100 metres at the Olympics

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100 metres
at the Olympic Games
Usain Bolt winning-cropped.jpg
The 2008 Olympic men's 100 m final
Overview
Sport Athletics
Gender Men and women
Years held Men: 18962012
Women: 19282012
Olympic record
Men 9.63 Usain Bolt (2012)
Women 10.62 Florence Griffith-Joyner (1988)
Reigning champion
Men  Usain Bolt (JAM)
Women  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)

The 100 metres at the Summer Olympics has been contested since the first edition of the multi-sport event. The men's 100 m has been present on the Olympic athletics programme since 1896 and the women's 100 m has been held continuously since its introduction at the 1928 Games. The 100 metres is considered one of the blue ribbon events of the Olympics and is among the highest profile competitions at the games. It is the most prestigious 100 m race at elite level and is the shortest sprinting competition at the Olympics – a position it has held at every edition except for a brief period between 1900 to 1904, when a men's 60 metres was contested.[1]

The first Olympic champions were both Americans: Thomas Burke in the men's category and, 32 years later, Betty Robinson in the women's category. The most recent winners of the event, at the 2012 Summer Olympics, were Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce – the two Jamaican athletes both successfully defended their titles from the 2008 Beijing Olympics.[2][3] The Olympic records for the event are 9.63 seconds, set by Bolt in 2012, and 10.62 seconds, set by Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988.[4][5][6] The world records for the event have been equalled or broken during the Olympics on seven occasions in the men's category and on twelve occasions in the women's.

Among the competing nations, the United States has had the most success in this event, having won sixteen golds in the men's race and nine in the women's race. Five athletes have won back-to-back titles: Wyomia Tyus (1964–68), Carl Lewis (1984–88), Gail Devers (1992–96), Usain Bolt (2008–12), and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (2008–12). Merlene Ottey is the only athlete to win three medals, with her one silver and two bronze medals.[2][3] Many athletes that compete in this event also compete individually in the Olympic 200 metres and with their national teams in the Olympic 4×100 metres relay. African-American and Afro-Caribbean men and women have had particular success in the Olympic event since the mid-20th century. The last male finalist who was not of predominantly African heritage was Allan Wells in 1980; Wells was Olympic champion that year.

Two of the highest profile doping scandals have involved the Olympic 100 m competition: Ben Johnson won the 1988 Olympic 100 m title in a world record time of 9.79 seconds but was later stripped of the titles after failing a drug test. Marion Jones was the 2000 women's Olympic 100 m gold medallist but had her results annulled after admitting to using performance-enhancing drugs during her Olympic victory. These controversies have affected public perceptions of drug usage among sprint athletes, as well as track and field and the Olympics in general.


Competition format[edit]

Women competing in the first round of the Olympic 100 m in 2012

The Olympic 100 metres competitions are carried out under standard international rules, as set by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). The races are segregated by gender, with one for men and one for women.[7] The 100 m is usually held at the beginning of the Olympic athletics programme as this allows athletes to compete in other events held later at the games – many 100 m athletes also compete in the 200 metres and the 4×100 metres relay events.[8]

Traditionally there are four rounds of competition: heats, quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals. Prior to 1964, finals featured six athletes.[9] For all Olympic competitions from 1964 onwards—allowing for a sufficient number of athletes being present—each race features eight runners.[10] Athletes are seeded by past performance to ensure an even balance of quality across the heats and allow the best runners to progress to the later stages. Usually in the first two rounds the top three runners progress to the next stage. A small number of other athletes also progress as the fastest non-qualifiers (or "fastest losers") through a repechage system. Prior to 2012, the semi-finals stage comprised two races of eight athletes and the top four finishers in each race (regardless of time) were entered into the final.[11]

The 2012 women's Olympic 100 m medalists

Several amendments were made to the competition format in 2012. Any participant not in possession of an Olympic qualifying standard time is entered into the preliminary round. Qualifiers in this round progress to the first round proper. The semi-finals stage is divided into three races: the top two progress to the final by right and the two fastest non-qualifiers complete the eight finalists. Changes to the international false start rules were also introduced – any validly recorded reaction time to the starter's pistol of below 0.1 seconds will result in instant disqualification.[11] At the 2004 and 2008 Olympics one false start was allowed per race, with any subsequent false start resulting in disqualification for the offending athletes. At Olympics prior to 2004 each athlete was allowed one false start, with a second false start leading to removal from the field.[12][13]

The top three finishers in the final are awarded a gold, silver and bronze medal, respectively. If runners cannot be separated by their time (recorded to one hundredth of a second) further analysis is used to distinguish their times to the thousandth of a second. In the 2008 Women's 100 m final the minor medalists Sherone Simpson and Kerron Stewart could not be separated by this method and were both awarded the silver medal.[14] Medal positions in a 100 m race have only been shared on one other occasion in Olympic history: Alajos Szokolyi and Francis Lane were joint third at the 1896 men's final.[15] If it is subsequently found that an athlete broke the competition rules then the IOC may strip athletes of their Olympic medals. This has occurred twice in the 100 m: Ben Johnson was awarded gold at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but was soon disqualified after his post-race drug test was positive for banned substances.[16] The 2000 women's Olympic champion Marion Jones held her medal for a longer period, and was only disqualified seven years later after admitting to doping during that period.[17]

Participation[edit]

