|Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz|
Wladyslaw Turowicz's photo at Monument of Air Cdre Władysław Turowicz in Karachi
23 April 1908|
Wadziejewsko, Siberia, Russian Empire
|Died||8 January 1980
Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
|Alma mater||Warsaw Polytechnic, Poland|
|Doctoral advisor||Dr. Antoni Kocjan|
|Notable students||Abdul Majid (physicist)|
|Known for||Pakistan's Space Program
Pakistan Air Force pioneer
Missile and Rocket Technology
|Influenced||Dr. Ryszard Bartel|
|Notable awards||Sitara-e-Pakistan (1965)
Sitara-i-Imtiaz (Mil) (1972)
Abdus Salam Award in Aeronautical Engineering (1978)
ICTP Award in Space Physics (1979)
Turowicz was the administrator of Pakistan's Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) from 1967 to 1970. He was one of forty five Polish officers and airmen who joined RPAF on contract in the early fifties. After completion of his initial contract, Turowicz opted to stay on in Pakistan and continued to serve in PAF and later, SUPARCO.
Turowicz made significant contributions to Pakistan's missile/rocket program as a chief aeronautical engineer. In Pakistan, he remains highly respected as a scientist and noted aeronautical engineer.
Early life and education
Turowicz was born to an aristocratic family in the village of Wadziejewsko in Siberia (Russia) in 1908, where he graduated from high school. The Polish name of the village may suggest it was inhabited by Poles who were exiled or imprisoned by the Tsar, as it was unusual for Polish aristocrats to live in Siberia for non-political reasons. From an early age on, Turowicz was fascinated by aviation technology and had collected different models of aircraft. Due to this passion, he moved to Warsaw where he attended the most prestigious engineering institute, the Warsaw University of Technology (WTU) in 1920, majoring in aeronautical engineering; upon graduation, he received his PhD with honours in 1926. While at Warsaw University of Technology, Turowicz joined and became a pioneering member of a Aeroklub Polski (better known as Polish Aero Club) where he had previliged to study and work with noted Polish engineers to the field of aerospace engineering. A distinguished member of Polski Club, he had an opportunity to study and work with Ryszard Bartel, Jerzy Drzewiecki, Henry Millicer, to name a few. It was here at the Aero Club that Turowicz met his future wife, Zofia Turowicz with whom he would have 4 children. In addition, he completed an MSc in astrodynamics in 1927 from the same institution. He joined the Polish Air Force as an aeronautical engineer and fighter pilot, but later emigrated to United Kingdom where he joined the Royal Air Force in 1930 as a reservist Polish pilot.
World War II and RAF career
Though initially joining the Polish Air Force, Turowicz enlisted as a Royal Air Force reservist during World War II. He was immediately sent to Great Britain where he flew the British-built Handley Page Halifax during the war. Later, he was transferred into the Royal Air Force Aeronautics division where he served as Technical Inspector, and was put in charge of aircraft electrical and system information, organising, testing, and evaluating aircraft. After World War II, Turowicz did not return to Poland due to the official negative attitude towards those who had served with the Allied Forces during the war.
Career with Pakistan Air Force
As the political situation in Poland got worse, many Polish Air Force officers began to move to United States, Australia, Norway and Canada. Turowicz and 45 of his colleagues opted to move to Pakistan in 1948 on a three-year contract.
Turowicz set up technical institutes in Karachi. He taught and revitalised Pakistan Air Force Academy, where he worked as a chief scientist. He initially led the technical training in the airbase and a part of the Polish specialists in the technical section in Karachi.
In 1952, Turowicz was promoted to the rank of wing commander. In 1959, Turowicz was promoted in the rank of group captain. In 1960, he became an air commodore and an assistant chief of air staff, in charge of PAF's Maintenance Branch.
|Air Cdre Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz|
|Nickname(s)||Air Cdre Wlady|
|Service/branch|| Pakistan Air Force (1947–1980)
Royal Air Force (1930–1947)
Polish Air Force (1927–1930)
|Years of service||1927–1980|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
|Other work||Administrator and chief scientist at SUPARCO|
Pakistan's Space Program
In 1966, the Government of Pakistan transferred him to SUPARCO, Pakistan's national space agency, where he worked there as a chief scientist and an aeronautical engineer. He, along with noted Pakistani theoretical physicist, Dr. Abdus Salam, who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, met with President Khan where he successfully convinced him of the importance of a space program for a developing country like Pakistan after Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik.
