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William Lane Craig

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William Lane Craig
Craig in 2014
Born (1949-08-23) August 23, 1949 (age 74)
EducationWheaton College (BA)
Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (MA)
University of Birmingham (PhD)
University of Munich (ThD)
Notable workReasonable Faith (1994)
Jan Craig
(m. 1972)
EraContemporary philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
SchoolAnalytic philosophy
  • The Kalam Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God (1977)
  • The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1984)
Doctoral advisor
Other academic advisorsNorman Geisler
Main interests
Notable ideas
Kalam cosmological argument

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher, Christian apologist, author, and Wesleyan theologian who upholds the view of Molinism and neo-Apollinarianism.[2][3] He is a professor of philosophy at Houston Christian University and at the Talbot School of Theology of Biola University.[4]

Craig has updated and defended the Kalam cosmological argument for the existence of God.[5][6][7][8][9] He has also published work where he argues in favor of the historical plausibility of the resurrection of Jesus.[10] His study of divine aseity and Platonism culminated with his book God Over All.[11][12]

Early life and education

Craig as furthest back to the left with fellow members of the East Peoria High School Math Club

Craig was born August 23, 1949, in Peoria, Illinois, to Mallory and Doris Craig.[13][14] He attended East Peoria Community High School from 1963 to 1967,[15] where he competed in debate and won the state championship in oratory.[16][5] In September 1965, his junior year, he became a Christian.[17][18][19]

After graduating from high school, Craig attended Wheaton College, majoring in communications.[20][5] He graduated in 1971 and married his wife, Jan, whom he met on the staff of Campus Crusade for Christ, the next year.[20][21] They have two grown children and reside in suburban Atlanta, Georgia.[21]

In 1973, Craig entered the program in philosophy of religion at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School north of Chicago, where he studied under Norman Geisler.[22][23][5] In 1975, Craig began doctoral studies in philosophy at the University of Birmingham in England,[24] writing on the cosmological argument under the direction of John Hick.[25][5] He was awarded a doctorate in 1977.[26] Out of this study came his first book, The Kalam Cosmological Argument (1979), a defense of the argument he first encountered in Hackett's[who?] work.[5]

Craig was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship in 1978 from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation[27] to pursue research on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus under the direction of Wolfhart Pannenberg at the University of Munich in Germany.[24][27][5][22] His studies in Munich under Pannenberg's supervision led to a second doctorate, this one in theology,[20][5] awarded in 1984 with the publication of his doctoral thesis, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1985).[28][29]



Craig joined the faculty of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois in 1980, where he taught philosophy of religion until 1986.[30]

After a one-year stint at Westmont College on the outskirts of Santa Barbara, Craig moved in 1987 with his wife and two young children back to Europe,[31] where he was a visiting scholar at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Louvain) in Belgium until 1994.[31][32] At that time, Craig joined the Department of Philosophy and Ethics at Talbot School of Theology in suburban Los Angeles as a research professor of philosophy, a position he currently holds,[17][4][33] and he went on to become a professor of philosophy at Houston Christian University in 2014.[4][33] In 2017, Biola University created a permanent faculty position and endowed chair, the William Lane Craig Endowed Chair in Philosophy, in honor of Craig's academic contributions.[34]

Craig served as president of the Philosophy of Time Society from 1999 to 2006.[35][36] He helped revitalize the Evangelical Philosophical Society and served as its president from 1996 to 2005.[5] In the mid-2000s,[37][38] Craig established the online Christian apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org.[4]

Craig has authored or edited over forty books and over two hundred articles published in professional philosophy and theology journals,[39][40] including: The Journal of Philosophy,[41] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science,[42] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research,[43][44] Philosophical Studies,[45] Australasian Journal of Philosophy,[46][47][48][49] Faith and Philosophy,[50] Erkenntnis,[51][52] and American Philosophical Quarterly.[53]