Starting with 15 men from eight nations at the inaugural 1896 Olympic 100 m, participation in the event reached its peak at the 2000 Sydney Games, where 179 male and female athletes from 100 nations were present. The number of competitors and nations in the event has seen an increasing historical trend. This increase has been mostly linear, though participation dropped slightly in the 1904 and 1932 Olympics hosted in the United States (reflecting greater travel costs) and was also affected by the Olympic boycotts of 1976, 1980 and 1984. The linear trend stopped after the 2000 peak and has steadily decreased in subsequent Summer Olympics.[2][3]

Qualifying standards
Year Men "A" Men "B" Women "A" Women "B"
2000 10.27 10.40 11.40 11.60
2004 10.21 10.28 11.30 11.40
2008 10.21 10.28 11.32 11.42
2012 10.18 10.24 11.29 11.38

Men's participation reached its highest at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, which featured 104 men from 75 nations. Women's participation began in 1928, with 31 women from 13 nations competing, and reached an all-time high at the 2008 Beijing Games, which had 85 women representing 69 nations. The 2008 and 2012 editions reversed the historical gender bias towards male participation, as women outnumbered men at the Olympic 100 m for the first time.[2][3]

As the governing body for the sport of athletics, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) applies qualifying standards to the competition. This aims to encourage high level performances at the Olympic Games and contain the number of potential entries (the IAAF aims to cap Olympic participation in athletics events at 2000 athletes). There are two types of qualifying standard: the "A" standard and the "B" standard. Each National Olympic Committee (NOC) may enter up to three athletes who have obtained the "A" standard, or one athlete with the "B" standard. If a NOC has no qualifying athletes in any Olympic athletic event, it may enter one non-qualified athlete – the 100 m is a frequent choice for this type of entry given the brevity of the event. Athletes must achieve the qualifying time without wind-assistance at an officially authorised event within a certain time period, which typically begins from the year prior to the Olympics and extends up to three weeks before the games. The IAAF prohibits entrants who do not reach the age of sixteen in that Olympic year, but there is no upper age limit. The IAAF qualifying standards for the 100 m have become progressively more stringent since 2000.[18][19][20][21]

On top of IAAF standards, national governing bodies may apply their own participation restrictions. These principally come in four forms: stricter national qualifying times, reduced time periods for qualifying performances,[22] performances in the event at a national Olympic trials, and decisions of national selection committees. Smaller nations do not typically apply these additional criteria due to the smaller numbers of sprinters eligible to compete. Larger nations, and nations with strong traditions in sprinting, often have long-running histories of Olympic 100 m trials (such as at the United States Olympic Trials). Participation for a country also demands that the athlete hold respective citizenship and is not subject to a competitive ban through anti-doping rules.[23]

Year No. of
men
Nations
(men)
No. of
women
Nations
(women)
Total
athletes
Total
nations
Men's champion Women's champion
1896[15] 15 8 N/A N/A 15 8  Thomas Burke (USA) N/A
1900[24] 20 9 N/A N/A 20 9  Frank Jarvis (USA) N/A
1904[25] 11 3 N/A N/A 11 3  Archie Hahn (USA) N/A
1908[26] 42 13 N/A N/A 42 13  Reggie Walker (RSA) N/A
1912[27] 70 22 N/A N/A 70 22  Ralph Craig (USA) N/A
1920[28] 60 22 N/A N/A 60 22  Charlie Paddock (USA) N/A
1924[29] 86 34 N/A N/A 86 34  Harold Abrahams (GBR) N/A
1928[30][31] 76 32 31 13 107 35  Percy Williams (CAN)  Betty Robinson (USA)
1932[32][33] 33 17 20 10 51 19  Eddie Tolan (USA)  Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)
1936[34][35] 61 30 30 15 91 33  Jesse Owens (USA)  Helen Stephens (USA)
1948[36][37] 61 33 38 21 99 39  Harrison Dillard (USA)  Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)
1952[38][39] 70 33 56 27 126 41  Lindy Remigino (USA)  Marjorie Jackson (AUS)
1956[40][41] 63 31 34 16 97 34  Bobby Morrow (USA)  Betty Cuthbert (AUS)
1960[9][42] 59 45 31 18 90 50  Armin Hary (EUA)  Wilma Rudolph (USA)
1964[10][43] 71 49 44 27 115 56  Bob Hayes (USA)  Wyomia Tyus (USA)
1968[44][45] 63 42 42 22 105 48  Jim Hines (USA)  Wyomia Tyus (USA)
1972[46][47] 83 55 47 33 130 68  Valeriy Borzov (URS)  Renate Stecher (GDR)
1976[48][49] 61 40 39 22 100 45  Hasely Crawford (TRI)  Annegret Richter (FRG)
1980[50][51] 63 41 40 25 103 46  Allan Wells (GBR)  Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)
1984[52][53] 80 59 46 33 126 68  Carl Lewis (USA)  Evelyn Ashford (USA)
1988[54][55] 100 69 64 42 164 85  Carl Lewis (USA)  Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)
1992[56][57] 79 66 54 41 133 86  Linford Christie (GBR)  Gail Devers (USA)
1996[58][59] 104 75 56 38 160 89  Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Gail Devers (USA)
2000[60][61] 95 71 84 63 179 100  Maurice Greene (USA) Vacated[62]
2004[63][64] 80 62 63 51 143 89  Justin Gatlin (USA)  Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)
2008[65][66] 78 64 85 69 163 96  Usain Bolt (JAM)  Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)
2012[67][68] 72 61 79 65 151 92  Usain Bolt (JAM)  Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)
Data notes
  • Numbers do not include non-starting athletes. There have been two Olympic 100 m non-starters: Estonia's Reinhold Saulmann in 1920, and Kim Collins in 2012 – the latter was banned from competing by the St. Kitts and Nevis Olympic Committee for defying their orders and leaving the Olympic camp to stay with his wife.[69]
  • Nations are above defined as the competing Olympic team as opposed to athletes' legal nationalities – the various Unified teams and Independent Olympian teams are thus each treated as one nation at that Olympic Games.