He along with Dr. Salam travelled through to the United States to reach a space-co-operation agreement. He successfully convinced the United States Government to invest and train Pakistan's scientists in the field of rocket technology.
Turowicz was appointed head of SUPARCO in 1967 by the Government of Pakistan. As the administrator, he revitalised and initiated the space program as quickly as possible. As a noted aeronautical engineer, Air. Cdre. Władysław Turowicz upgraded Sonmiani Satellite Launch Centre in which he was responsible for installing Flight-Test Control Command, Launch Pad Control System and System Engineering Division.
Turowicz started a project for the fabrication and launch of a Pakistani satellite. As a result, Pakistan mastered the field of rocket technology by the end of the 1970s. He also set up the educational engineering institute at the SUPARCO.
Zofia, Turowicz's wife, and his two daughters joined him in Karachi in 1949, where a third daughter was born. Between 1950 and 1954, Zofia taught gliding to the Shaheen Air Cadets in Karachi and Rawalpindi. Two of his daughters married Pakistanis while the third daughter married a Bangladeshi. His widow, Zofia Turowicz, who died in 2012, was awarded the Pride of Performance and Sitara-i-Imtiaz, and taught applied mathematics and particle physics at the Karachi University. Turowicz's son is currently working at the SUPARCO as an aerospace engineer and chief scientist.
A documentary film on the life and scientific work of Air Cdre Władysław Turowicz was completed in 2008. It was directed by Anna T. Pietraszek, a Polish journalist and film-maker with an honorary Pakistani citizenship. The film shows how Air Cdre Turowicz and other Polish officers and technicians had contributed in building the PAF and SUPARCO soon after independence.
Death and Legacy
Air. Cdre. Turowicz was involved in a car accident on 8 January 1980 along with his driver. He was quickly taken to the military hospital where he was pronounced dead. He was buried in the Christian Cemetery in Karachi with full military honours. Both Polish, including the Consul-General of Poland in Karachi Mr. Kazimierz Maurer, and Pakistani military and civilian personnel attended his funeral in Karachi. The Government of Pakistan issued a condolence letter to his family, stating that Turowicz was not only an outstanding Air Force officer, but also a scientist, and had served in the country's space program.
Honours and Recognitions
In 2005, PAF Museum, Karachi, placed a memorial plaque in the honour of Air. Cdre. Władysław Turowicz where both Polish and Pakistani civilian and military personnel attended. On this occasion the Consul General of the Republic of Poland in Karachi Ireneusz Makles profoundly thanked the PAF and especially Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman and other officers for their efforts to make this memorial a reality.
- Władysław Turowicz Monument (PAF Museum, Karachi).
- Władysław Turowicz Space Complex (SUPARCO), Lahore Center.
- Sitara-e-Pakistan (1965)
- Tamgha-i-Pakistan (1967)
- Sitara-i-Khidmat (1967)
- Sitara-e-Quaid-e-Azam (1971)
- Sitara-e-Imtiaz, (Mil) (1972)
- Abdus Salam Award in Aeronautical Engineering (1978)
- ICTP Award in Space Physics (1979)
- Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
- Sonmiani Satellite Launch Center
- Polish Air Force
- Pakistan Air Force
- Abdul Majid (physicist)
- Abdus Salam
- "Z RAF do RPAF – polscy lotnicy na niebie Pakistanu" (in Polish). 16 November 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- Dawn 3 October 2016
- "Life Sketch of Air Commodore Wladyslaw Turowicz of Pakistan Air Force". Pakistani Aviation Forum. 6 January 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2009.
- Hyatt, Ishrat (24 July 2009). "BRAVEHEART". All Voices. Com. Ishrat Hyaat.
- Laskowska, Natalia; Hali, S. M. (2 October 2016). "Pakistan’s Polish Patriot". Dawn. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
- Consulate General of Poland in Karachi IM