Philosophical and theological views


Kalam cosmological argument

An illustration of infinite regress

Craig has written and spoken in defense of a version of the cosmological argument called the Kalam cosmological argument.[a][55][56] While the Kalam originated in medieval Islamic philosophy, Craig added appeals to scientific and philosophical ideas in the argument's defense.[5] Craig's work has resulted in contemporary interest in the argument, and in cosmological arguments in general.[57][58][59]

Craig formulates his version of the argument as follows:

  1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence.[54][57]

Craig's defense of the argument mainly focuses on the second premise,[60][61] which he offers several arguments for. For example, Craig appeals to Hilbert's example of an infinite hotel to argue that actually infinite collections are impossible, and thus the past is finite and has a beginning.[62][63][64] In another argument, Craig says that the series of events in time is formed by a process in which each moment is added to history in succession. According to Craig, this process can never produce an actually infinite collection of events, but at best a potentially infinite one. On this basis, he argues that the past is finite and has a beginning.[57][65][66]

Craig also appeals to various physical theories to support the argument's second premise, such as the standard Big Bang model of cosmic origins and certain implications of the second law of thermodynamics.[5][57][62]

The Kalam argument concludes that the universe had a cause, but Craig further argues that the cause must be a person.[54] First, Craig argues that the best way to explain the origin of a temporal effect with a beginning from an eternally existing cause is if that cause is a personal agent endowed with free will. Second, the only candidates for a timeless, spaceless, immaterial being are abstract objects like numbers or unembodied minds; but abstract objects are causally effete. Third, Craig uses Richard Swinburne's separation of causal explanation; causal explanation can be given in terms either of initial conditions and laws of nature or of a personal agent and its volitions; but a first physical state of the universe cannot be explained in terms of initial conditions and natural laws.[67]

Craig's arguments to support the Kalam argument have been discussed and debated by a variety of commentators,[68][69] including Adolf Grünbaum,[70] Quentin Smith,[71] Wes Morriston,[72][73] Graham Oppy,[74] Andrew Loke,[75] Robert C. Koons,[76] and Alexander Pruss.[77] Many of these papers are contained in the two-volume anthology The Kalām Cosmological Argument (2017), volume 1 covering philosophical arguments for the finitude of the past and volume 2 the scientific evidence for the beginning of the universe.[78][79]

Divine omniscience


Craig is a proponent of Molinism, an idea first formulated by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina according to which God possesses foreknowledge of which free actions each person would perform under every possible circumstance, a kind of knowledge that is sometimes termed "middle knowledge".[80] Protestant-Molinism, such as Craig's, first entered Protestant theology through two anti-Calvinist thinkers: Jacobus Arminius and Conrad Vorstius.[81] Molinists such as Craig appeal to this idea to reconcile the perceived conflict between God's providence and foreknowledge with human free will. The idea is that, by relying on middle knowledge, God does not interfere with anyone's free will, instead choosing which circumstances to actualize given a complete understanding of how people would freely choose to act in response.[82] Craig also appeals to Molinism in his discussions of the inspiration of scripture, Christian exclusivism, the perseverance of the Saints, and missionary evangelism.[83]

Resurrection of Jesus


Craig has written two volumes arguing for the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus (1985)[10][84] and Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (3rd ed., 2002).[85][86] In the former volume, Craig describes the history of the discussion, including David Hume's arguments against the identification of miracles. The latter volume is an exegetical study of the New Testament material pertinent to the resurrection.

Craig structures his arguments for the historicity of the resurrection under 3 headings:[87]

  1. The tomb of Jesus was found empty by a group of his female followers on the Sunday after his crucifixion.[88]
  2. Various individuals and groups experienced appearances of Jesus alive after his death.
  3. The earliest disciples came to believe that God had raised Jesus from the dead despite strong predispositions to the contrary.