Biological factors[edit]

Age[edit]

The 100 m requires a high level of athleticism and as a result most of the participants in the Olympics are aged between 18 and 35 – which is roughly contiguous with the period of peak physical fitness in humans.[70] Consequently, the vast majority of participants in the Olympic 100 m fall within this age range.[67][68]

The record for the youngest athlete to participate in the Olympic 100 m is held by Katura Marae, who was 14 when she represented Vanuatu at the 2004 Athens Olympics.[71] Merlene Ottey holds the records for both the oldest participant and the oldest medalist, having won bronze at age 40 in 2000 and reached the Olympic semi-finals four years later. (Ottey is also the most frequent participant having competed in the Olympic 100 m an unrivalled six times from 1984 to 2004).[72] The first women's champion, Betty Robinson in 1928, remains the youngest gold medalist for the event at 16 years old,[73] while a 32-year-old Linford Christie became the oldest 100 m Olympic champion in 1992.[74]

Distinction Male athlete Age Female athlete Age
Youngest champion Reggie Walker 19 years, 4 months, 6 days[75] Betty Robinson 16 years, 11 months, 8 days[73]
Youngest medalist Donald Lippincott 18 years, 7 months, 21 days[76] Betty Robinson 16 years, 11 months, 8 days[73]
Youngest participant Alphonse Yanghat 15 years, 3 months, 27 days[77] Katura Marae 14 years, 8 months, 17 days[71]
Oldest champion Linford Christie 32 years, 3 months, 30 days[74] Fanny Blankers-Koen 30 years, 3 months, 7 days[78]
Oldest medalist Linford Christie 32 years, 3 months, 30 days[74] Merlene Ottey 40 years, 4 months, 14 days[72]
Oldest participant Stefan Burkart 38 years, 10 months, 14 days[79] Merlene Ottey 44 years, 3 months, 11 days[72]

Gender[edit]

Since introduction of testing by the IAAF in the early-20th century, female sprinters may be subject to gender verification. This rule was first formally applied to the 100 m at the 1968 Mexico Olympics.[80] No 100 m sprinter has been publicly barred at an Olympic competition. However, there have been historic cases involving two women's medalists: 1932 champion Stanisława Walasiewicz and 1964 bronze medalist Ewa Kłobukowska, both of Poland. Walasiewicz endured accusations during her career due to her appearance, but was never subject to a test.[81] An autopsy following her death in a shooting revealed ambiguous genitalia.[82] Walasiewicz accused Helen Stephens (who beat her in the 1936 final) of being male and, despite there being no relevant rules on the matter, officials performed a physical examination of Stephens' external genitalia and concluded that she was female. Kłobukowska was not tested at the Olympics, thus did not lose her Olympic medals, but was subsequently disqualified at the 1967 European Cup on the basis of having a chromosomal mosaic.[81][83] Intersex athletes are restricted from competition in the 100 m without having undergone surgery and hormonal therapy, as a result of the 2003 Stockholm consensus ruling by the IOC.[84]

Race[edit]

All the runners in the 2012 Olympic men's 100 m final were either African-American or Afro-Caribbean
See also: Race and sports

Olympic 100 m medalists in the early editions of the Modern Olympic Games were principally white, Western sprinters of European descent, largely reflecting the make up of the nations that took part. As the Olympic competition began to attract wider international participation, athletes with African heritage began to reach the 100 m Olympic podium, particularly African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans.[85]

Eddie Tolan became the first non-white winner of the event in 1932 and this signified the start of a prolonged period of success by black male sprinters; since 1932 only five men's Olympic champions in the event have not had significant African heritage. The women's event was dominated by runners of European descent until Wilma Rudolph won the title in 1960. Soviet and German women returned to the podium in the period from 1972 to 1980, but since then African-American and Jamaican women have won the great majority of 100 m medals.[85] Dominance in the men's event has been particularly pronounced from 1984 to 2012, during which time all the men's Olympic 100 m finalists have been of African heritage.[86]

Most commentators attribute this statistical discrepancy to genetic rather than to cultural factors.[87][88][89]

Doping[edit]

All athletes who participate in the Olympic 100 m competition are subject to the World Anti-Doping Code –the IAAF and International Olympic Committee (IOC) are both signatories. Mandatory in-competition drug testing was introduced at the 1968 Summer Olympics.[16]

One of the most prominent cases of doping at the Olympics, and in sport as a whole, occurred during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. Ben Johnson entered the race as the reigning 100 metres world record holder and won the Olympic final, raising his arm in victory, in a new world record of 9.79 seconds to much fanfare. Soon after being awarded the gold medal the results of his post-race drug test revealed his urine contained traces of stanozolol (a banned steroid).[90] Johnson later admitted to doping, but he and his coach Charlie Francis still claimed he had his drink spiked at the Olympics, as Johnson was taking a different type of steroid at the time.[91] The positive test had long-lasting affects on public perception of the sport and advanced the case for more stringent drug testing. The Canadian government launched an investigation into drugs in sport, known as the Dubin Inquiry, the following year.[92] The 1988 Olympic men's 100 metres final has been referred to as "the dirtiest race in history", as only two of the eight finalists remained free of doping issues during their careers.[93]

