Jesse Owens

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Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens3.jpg
Owens at the 1936 Olympics
Personal information
Full name James Cleveland Owens
Nationality United States
Born September 12, 1913
Oakville, Alabama, U.S.
Died March 31, 1980(1980-03-31) (aged 66)
Tucson, Arizona, U.S.
Height 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m)
Weight 165 lb (75 kg)
Sport
Sport Track and field
Event(s) Sprint, Long jump

James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens (September 12, 1913 – March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete and four-time Olympic gold medalist.

Owens specialized in the sprints and the long jump and was recognized in his lifetime as "perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history".[1] His achievement of setting three world records and tying another in less than an hour at the 1935 Big Ten track meet has been called "the greatest 45 minutes ever in sport"[2] and has never been equaled. At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, Owens won international fame with four gold medals: 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump, and 4x100 meter relay. He was the most successful athlete at the games and as such has been credited with "single-handedly crush[ing] Hitler's myth of Aryan supremacy."[3]

The Jesse Owens Award, USA Track and Field's highest accolade for the year's best track and field athlete, is named after him, and he was ranked by ESPN as the sixth greatest North American athlete of the twentieth century and the highest-ranked in his sport.[4]

Early life and education[edit]

Owens was the youngest of ten children, three girls and seven boys, born to Henry Cleveland Owens and Mary Emma Fitzgerald in Oakville, Alabama on September 12, 1913. J.C., as he was called, was nine years old when the family moved to Cleveland, Ohio for better opportunities, as part of the Great Migration, when 1.5 million African Americans left the segregated South. When his new teacher asked his name (to enter in her roll book), he said "J.C.", but because of his strong Southern accent, she thought he said "Jesse". The name took, and he was known as Jesse Owens for the rest of his life.[5]

As a boy and youth, Owens took different jobs in his spare time: he delivered groceries, loaded freight cars and worked in a shoe repair shop while his father and older brother worked at a steel mill.[6] During this period, Owens realized that he had a passion for running. Throughout his life, Owens attributed the success of his athletic career to the encouragement of Charles Riley, his junior high track coach at Fairmount Junior High School. Since Owens worked in a shoe repair shop after school, Riley allowed him to practice before school instead.

Owens first came to national attention when he was a student of East Technical High School in Cleveland; he equalled the world record of 9.4 seconds in the 100-yard (91 m) dash and long-jumped 24 feet 9 12 inches (7.56 metres) at the 1933 National High School Championship in Chicago.[7]

Career[edit]

Ohio State University[edit]

Owens attended Ohio State University after employment was found for his father, ensuring the family could be supported. Affectionately known as the "Buckeye Bullet," Owens won a record eight individual NCAA championships, four each in 1935 and 1936. (The record of four gold medals at the NCAA was equaled only by Xavier Carter in 2006, although his many titles also included relay medals.) Though Owens enjoyed athletic success, he had to live off campus with other African-American athletes. When he traveled with the team, Owens was restricted to ordering carry-out or eating at "black-only" restaurants. Similarly, he had to stay at "blacks-only" hotels. Owens did not receive a scholarship for his efforts, so he continued to work part-time jobs to pay for school.

Owens's greatest achievement came in a span of 45 minutes on May 25, 1935, during the Big Ten meet at Ferry Field in Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he set three world records and tied a fourth. He equaled the world record for the 100 yard dash (9.4 seconds); and set world records in the long jump (26 ft 8 14 in or 8.13 m, a world record that would last 25 years); 220-yard (201.2 m) sprint (20.3 seconds); and 220-yard (201.2m) low hurdles (22.6 seconds, becoming the first to break 23 seconds).[3] In 2005, University of Central Florida professor of sports history Richard C. Crepeau chose these wins on one day as the most impressive athletic achievement since 1850.[8]

Berlin Olympics[edit]

Owens performing the long jump at the Olympics.

