Welcome to the Poland Portal — Witaj w Portalu o Polsce
From Polish history
|The Second Partition of Poland in 1793 was the second of three partial annexations that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the end of the 18th century. It was a result of the Polish–Russian War of 1792, in which the Targowica Confederation overturned the progressive Constitution of 1791. The Russian Empire took 250,000 km2 (97,000 sq mi) of the Commonwealth's eastern territories, now belonging to Belarus and Ukraine, while the Kingdom of Prussia gained Danzig (Gdańsk) and 58,000 km2 (22,000 sq mi) of western Poland, which it renamed South Prussia. Poland was left as a rump state of 215,000 km2 (83,000 sq mi). Under Russian pressure, the partition was ratified by Poland at the Grodno Sejm in a short-lived attempt to prevent a complete annexation of Poland, which eventually did happen in the Third Partition in 1795.
Did you know
You can help!
|Jan Zamoyski (1542–1605) was a Polish magnate who served as both grand chancellor and grand hetman of the Crown. As such, he commanded both civilian and military power in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and is considered one of the most prominent statesmen in Polish history. He was also one of the richest people in his country; lands either owned or leased by him covered more than 17,000 km2 (6,600 sq mi) with 23 towns and 816 villages. In 1589 he established the Zamoyski Family Fee Tail, which existed until 1944. His principal seat and most prized creation was Zamość, a fortified town he founded. Designed as a Renaissance ideal city, it was home to Zamojski Academy, Poland's third oldest university. Despite his wealth and power, in politcs Zamoyski led the faction of lesser and middle nobility in support of the "enforcement of laws" movement, which earned him the moniker "Polish Gracchus". He also supported the idea of royal elections open to all Polish nobles and advised the first elective kings, Henry and Stephen, but fell out with Sigismund III. In war – against Muscovy, the Ottomans and Sweden – he employed tactics based on sieges, flanking maneuvers, fortification, artillery, and the principle of conserving his forces.
Chorzów is a city on the Rawa River in Upper Silesia and part of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union, Poland's largest conurbation. Originally called Königshütte in German and Królewska Huta in Polish (both meaning "Royal Iron Works"), it was renamed Chorzów after a merger with a village of that name in 1934. Chorzów used to be one of the most important cities of the Upper Silesian Industrial Region with extensive industry in coal mining, steel, chemistry, manufacturing, and energy sectors. As heavy-industry establishments were either closed or scaled down, or restructured and modernized, the city has been evolving towards service economy. Chorzów is nationally famous for its Silesian Central Park, complete with amusement grounds, a cable line railway, a zoo, a sports stadium, and the largest and oldest planetarium in Poland (pictured).
Holidays and observances in October 2018
(statutory public holidays in bold)
Archive and more...
Wikipedias in the languages of Poland