Ekaterini Thanou, the 2000 women's silver medalist, was barred from the 2004 Athens Olympics after failing to attend a pre-competition drugs test (her third consecutive missed test). The Greek sprinter and her teammate Kostas Kenteris were convicted of staging a motorcycle crash to avoid the test, but this was overturned on appeal. Her doping ban remained as they admitted to having missed the tests.[94] Tameka Williams was banned from competing in the 100 m at the 2012 Olympics when, at the Olympic village, she admitted to the Saint Kitts and Nevis management team that she had ingesting a banned substance.[95] Bulgaria's Tezdzhan Naimova had her 2008 Olympic performance annulled and received a two-year ban after it was proved that she had tampered with her drug test a month prior to the competition.[96]

Marion Jones receiving one of her 2000 Olympic medals she would later be stripped of

Another high-profile doping case involved the 2000 Olympic women's 100 m champion Marion Jones, though no doping infractions occurred during the Olympics. Having been one of the stars of the games—she won three gold and two bronze medals in track and field events—Jones was later implicated in doping through the BALCO scandal. She lied to federal agents and a grand jury during questioning around the scandal, but later admitted in 2007 to using Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) during the period of her Olympic success.[17] The IOC annulled all her Olympic results, including her 100 m title. Given that the 2000 women's runner-up Ekaterini Thanou had herself been banned for drug usage, the IOC chose not to upgrade her to the gold medal position, but rather leave the position vacant.[97] Working around the dilemma, the IOC decided to raise bronze medallist Tayna Lawrence to joint silver and fourth-placed Merlene Ottey to the bronze medal position.[98]

In spite of the relatively few occasions in which 100 m sprinters have failed doping tests at the Olympics, numerous Olympic sprinters have been banned outside of the competition or implicated otherwise, including many medalists. Two-time Olympic champion Carl Lewis had a positive drug test for stimulants at the US Olympic trials covered up by the United States Olympic Committee.[99] The 1992 Olympic champion Linford Christie was banned for nandrolone later in his career.[100] Angel Guillermo Heredia accused the 2000 Olympic champion Maurice Greene of doping; Greene denied this but admitted to paying for "stuff" for his training mates.[101] Justin Gatlin, the men's gold medallist in 2004, served a doping suspension both before and after his Olympic win, and returned to the podium at the 2012 Olympics.[102] The men's runner-up in 2012, Yohan Blake, was banned for consuming a stimulant in 2009.[103]

On the women's side, the Olympic 100 m was affected by state-sponsored doping in East Germany. Stasi documents released after the fall of the Berlin Wall revealed extensive drug usage by Olympic sprinters, including the 1976 and 1980 silver medalists Renate Stecher and Marlies Göhr, as well as the 1988 bronze medalist Heike Drechsler.[104][105] Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, twice Olympic champion, received a six-month ban for taking a banned narcotic for pain relief.[106] The 2008 runner-up Sherone Simpson was banned in 2013 after a positive test for a stimulant and two-time bronze medalist Veronica Campbell-Brown failed a test for a diuretic that same year.[107] A fourth Jamaican medalist, Merlene Ottey, received a ban for the steroid nandrolone in 1999 but this was rescinded on appeal due to laboratory errors.[108][109]

Medal summary[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Thomas Burke (USA)  Fritz Hofmann (GER)  Francis Lane (USA)
 Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
1900 Paris
details
 Frank Jarvis (USA)  Walter Tewksbury (USA)  Stan Rowley (AUS)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Archie Hahn (USA)  Nate Cartmell (USA)  William Hogenson (USA)
1908 London
details
 Reggie Walker (RSA)  James Rector (USA)  Robert Kerr (CAN)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Ralph Craig (USA)  Alvah Meyer (USA)  Donald Lippincott (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Charlie Paddock (USA)  Morris Kirksey (USA)  Harry Edward (GBR)
1924 Paris
details
 Harold Abrahams (GBR)  Jackson Scholz (USA)  Arthur Porritt (NZL)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Percy Williams (CAN)  Jack London (GBR)  Georg Lammers (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Eddie Tolan (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Arthur Jonath (GER)
1936 Berlin
details
 Jesse Owens (USA)  Ralph Metcalfe (USA)  Tinus Osendarp (NED)
1948 London
details
 Harrison Dillard (USA)  Barney Ewell (USA)  Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Lindy Remigino (USA)  Herb McKenley (JAM)  McDonald Bailey (GBR)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Bobby Morrow (USA)  Thane Baker (USA)  Hector Hogan (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Armin Hary (EUA)  Dave Sime (USA)  Peter Radford (GBR)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Bob Hayes (USA)  Enrique Figuerola (CUB)  Harry Jerome (CAN)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Jim Hines (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)  Charles Greene (USA)
1972 Munich
details
 Valeriy Borzov (URS)  Robert Taylor (USA)  Lennox Miller (JAM)
1976 Montreal
details
 Hasely Crawford (TRI)  Don Quarrie (JAM)  Valeriy Borzov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Allan Wells (GBR)  Silvio Leonard (CUB)  Petar Petrov (BUL)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Sam Graddy (USA)  Ben Johnson (CAN)
1988 Seoul[110][111]
details
 Carl Lewis (USA)  Linford Christie (GBR)  Calvin Smith (USA)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Linford Christie (GBR)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Dennis Mitchell (USA)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Donovan Bailey (CAN)  Frankie Fredericks (NAM)  Ato Boldon (TRI)
2000 Sydney
details
 Maurice Greene (USA)  Ato Boldon (TRI)  Obadele Thompson (BAR)
2004 Athens
details
 Justin Gatlin (USA)  Francis Obikwelu (POR)  Maurice Greene (USA)
2008 Beijing
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Richard Thompson (TRI)  Walter Dix (USA)
2012 London
details
 Usain Bolt (JAM)  Yohan Blake (JAM)  Justin Gatlin (USA)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Lewis, CarlCarl Lewis  United States (USA) 1984–1988 2 0 0 2
1 Bolt, UsainUsain Bolt  Jamaica (JAM) 2008–2012 2 0 0 2
3 Christie, LinfordLinford Christie  Great Britain (GBR) 1988–1992 1 1 0 2
4 Borzov, ValeriyValeriy Borzov  Soviet Union (URS) 1972–1976 1 0 1 2
4 Greene, MauriceMaurice Greene  United States (USA) 2000–2004 1 0 1 2
4 Gatlin, JustinJustin Gatlin  United States (USA) 2004–2012 1 0 1 2
7 Metcalfe, RalphRalph Metcalfe  United States (USA) 1932–1936 0 2 0 2
7 Fredericks, FrankieFrankie Fredericks  Namibia (NAM) 1992–1996 0 2 0 2
9 Miller, LennoxLennox Miller  Jamaica (JAM) 1968–1972 0 1 1 2
9 Boldon, AtoAto Boldon  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI) 1996–2004 0 1 2

