). Time and eternity : exploring God's relationship to time. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-58134-241-3. 
  72. ^ Oaklander, L. Nathan (2002). "Presentism, Ontology and Temporal Experience". In Craig Callender. Time, reality & experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–90. ISBN 978-0-521-52967-9. 
  73. ^ Craig, William Lane (2001). Time and eternity : exploring God's relationship to time. Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books. pp. 51–66. ISBN 978-1-58134-241-3. 
  74. ^ Helm, Paul (2011). Eternal God: a study of God without time (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 220ff. ISBN 978-0-19-959038-4. 
  75. ^ "God and the Beginning of Time". International Philosophical Quarterly: 17–31. 2001. 
  76. ^ Habermas, Gary. "Review: The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesu". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 31 (2): 240–242. 
  77. ^ Price, Christopher. "Christian Book Reviews". Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  78. ^ Craig, William Lane (2008). Reasonable faith : Christian truth and apologetics (3rd ed. ed.). Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway Books. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-4335-0115-9. 
  79. ^ Craig, William Lane (2001). "Reply to Evan Fales: On the Empty Tomb of Jesus". Philosophia Christi 3: 67–76. 
  80. ^ "The Historicity of the Empty Tomb of Jesus". New Testament Studies 31: 39–67. 1985. doi:10.1017/s0028688500012911. 
  81. ^ Perman, Matt. "Historical Evidence for the Resurrection". Desiring God. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  82. ^ "Visions of Jesus: A Critical Assessment of Gerd Lüdemann's Hallucination Hypothesis". Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  83. ^ Craig, edited by William Lane; Moreland, J.P. (2011). The Blackwell companion to natural theology ([Pbk. ed.] ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 617. ISBN 978-1-4443-5085-2. 
  84. ^ Craig, William Lane (1986). Wenham, David, ed. "The Problem of Miracles: A Historical and Philosophical Perspectiv". Gospel Perspectives VI: 9–40. 
  85. ^ Craig, William Lane (1998). "Rediscovering the Historical Jesus: The Evidence for Jesus". Faith and Mission 15: 16–26. 
  86. ^ "The Resurrection of Jesus". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  87. ^ Beyond the control of god? : six views on the problem of god and abstract. [S.l.]: Continuum Publishing Corp. 2014. pp. 113–126. ISBN 978-1-62356-365-3. 
  88. ^ Craig, J.P. Moreland & William Lane (2004). Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview ([Nachdr.] ed.). Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press. pp. 506–507. ISBN 978-0-8308-2694-0. 
  89. ^ Craig, William Lane. "God and Abstract Objects". The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity: 441–452. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  90. ^ Liggins, David. "Quine, Putnam, and the 'Quine-Putnam' Indispensability Argument". Erkenntnis: 113–127. 
  91. ^ "Can We Refer to Things that Are Not Present?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 7 May 2014. 
  92. ^ Craig, William Lane (2011). "Nominalism and Divine Aseity". Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion: 44–65. 
  93. ^ Bave, Arvid (7 May 2008). "A Deflationary Theory of Reference". Synthase: 51–73. 
  94. ^ Shaun Nichols; Stephen Stich. "A Cognitive Theory of Pretense". Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  95. ^ Criag, William Lane. "Current Work on God and Abstract Objects". Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  96. ^ Craig, William Lane; Moreland, James Porter (2000). Naturalism: A Critical Analysis. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-23524-2. 
  97. ^ Copan, Paul; Craig, William Lane (2009). Contending with Christianity's Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors. B&H. ISBN 978-0-8054-4936-5. 
  98. ^ ReasonableFaith.org | William Lane Craig | Q&A #154 Lightning Strikes Again http://www.reasonablefaith.org/lightning-strikes-again Answer to question 8: "I think that the prosperity gospel of health and wealth is a false doctrine and an abomination. That gospel won't preach in Darfur, Iraq, North Korea, or a thousand other places, and if it won't preach there, it's not the true Gospel."
  99. ^ Christian Apologist Says Church Losing Battle Against Hate Label for Homosexuality Stance. William Lane Craig, Hard Questions, Real Answers (Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway Books, 2003), 129–144. A Christian Perspective on Homosexuality. Christian Homosexuals?.
  100. ^ "Religious Epistemology MP3 Audio by William Lane Craig". Apologetics 315. Retrieved 10/09/2011.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  101. ^ Stewart, Robert B. (2007). Intelligent Design: William A. Dembski and Michael Ruse in Dialogue (revised ed.). Fortress Press. ISBN 0-8006-6218-0. 
  102. ^ [Craig writes: "If we take "random" to mean "irrespective of usefulness to the organism," then randomness is not incompatible with direction or purpose. For example, suppose that God in His providence causes a mutation to occur in an organism, not for the benefit of the organism, but for some other reason (say, because it will produce easy prey for other organisms that He wants to flourish or even because it will eventually produce a fossil that I will someday find, which stimulates my interest in palaeontology, so that I embark upon the career God had in mind for me). In such a case, the mutation is both purposeful and random." "Q&A #253: Evolutionary Theory and Theism", Reasonablefaith.org, accessed at http://www.reasonablefaith.org/evolutionary-theory-and-theism. See also "Q&A #263: Who Speaks for Science?", accessed at http://www.reasonablefaith.org/who-speaks-for-science]
  103. ^ "William Lane Craig on Evolution and Intelligent Design". You tube. Google. Retrieved 10/09/2011.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  104. ^ "Doctrine of Creation". Reasonable faith. Retrieved 02/05/2013.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  105. ^ "William Lane Craig vs. Francisco J. Ayala – Is Intelligent Design Viable?". Apologetics 315. November 5, 2009. Retrieved 10/09/2011.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  106. ^ "William Lane Craig". Discovery Institute. Retrieved 10/09/2011.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  107. ^ "Society Fellows". International Society for Complexity, Information and Design. Retrieved 10/09/2011.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  108. ^ The Slaughter of the Canaanites Re-visited, Reasonable faith 
  109. ^ Howson, Colin (2011). Objecting to God. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0521768357. LCCN 2011013514. 
  110. ^ Dawkins, Richard (20 October 2011), "Why I refuse to debate with William Lane Craig", The Guardian (UK) 
  111. ^ Stanley, Tim (21 October 2011), "Richard Dawkins is either a fool or a coward for refusing to debate William Lane Craig", The Telegraph (UK) 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]