Craig argues that the best explanation of these three events is a literal resurrection.[89] He applies an evaluative framework developed by philosopher of history C. Behan McCullagh[90] to examine various theoretical explanations proposed for these events. From that framework, he rejects alternative theories such as Gerd Lüdemann's hallucination hypothesis, the conspiracy hypothesis, and Heinrich Paulus or Friedrich Schleiermacher's apparent death hypothesis as lacking explanatory scope, explanatory power, and sufficient historical plausibility.[91][92] In 1996 Craig participated in the Resurrection Summit, a meeting held at St. Joseph's Seminary, New York, in order to discuss the resurrection of Jesus. Papers from the summit were later compiled and published in the book The Resurrection. An Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Resurrection of Jesus, edited by S.T Davis, D. Kendall and G. O'Collins.[93]

Philosophy of time


Craig defends a presentist version of the A-theory of time. According to this theory, the present exists, but the past and future do not. Additionally, he holds that there are tensed facts, such as it is now lunchtime, which cannot be reduced to or identified with tenseless facts of the form it is lunchtime at noon on February 10, 2020. According to this theory, presentness is a real aspect of time, and not merely a projection of our thought and talk about time. He raises several defenses of this theory, two of which are especially notable. First, he criticizes J. M. E. McTaggart's argument that the A-theory is incoherent, suggesting that McTaggart's argument begs the question by covertly presupposing the B-theory. Second, he defends the A-theory from empirical challenges arising from the standard interpretation of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (SR). He responds to this challenge by advocating a neo-Lorentzian interpretation of SR which is empirically equivalent to the standard interpretation, and which is consistent with the A-theory and with absolute simultaneity. Craig criticizes the standard interpretation of SR on the grounds that it is based on a discredited positivist epistemology. Moreover, he claims that the assumption of positivism invalidates the appeal to SR made by opponents of the A-theory.[94][95][96]

Divine eternity


Craig argues that God existed in a timeless state causally prior to creation,[96] but has existed in a temporal state beginning with creation, by virtue of his knowledge of tensed facts and his interactions with events.[97] He gives two arguments in support of that view. First, he says that, given his tensed view of time, God cannot be timeless once he has created a temporal universe, since, after that point, he is related to time through his interactions and through causing events in time.[97] Second, Craig says that as a feature of his omniscience, God must know the truth related to tensed facts about the world, such as whether the statement "Today is January 15th" is true or not or what is happening right now.[95][98][99][100][b]

Divine aseity


Craig has published on the challenge posed by platonism to divine aseity or self-existence.[102][11][103] Craig rejects both the view that God creates abstract objects and that they exist independently of God.[104] Rather, he defends a nominalistic perspective that abstract objects are not ontologically real objects.[105] Stating that the Quine–Putnam indispensability argument is the chief support of platonism,[106] Craig criticizes the neo-Quinean criterion of ontological commitment, according to which the existential quantifier of first order logic and singular terms are devices of ontological commitment.[107][108]

Craig favors a neutral interpretation of the quantifiers of first-order logic, so that a statement can be true, even if there isn't an object being quantified over. Moreover, he defends a deflationary theory of reference based on the intentionality of agents, so that a person can successfully refer to something even in the absence of some extra-mental thing. Craig gives the example of the statement “the price of the ticket is ten dollars” which he argues can still be a true statement even if there isn't an actual object called a “price.”[109] He defines these references as a speech act rather than a word-world relation, so that singular terms may be used in true sentences without commitment to corresponding objects in the world.[110] Craig has additionally argued that even if one were to grant that these references were being used as in a word-world relation, that fictionalism is a viable explanation of their use; in particular pretense theory, according to which statements about abstract objects are expressions of make-believe, imagined to be true, even if literally false.[111]



In preparation for writing a systematic philosophical theology, Craig undertook a study of the doctrine of the atonement which resulted in two books, The Atonement (2019) and Atonement and the Death of Christ (2020).[112]