Medals by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 16 13 9 38
2  Great Britain (GBR) 3 2 4 9
3  Jamaica (JAM) 2 4 1 7
4  Canada (CAN) 2 0 3 5
5  Trinidad and Tobago (TRI) 1 2 1 4
6  Germany (GER) 1 1 2 4
7  Soviet Union (URS) 1 0 1 2
8  South Africa (RSA) 1 0 0 1
9=  Cuba (CUB) 0 2 0 2
9=  Namibia (NAM) 0 2 0 2
11  Portugal (POR) 0 1 0 1
12  Australia (AUS) 0 0 2 2
13=  Barbados (BAR) 0 0 1 1
13=  Bulgaria (BUL) 0 0 1 1
13=  Hungary (HUN) 0 0 1 1
13=  Netherlands (NED) 0 0 1 1
13=  New Zealand (NZL) 0 0 1 1
13=  Panama (PAN) 0 0 1 1
18 Totals 27 27 29 83

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Betty Robinson (USA)  Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN)  Ethel Smith (CAN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Hilda Strike (CAN)  Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Helen Stephens (USA)  Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)  Käthe Krauß (GER)
1948 London
details
 Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)  Dorothy Manley (GBR)  Shirley Strickland (AUS)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Marjorie Jackson (AUS)  Daphne Hasenjager (RSA)  Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Betty Cuthbert (AUS)  Christa Stubnick (EUA)  Marlene Matthews (AUS)
1960 Rome
details
 Wilma Rudolph (USA)  Dorothy Hyman (GBR)  Giuseppina Leone (ITA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Edith McGuire (USA)  Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Wyomia Tyus (USA)  Barbara Ferrell (USA)  Irena Szewińska (POL)
1972 Munich
details
 Renate Stecher (GDR)  Raelene Boyle (AUS)  Silvia Chibás (CUB)
1976 Montreal
details
 Annegret Richter (FRG)  Renate Stecher (GDR)  Inge Helten (FRG)
1980 Moscow
details
 Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)  Marlies Göhr (GDR)  Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Alice Brown (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
1988 Seoul
details
 Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)  Evelyn Ashford (USA)  Heike Drechsler (GDR)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Juliet Cuthbert (JAM)  Irina Privalova (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Gail Devers (USA)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)  Gwen Torrence (USA)
2000 Sydney
details
Vacant[112]  Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)  Merlene Ottey (JAM)
 Tayna Lawrence (JAM)
2004 Athens
details
 Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)  Lauryn Williams (USA)  Veronica Campbell (JAM)
2008 Beijing
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)  Sherone Simpson (JAM) none awarded
 Kerron Stewart (JAM)
2012 London
details
 Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)  Carmelita Jeter (USA)  Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Ottey, MerleneMerlene Ottey  Jamaica (JAM) 1984–2000 0 1 2 3
2= Tyus, WyomiaWyomia Tyus  United States (USA) 1964–1968 2 0 0 2
2= Devers, GailGail Devers  United States (USA) 1992–1996 2 0 0 2
2= Fraser-Pryce, Shelly-AnnShelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce  Jamaica (JAM) 2008–2012 2 0 0 2
5= Walasiewicz, StanisławaStanisława Walasiewicz  Poland (POL) 1932–1936 1 1 0 2
5= Stecher, RenateRenate Stecher  East Germany (GDR) 1972–1976 1 1 0 2
5= Ashford, EvelynEvelyn Ashford  United States (USA) 1984–1988 1 1 0 2
8= Strickland, ShirleyShirley Strickland  Australia (AUS) 1948–1952 0 0 2 2
8= Campbell-Brown, VeronicaVeronica Campbell-Brown  Jamaica (JAM) 2004–2012 0 0 2 2

Medals by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 9 6 2 17
2  Jamaica (JAM) 2 4 4 10
3  Australia (AUS) 2 1 3 6
4  East Germany (GDR) 1 2 2 5
5  Poland (POL) 1 1 2 4
6  West Germany (FRG) 1 0 1 2
7=  Belarus (BLR) 1 0 0 1
7=  Netherlands (NED) 1 0 0 1
7=  Soviet Union (URS) 1 0 0 1
10  Canada (CAN) 0 2 1 3
11  Great Britain (GBR) 0 2 0 2
12  Germany (GER)[nb1] 0 1 1 2
13=  Greece (GRE) 0 1 0 1
13=  South Africa (RSA) 0 1 0 1
15=  Cuba (CUB) 0 0 1 1
15=  Unified Team (EUN)[nb2] 0 0 1 1
15=  Italy (ITA) 0 0 1 1
17 Totals 19 21 19 59

Olympic record progression[edit]

The best time for the 100 m set during Olympic competition is known as the Olympic record. To count as an official record, the race and the equipment used must adhere to IAAF international rules. Hand-timed results were the standard until 1975, when fully automatic timing (FAT) became the preferred method for officially measuring athletes' times. Further to this wind conditions must be measured and any time achieved with a wind speed of over 2.0 metres per second in a direction behind the athlete is treated as wind-assisted and cannot be taken for an Olympic record mark.[115]

Since the first men's Olympic record of 12.2 seconds by Frank Lane in 1896, the record has been broken 13 times and matched 24 times. Twenty-eight men have been holder (or co-holder) of the record. Usain Bolt is the current record holder with 9.63, set in 2012. Further to this standing men's world record for the 100 m has been equalled five times in Olympic competition and improved twice (by Carl Lewis in 1988 with 9.92 and by Bolt in 2008 with 9.69). Ben Johnson's time of 9.79 was annulled before it was ratified as either an Olympic or world record.[115]

Since the initial women's Olympic record of 13.0 seconds was set by Anni Holdmann in 1928, it has been broken 18 times and equalled 17 further times. The standing women's 100 m world record has been improved five times during Olympic competition and equalled seven times.[115]

The tables below refer to hand-timing for races held prior to the 1972 Summer Olympics and to fully automatic times after that point, when they became the standard for the Olympics.[115] Hand-timed results that matched the Olympic record are treated as equalling the mark, with the exception of any athletes that matched that time but finished behind another athlete in their race.

Men[edit]

Thomas Curtis shared in the first Olympic record mark of 12.2 seconds.
Jesse Owens equalled Eddie Tolan's Olympic record of 10.3 in 1932.
After Ben Johnson's disqualification, Carl Lewis's time of 9.92 was established as the Olympic and world record time.
Time Athlete Nation Games Round Date
12.2 Lane, FrancisFrancis Lane  United States (USA) 1896 Heat 1 1896-04-06
12.2 Curtis, ThomasThomas Curtis  United States (USA) 1896 Heat 2 1896-04-06
11.8 Burke, TomTom Burke  United States (USA) 1896 Heat 3 1896-04-06
11.4 Duffey, ArthurArthur Duffey  United States (USA) 1900 Heat 1 1900-06-14
11.4 Tewksbury, WalterWalter Tewksbury  United States (USA) 1900 Heat 2 1900-06-14
10.8 =WR Jarvis, FrankFrank Jarvis  United States (USA) 1900 Heat 3 1900-06-14
10.8 =WR Tewksbury, WalterWalter Tewksbury  United States (USA) 1900 Semi-final 2 1900-06-14
10.8 Rector, JamesJames Rector  United States (USA) 1908 Heat 15 1908-07-20
10.8 Walker, ReggieReggie Walker  South Africa (RSA) 1908 Semi-final 1 1908-07-20
10.8 Rector, JamesJames Rector  United States (USA) 1908 Semi-final 3 1908-07-20
10.8 Walker, ReggieReggie Walker  South Africa (RSA) 1908 Final 1908-07-20
10.8 Jacobs, DavidDavid Jacobs  Great Britain (GBR) 1912 Heat 10 1912-07-06
10.6 Lippincott, DonaldDonald Lippincott  United States (USA) 1912 Heat 16 1912-07-06
10.6 Abrahams, HaroldHarold Abrahams  Great Britain (GBR) 1924 Quarter-final 4 1924-07-06
10.6 Abrahams, HaroldHarold Abrahams  Great Britain (GBR) 1924 Semi-final 2 1924-07-07
10.6 Abrahams, HaroldHarold Abrahams  Great Britain (GBR) 1924 Final 1924-07-07
10.6 Williams, PercyPercy Williams  Canada (CAN) 1928 Quarter-final 4 1928-07-29
10.6 McAllister, RobertRobert McAllister  United States (USA) 1928 Semi-final 1 1928-07-30
10.6 London, JackJack London  United States (USA) 1928 Semi-final 2 1928-07-30
10.6 Jonath, ArthurArthur Jonath  Germany (GER) 1932 Heat 3 1932-07-31
10.4 Tolan, EddieEddie Tolan  United States (USA) 1932 Quarter-final 1 1932-07-31
10.3 =WR Tolan, EddieEddie Tolan  United States (USA) 1932 Final 1932-08-01
10.3 Owens, JesseJesse Owens  United States (USA) 1936 Heat 1 1936-08-02
10.3 Dillard, HarrisonHarrison Dillard  United States (USA) 1948 Final 1948-07-31
10.3 Morrow, Bobby JoeBobby Joe Morrow  United States (USA) 1956 Quarter-final 1 1956-11-23
10.3 Murchison, IraIra Murchison  United States (USA) 1956 Quarter-final 2 1956-11-23
10.3 Morrow, Bobby JoeBobby Joe Morrow  United States (USA) 1956 Semi-final 2 1956-11-24
10.2 Hary, ArminArmin Hary  West Germany (FRG) 1960 Quarter-final 2 1960-08-31
10.2 Hary, ArminArmin Hary  West Germany (FRG) 1960 Final 1960-08-31
10.0 =WR Hayes, BobBob Hayes  United States (USA) 1964 Final 1964-10-15
10.0 A Ramírez, HermesHermes Ramírez  Cuba (CUB) 1968 Quarter-final 2 1968-10-13
10.0 A Greene, CharlieCharlie Greene  United States (USA) 1968 Quarter-final 4 1968-10-13
10.0 A Hines, JimJim Hines  United States (USA) 1968 Semi-final 1 1968-10-14
9.9 A =WR Hines, JimJim Hines  United States (USA) 1968 Final 1968-10-14
9.92 WR[nb3] Lewis, CarlCarl Lewis  United States (USA) 1988 Final 1988-09-24
9.84 Bailey, DonovanDonovan Bailey  Canada (CAN) 1996 Final 1996-07-27
9.69 WR Bolt, UsainUsain Bolt  Jamaica (JAM) 2008 Final 2008-08-16
9.63 Bolt, UsainUsain Bolt  Jamaica (JAM) 2012 Final 2012-08-05
  • nb3 Carl Lewis's time of 9.92 seconds in the 1988 Olympic final was initially second to Ben Johnson's 9.79, but Johnson was disqualified soon after due to a failed drug test.[115]