Historical Adam


Also as a preliminary study for his systematic philosophical theology Craig explored the biblical commitment to and scientific credibility of an original human pair who were the universal progenitors of mankind.[113] Following the Assyriologist Thorkild Jacobsen, Craig argues on the basis of various family resemblances that Genesis 1-11 plausibly belongs to the genre of mytho-history, which aims to recount historical persons and events in the figurative and often fantastic language of myth. Most recently Craig has begun writing a projected multi-volume systematic philosophical theology.[114]

Other views


Craig is a critic of metaphysical naturalism,[115] New Atheism,[116] and prosperity theology,[117][non-primary source needed] as well as a defender of Reformed epistemology.[118] He also states that a confessing Christian should not engage in homosexual acts.[119] Craig maintains that the theory of evolution is compatible with Christianity.[120][121][non-primary source needed] He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture[122] and was a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design.[123] In his debate with Paul Helm, Craig explains that he would call himself an "Arminian" "in the proper sense."[124] Elsewhere, he has described himself as a Wesleyan or Wesleyan-Arminian.[125][non-primary source needed]

As a non-voluntaristic divine command theorist, Craig believes God had the moral right to command the killing of the Canaanites if they refused to leave their land, as depicted in the Book of Deuteronomy.[126][127][128] This has led to some controversy, as seen in a critique by Wes Morriston.[129][130] Craig has also proposed a neo-Apollinarian Christology in which the divine logos stands in for the human soul of Christ and completes his human nature.[131]



According to Nathan Schneider, "[many] professional philosophers know about him only vaguely, but in the field of philosophy of religion, [Craig's] books and articles are among the most cited".[5] Fellow philosopher Quentin Smith writes that "William Lane Craig is one [of] the leading philosophers of religion and one of the leading philosophers of time."[132]

In 2021, Academic Influence ranked Craig the nineteenth most influential philosopher in the world over the previous three decades (1990-2020) and the world's fourth most influential theologian over the same period.[133][134]

In 2009, New Atheist Christopher Hitchens had an interview before his debate with Craig in that same year. During that interview, Hitchens said: "I can tell you that my brothers and sisters and co-thinkers in the unbelieving community take him [Craig] very seriously. He's [Craig] thought of as a very tough guy. Very rigorous, very scholarly, very formidable. And I would...I say that without reserve. I don't say it because I'm here. Normally I don't get people saying: 'Good luck tonight' and 'don't let us down,' you know. But with him [Craig] I do."[135]

In 2011, with respect and compliment to his debating skills, New Atheist Sam Harris once described Craig as "the one Christian apologist who seems to have put the fear of God into many of my fellow atheists".[5][136]

Following a 2011 debate with Craig, Lawrence Krauss stated that Craig had a "simplistic view of the world" and that in the debate Craig had said "disingenuous distortions, simplifications, and outright lies".[137]

In 2014, he was named alumnus of the year by Wheaton College.[20]

In 2016, Craig was named Alumnus of the Year by Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.[138]

Selected publications


See also



  1. ^ Craig's own version of the Kalām argument is succinct: 1. 'Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.' 2. 'The universe began to exist,' i.e., the temporal regress of events is finite. 3. 'Therefore the universe has a cause of its existence' Following Ghazali, Craig argues that this cause must be a personal will. Nothing but the arbitrary choice of a free agent could explain why the world was created at one time rather than another, or (if time comes into being with the first event) why the first event did not have a predecessor.[54]
  2. ^ When Craig says that God is timeless "prior to" the creation of time, the relevant notion of priority is not supposed to be temporal, as there is no time temporally prior to the first moment of time. Rather, Craig means to suggest that God is prior to time in some non-temporal sense that is difficult to specify, and which involves the idea that God was the cause of the universe. Several philosophers have argued that Craig's notion of non-temporal priority is not clear.[98][94][100] Craig has attempted to clarify his view in response.[101]