Women[edit]

Wilma Rudolph's time of 11.3 in 1960 was an Olympic and world record time.
Irena Szewińska's time of 11.1 seconds stood as the Olympic record for one day.
No woman has run faster than Florence Griffith Joyner's Olympic record of 10.63 since it was set in 1988.
Time Athlete Nation Games Round Date
13.0 Holdmann, AnniAnni Holdmann  Germany (GER) 1928 Heat 1 1928-07-30
12.8 Steinberg, ErnaErna Steinberg  Germany (GER) 1928 Heat 2 1928-07-30
12.8 Hitomi, KinueKinue Hitomi  Japan (JPN) 1928 Heat 3 1928-07-30
12.8 Junker, LeniLeni Junker  Germany (GER) 1928 Heat 4 1928-07-30
12.8 Schmidt, LeniLeni Schmidt  Germany (GER) 1928 Heat 6 1928-07-30
12.6 Rosenfeld, FannyFanny Rosenfeld  Canada (CAN) 1928 Heat 7 1928-07-30
12.6 Smith, EthelEthel Smith  Canada (CAN) 1928 Heat 9 1928-07-30
12.4 Rosenfeld, FannyFanny Rosenfeld  Canada (CAN) 1928 Semi-final 1 1928-07-30
12.4 Robinson, BettyBetty Robinson  United States (USA) 1928 Semi-final 2 1928-07-30
12.2 WR Robinson, BettyBetty Robinson  United States (USA) 1928 Final 1928-07-31
12.2 Dollinger, MarieMarie Dollinger  Germany (GER) 1932 Heat 1 1932-08-01
11.9 WR Walasiewicz, StanisławaStanisława Walasiewicz  Poland (POL) 1932 Heat 2 1932-08-01
11.9 =WR Walasiewicz, StanisławaStanisława Walasiewicz  Poland (POL) 1932 Semi-final 2 1932-08-01
11.9 =WR Walasiewicz, StanisławaStanisława Walasiewicz  Poland (POL) 1932 Final 1932-08-02
11.9 Blankers-Koen, FannyFanny Blankers-Koen  Netherlands (NED) 1948 Final 1948-08-02
11.9 Hardy, CatherineCatherine Hardy  United States (USA) 1952 Heat 7 1952-07-21
11.6 Jackson, MarjorieMarjorie Jackson  Australia (AUS) 1952 Heat 8 1952-07-21
11.6 Jackson, MarjorieMarjorie Jackson  Australia (AUS) 1952 Quarter-final 1 1952-07-21
11.5 =WR Jackson, MarjorieMarjorie Jackson  Australia (AUS) 1952 Quarter-final 1 1952-07-22
11.5 Mathews, MarleneMarlene Mathews  Australia (AUS) 1956 Heat 2 1956-11-24
11.4 Cuthbert, BettyBetty Cuthbert  Australia (AUS) 1956 Heat 3 1956-11-24
11.3 =WR Rudolph, WilmaWilma Rudolph  United States (USA) 1960 Semi-final 1 1960-09-02
11.2 =WR Tyus, WyomiaWyomia Tyus  United States (USA) 1964 Quarter-final 1 1964-10-15
11.2 A Tyus, WyomiaWyomia Tyus  United States (USA) 1968 Heat 1 1968-10-14
11.2 A Bailes, MargaretMargaret Bailes  United States (USA) 1968 Heat 2 1968-10-14
11.2 A Ferrell, BarbaraBarbara Ferrell  United States (USA) 1968 Heat 6 1968-10-14
11.1 A =WR Ferrell, BarbaraBarbara Ferrell  United States (USA) 1968 Quarter-final 1 1968-10-14
11.1 A =WR Szewińska-Kirszenstein, IrenaIrena Szewińska-Kirszenstein  Poland (POL) 1968 Quarter-final 4 1968-10-14
11.0 A WR Tyus, WyomiaWyomia Tyus  United States (USA) 1968 Final 1968-10-15
11.07 WR Stecher, RenateRenate Stecher  East Germany (GDR) 1972 Quarter-final 1 1972-09-01
11.05 Richter, AnnegretAnnegret Richter  West Germany (FRG) 1976 Quarter-final 1 1976-07-24
11.01 WR Richter, AnnegretAnnegret Richter  West Germany (FRG) 1976 Semi-final 1 1976-07-25
10.97 Ashford, EvelynEvelyn Ashford  United States (USA) 1984 Final 1984-08-05
10.88 Griffith Joyner, FlorenceFlorence Griffith Joyner  United States (USA) 1988 Heat 7 1988-09-24
10.88 Ashford, EvelynEvelyn Ashford  United States (USA) 1988 Quarter-final 2 1988-09-24
10.62 Griffith Joyner, FlorenceFlorence Griffith Joyner  United States (USA) 1988 Quarter-final 3 1988-09-24

Finishing times[edit]

The Olympic 100 m is the most prestigious competition for the distance and it attracts elite level, international competitors. The winner of the race is occasionally referred to as "the world's fastest" man or woman, reflecting the high level of the competition and the quality of performances.[116][117] As of February 2014, the current Olympic records of 9.63 for men and 10.62 seconds for women rank as the second and third fastest times in history, for men and women respectively.[118][119] The standard of performances at the Olympics has progressed in line with the discipline as a whole and the times in the final often rank highly in the end-of-season lists.[120][121][122] National records and personal bests are frequently improved at the event by sprinters from large and small nations alike, as most elite athletes aim to reach peak race fitness for the Olympics.[123][124]

The 2012 men's final was the fastest 100 m race in history, collectively: the top five men ran under 9.90 seconds for the first time ever and seven of the eight finalists ran under 10 seconds (the last runner suffered an injury).[125][126] Tyson Gay became the fastest non-medalist in history at that race with his time of 9.80 seconds.[118] At the same games, Tianna Madison became the fastest female non-medalist with her time of 10.78 seconds.[119]

Top ten fastest Olympic times[edit]

  • SF – time recorded in semi-final

Best time for place[edit]

Intercalated Games[edit]

The 1906 Intercalated Games were held in Athens and at the time were officially recognised as part of the Olympic Games series, with the intention being to hold a games in Greece in two-year intervals between the internationally held Olympics. However, this plan never came to fruition and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) later decided not to recognise these games as part of the official Olympic series. Some sports historians continue to treat the results of these games as part of the Olympic canon.[127]

At this event a men's 100 m was held and 1904 Olympic champion Archie Hahn of the United States won the race. Another American, Fay Moulton, was the runner-up and Australian Nigel Barker was the bronze medalist.[128]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1906 Athens
details
 Archie Hahn (USA)  Fay Moulton (USA)  Nigel Barker (AUS)

Non-canonical Olympic events[edit]

In addition to the main 1900 Olympic men's 100 metres, two further 100 m events were held that year. A handicap race attracted 32 athletes from 10 countries and was won by Edmund Minahan, an American semi-finalist in the main 100 m competition, which had taken place five days earlier.[129] A 100 m event for professionals only was held several weeks later. Four entrants are known and the winner was Edgar Bredin, a British former world record holder.[130][131]

A 100 m professionals handicap race is also believed to have been held in 1900. In 1904 a 100-yard dash handicap race was contested and an American, C. Hastedt, was the victor.[132]

These events are no longer considered part of the official Olympic history of the 100 m or the athletics programme in general. Consequently, medals from these races have not been assigned to nations on the all-time medal tables.[132]

Cultural impact[edit]

Usain Bolt's 2008 Olympic victory received global media coverage

The 100 metres is typically considered one of the blue ribbon Olympic track and field events, and of the Olympic Games as a whole.[133] The Olympic 100 m finals, particularly the men's, are among the most popular events from any sport at the Olympics – the 2012 Olympic men's 100 metres final was the most watched event at the London Games by British audiences (with 20 million television viewers)[134] while in the United States that event was the third-most viewed Olympic clip (and the only one within the top ten that did not feature an American winner).[135]

The high profile nature of 100 m Olympic finals in some countries has served to encourage participation in sport among the wider public, particularly in short sprinting. Successive generations of athletes cite previous 100 m Olympic champions as the reason for their entering the sport.[136] The history of the event has had particular impact for African-American athletes: Jesse Owens' Olympic 100 m gold was an early example of a black American achieving success on an international stage while Wilma Rudolph's 1960 win inspired many black American women.[137][138] Owens' 100 m victory at the 1936 Berlin Olympics (one of four gold medals he won at the games) helped challenge notions of white supremacy that were popular during that era.[139]

The Olympic 100 metres has been covered by several film documentaries. Chariots of Fire, a 1981 historical drama focusing on Harold Abrahams' victory at the 1924 Paris Olympics, is among the most prominent. The film won four Academy Awards,[140] is often listed among polls for the best sports and Olympics films.,[141][142] and was ranked 19th in the British Film Institute's 100 Best British Films[143] Wilma Rudolph was a central figure in the The Grand Olympics (Italian: La grande olimpiade), an Academy-Award nominated documentary about the 1960 Rome Olympics, where Ruldolph's 100 m feats earned her the nickname La Gazzella Negra (The Black Gazelle).[144][145] The 1988 Olympic final, featuring Ben Johnson and Carl Lewis has been the topic of documentaries, including ESPN's "9.79*" from the 30 for 30 series,[146] as well as non-fiction books, such as Richard Moore's The Dirtiest Race in History.[99]

Across the sport of track and field, Olympic 100 m champions have often featured on Athlete of the Year lists. Carl Lewis (1984), Evelyn Ashford (1984), Florence Griffith-Joyner (1988) and Usain Bolt (2008) were chosen as Track & Field News Athlete of the Year in the year of their Olympic victories.[147] Lewis, Griffith-Joyner, and Bolt were also awarded the title of IAAF World Athlete of the Year for their Olympic feats.[148]

References[edit]

Participation and athlete data
Olympic record progressions
Specific
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