  1. ^ Craig & Carroll 2016, p. 102.
  2. ^ "The Mechanics of Neo-Apollinarian Christology".
  3. ^ "Neo-Apollinarianism and Mind/Body Dualism". April 12, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d Murashko, Alex (February 5, 2014). "Leading Apologist William Lane Craig to Join Houston Baptist U's School of Christian Thought Faculty". The Christian Post. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist: How William Lane Craig Became Christian Philosophy's Boldest Apostle". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  6. ^ Reichenbach (2017). "In his widely discussed writings William Lane Craig marshals multidisciplinary evidence for the truth of the premises found in the kalām argument.... [much more discussion follows]"
  7. ^ Sun, Eryn (September 30, 2011). "Dawkins defends decision not to debate apologist William Lane Craig". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2019-06-12. ...[Craig is] the leading Christian apologist, famous for his revival of the Kalam cosmological argument which asserts that God caused the universe to first exist.
  8. ^ Horn, Trent (July 17, 2013). "New Support for the Cosmological Argument". catholic.com. Retrieved 2019-06-12. Although the argument fell into relatively obscurity after it was promoted in the Middle Ages, it received new life through William Lane Craig's 1979 book The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Craig has become the argument's leading proponent, and thanks to his famous debates with atheists that end up on YouTube, the kalam argument has become well-known and is vigorously dissected by critics.
  9. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 212.
  10. ^ a b Habermas 1988.
  11. ^ a b Craig 2016.
  12. ^ McNabb, Tyler Dalton. "Review of God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism by William Lane Craig". Journal of Biblical and Theological Studies. ISSN 2572-2832.
  13. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Does the Problem of Material Constitution Illuminate the Doctrine of the Trinity?". Retrieved 2019-07-10. I am the second child of Mallory and Doris Craig...
  14. ^ Craig, William Lane (February 5, 2018). "Questions on Certainty and Debate". Retrieved 2019-07-22. But that doesn't undermine my knowledge that I was born in Peoria, Illinois and raised in Keokuk, Iowa.
  15. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Debating". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2014-05-08.
  16. ^ "Records and History – Original Oratory". Illinois High School Association. Retrieved 2015-05-27.
  17. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". La Mirada, California: Biola University. Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-05-05.
  18. ^ "William Lane Craig and Sean McDowell". Fervr. Retrieved 2014-05-11.
  19. ^ Craig, William Lane (November 5, 2007). "Faith and Doubt". Retrieved 2019-07-10. To speak personally, I myself was not raised in an evangelical home, but I became a Christian my third year of high school.
  20. ^ a b c d "Dr. William Lane Craig Named Alumnus of the Year". Wheaton, Illinois: Wheaton College. May 7, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2014-05-11.
  21. ^ a b Schneider, Nathan (July 12, 2013). "7 Habits of a Highly Effective Philosopher". Killing the Buddha. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
  22. ^ a b Craig, William Lane. "Double Doctorates". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on 2014-05-12. Retrieved 2014-05-10.
  23. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  24. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". calvin.edu. Calvin College. Retrieved 2019-04-09.
  25. ^ Cramer, David C. "John Hick (1922—2012)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. Retrieved 2019-06-12. Many of [Hick's] former students are now established Christian philosophers in their own right, including ... William Lane Craig...
  26. ^ "The Cadbury Lectures 2015: God Over All Back to 'The Cadbury lectures' 16 March - 20 March 2015". University of Birmingham. Retrieved 2019-07-22. Hosted by the John Hick Centre for Philosophy of Religion. Our theme for 2015 is 'God Over All', and will consist of a series of lectures given by Professor William Lane Craig (Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University; PhD University of Birmingham 1977).
  27. ^ a b "Humboldt Network: Prof. Dr. William L. Craig". Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung/Foundation. Archived from the original on 2019-07-16. Retrieved 2019-07-16. Host(s) and host institute(s) during Humboldt sponsorship: Prof. Dr. Wolfhart Pannenberg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München; Start of first sponsorship: 01.01.1978
  28. ^ Craig, William Lane (1985). The historical argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist controversy. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780889468115. OCLC 925034139.
  29. ^ Pearson, Samuel C. (October 1988). "Book Review: The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist Controversy. William L. Craig". The Journal of Religion. 68 (4). The University of Chicago Press: 595. doi:10.1086/487941. In this large study, which apparently grew out of a dissertation prepared under the supervision of Wolfhart Pannenberg...
  30. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2019-06-12. Craig earned master's degrees from TEDS in philosophy of religion, as well as in church history and the history of Christian thought. He taught philosophy of religion at TEDS from 1980–1986.
  31. ^ a b Craig, William Lane (2000). "Author Bio". The Only Wise God: The Compatibility of Divine Foreknowledge & Human Freedom (Reprint edition (January 2000) ed.). Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1579103163. From 1980 to 1986 he taught philosophy of religion at Trinity, during which time he and Jan started their family. In 1987 they moved to Brussels, Belgium, where Dr. Craig pursued research at the University of Louvain until 1994.
  32. ^ "Contributors". International Philosophical Quarterly. 33. Fordham University Press: 142. 1993. William Lane Craig is a visiting scholar at the Inst. Supérieur de Philosophie at the Catholic Univ. of Louvain (B-3000 Leuven, Belgium), PhD from Univ. of Birmingham (Eng.) and DTh from the Univ. of Munich, he taught at Westmont College and is a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Siftung. Interested in Philosophy of Religion and of Space and Time, he includes in his publications the books The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom.
  33. ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (December 21, 2018). "Professor, Was Jesus Really Born to a Virgin?". The New York Times. p. SR23. Retrieved 2019-06-12. Here's my interview of William Lane Craig, professor of philosophy at Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University.
  34. ^ Wu, Joanna (Spring 2017). "William Lane Craig Named in Biola's First Endowed Chair". Biola Magazine. La Mirada, California: Biola University. p. 15. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  35. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 213.
  36. ^ Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 74:2. November 2000. p. 162.
  37. ^ "Reasonable Faith Inc". Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. May 9, 2013. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  38. ^ Craig, William Lane; Harris, Kevin (March 3, 2019). "Dr Craig's Interview in the New York Times". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 2019-08-05. That's one of the reasons we founded Reasonable Faith over ten years ago
  39. ^ "Dr. William Lane Craig Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Reasonable Faith.
  40. ^ "William Lane Craig". moodypublishers.com. September 17, 2021. Retrieved 2021-09-17.
  41. ^ Craig, William Lane (1988). "Tachyons, Time Travel, and Divine Omniscience". The Journal of Philosophy. 85 (3): 135–150. doi:10.2307/2027068. JSTOR 2027068.
  42. ^ "Search: 'William Lane Graig'". The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Retrieved 2021-10-02.
  43. ^ Craig, William Lane (1994). "Robert Adams's New Anti-Molinist Argument". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 54 (4): 857–861. doi:10.2307/2108416. ISSN 0031-8205. JSTOR 2108416.
  44. ^ Craig, William Lane (2001). "Wishing It Were Now Some Other Time". Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 62 (1): 159–166. doi:10.2307/2653594. ISSN 0031-8205. JSTOR 2653594.
  45. ^ Craig, William Lane (August 1, 1992). "Hasker on divine knowledge". Philosophical Studies. 67 (2): 89–110. doi:10.1007/BF00373692. ISSN 1573-0883. S2CID 170646419.
  46. ^ Craig, William Lane (December 1, 1991). "Theism and Big Bang cosmology". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 69 (4): 492–503. doi:10.1080/00048409112344901. ISSN 0004-8402.
  47. ^ Craig, William L. (December 1, 1996). "Timelessness and creation". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 74 (4): 646–656. doi:10.1080/00048409612347581. ISSN 0004-8402.
  48. ^ Craig, William L. (June 1, 1979). "Wallace matson and the crude cosmological argument". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 57 (2): 163–170. doi:10.1080/00048407912341171. ISSN 0004-8402.
  49. ^ Craig, W. Lane (March 1, 2001). "McTaggart's Paradox and Temporal Solipsism". Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 79 (1): 32–44. doi:10.1080/713659176. ISSN 0004-8402. S2CID 170081930.
  50. ^ "Search". place.asburyseminary.edu. Retrieved 2020-02-04.
  51. ^ Craig, W. L. (May 1, 1994). "Prof. Grünbaum on creation". Erkenntnis. 40 (3): 325–341. doi:10.1007/BF01128902. ISSN 1572-8420. S2CID 55902279.
  52. ^ Craig, William L. (January 1, 1998). "Theism and the Origin of the Universe". Erkenntnis. 48 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1023/A:1005360931186. ISSN 1572-8420. S2CID 170022778.
  53. ^ Craig, William Lane (1997). "Is Presentness a Property?". American Philosophical Quarterly. 34 (1): 27–40. ISSN 0003-0481. JSTOR 20009884.
  54. ^ a b c Wainwright 1982, p. 328.
  55. ^ Cowan & Spiegel 2009, pp. 268–269; Jackson 2014, p. 19; Peterson et al. 2013, pp. 86–89; Reichenbach 2017; Williams 2013, p. 89.
  56. ^ "Who's Who: Modern Authors: William Lane Craig (Entry 2)". Philosophy of Religion.info. Retrieved 2016-10-16.
  57. ^ a b c d Reichenbach 2017.
  58. ^ Smith 2007, p. 183.
  59. ^ Oppy 2006, p. 137.
  60. ^ Copan, Paul; Craig, William Lane (November 16, 2017). The Kalam Cosmological Argument, Volume 1. Bloomsberry Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9781501330803.
  61. ^ Le Poidevin, Robin (2003). Arguing for Atheism: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. ISBN 9781134871117.
  62. ^ a b Wainwright 1982, p. 329.
  63. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, p. [page needed].
  64. ^ Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 103.
  65. ^ Wainwright 1982, p. 333.
  66. ^ Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 117.
  67. ^ Morriston 2000.
  68. ^ Quinn, Philip I. (2003). "God, Existence Of". In van Huyssteen, J Wentzel Vrede (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Thomson-Gale. pp. 381–382. ISBN 9780028657042.
  69. ^ McGrath, Alister E. (2009). Science and Religion: A New Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405187909. This form of the kalam argument has been widely debated in recent years. One of its most significant defenders has been William Lane Craig...
  70. ^ Grünbaum, Adolf (1994). "Some Comments on William Craig's "Creation and Big Bang Cosmology"". Philosophia Naturalis. 31 (2): 225–236.
  71. ^ Smith 2007, pp. 192–194.
  72. ^ Morriston 2013.
  73. ^ Morriston 2018.
  74. ^ Oppy 2006, pp. 137–153.
  75. ^ Loke 2017.
  76. ^ Koons 2014.
  77. ^ Pruss 2018.
  78. ^ Copan & Craig 2017a.
  79. ^ Copan & Craig 2017b.
  80. ^ Perszyk 2013, p. 755.
  81. ^ Beyond Dordt and 'De Auxiliis' : the dynamics of Protestant and Catholic soteriology in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Ballor, Jordan J. (Jordan Joseph),, Gaetano, Matthew T., Sytsma, David S. Leiden: Brill. 2019. pp. 103–26, 148–68. ISBN 978-90-04-37711-0. OCLC 1107692846.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  82. ^ Perszyk 2013, p. 755-756.
  83. ^ Perszyk 2013, p. 765.
  84. ^ Craig 1985b.
  85. ^ Habermas, Gary R. (2005). "Resurrection Research From 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying?". Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus. 3 (2): 135–153. doi:10.1177/1476869005058192. S2CID 162213884.
  86. ^ Craig 1989.
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