In 1936, Owens arrived in Berlin to compete for the United States in the Summer Olympics. Adolf Hitler was using the games to show the world a resurgent Nazi Germany.[9] He and other government officials had high hopes that German athletes would dominate the games with victories (the German athletes achieved a "top of the table" medal haul). Meanwhile, Nazi propaganda promoted concepts of "Aryan racial superiority" and depicted ethnic Africans as inferior.[9][10] Owens countered this by winning four gold medals.

On August 3, he won the 100m sprint with a time of 10.3s, defeating teammate Ralph Metcalfe by a tenth of a second. On August 4, he won the long jump with a leap of 26 ft 5 in (later crediting his achievement to the technical advice he received from Luz Long, the German competitor whom he defeated).[3] On August 5, he won the 200m sprint with a time of 20.7s, defeating Mack Robinson (the older brother of Jackie Robinson). On August 9, Owens won his fourth gold medal in the 4x100 sprint relay when coach Dean Cromwell replaced Jewish-American sprinters Marty Glickman and Sam Stoller with Owens and Ralph Metcalf, who teamed with Frank Wykoff and Foy Draper to set a world record of 39.8s in the event.[11] This performance was not equaled until Carl Lewis won gold medals in the same events at the Soviet boycotted 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. In 1935 (the year before the Berlin Olympics), Jesse Owens set the world record in the long jump with a leap of 26 ft 8 in, and this record would stand for 25 years (a very rare length of time for a track and field record), until it was finally broken by Ralph Boston in 1960. Coincidentally, Owens was a spectator at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome when Boston took the gold medal in the long jump.

Just before the competitions, Owens was visited in the Olympic village by Adi Dassler, the founder of the Adidas athletic shoe company. He persuaded Owens to use Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik shoes, the first sponsorship for a male African-American athlete.[12]

The long-jump victory is documented, along with many other 1936 events, in the 1938 film Olympia by Leni Riefenstahl.

On the first day of competition, Hitler shook hands only with the German victors and then left the stadium. Olympic committee officials insisted Hitler greet every medalist or none at all. Hitler opted for the latter and skipped all further medal presentations.[13][14] Historians have noted that Hitler may have left the games at this time due to looming rain clouds which may have postponed the games. This happened well before Owens was to compete, but has largely come to be believed to be the "snub".[15] On reports that Hitler had deliberately avoided acknowledging his victories, and had refused to shake his hand, Owens said at the time:

"Hitler had a certain time to come to the stadium and a certain time to leave. It happened he had to leave before the victory ceremony after the 100 meters. But before he left I was on my way to a broadcast and passed near his box. He waved at me and I waved back. I think it was bad taste to criticize the 'man of the hour' in another country."[16]

Albert Speer wrote that Hitler “was highly annoyed by the series of triumphs by the marvelous colored American runner, Jesse Owens. People whose antecedents came from the jungle were primitive, Hitler said with a shrug; their physiques were stronger than those of civilized whites and hence should be excluded from future games.”[17]

Jesse Owens on the podium after winning the long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics. L-R, Naoto Tajima, Owens, Luz Long.

However, in a 2009 interview, Siegfried Mischner, a German journalist, claimed that Owens carried around a photograph in his wallet of the Fuehrer shaking his hand before the latter left the stadium. Owens, who felt the newspapers of the day reported 'unfairly' on Hitler's attitude towards him, tried to get Mischner and his journalist colleagues to change the accepted version of history in the 1960s. Mischner claimed Owens showed him the photograph and told him: "That was one of my most beautiful moments." Mischner added "(the picture) was taken behind the honour stand and so not captured by the world's press. But I saw it, I saw him shaking Hitler's hand!" According to Mischner, "the predominating opinion in post-war Germany was that Hitler had ignored Owens, so we therefore decided not to report on the photo. The consensus was that Hitler had to continue to be painted in a bad light in relation to Owens." [18]

Owens was allowed to travel with and stay in the same hotels in Germany as whites, while at the time African Americans in many parts of the United States had to stay in segregated hotels while traveling. During a New York City ticker-tape parade on Fifth Avenue in his honor, someone handed Owens a paper bag. Owens paid it little mind until the parade concluded. When he opened it up, he found the bag contained $10,000 in cash. Owens's wife Ruth later said, "And he [Owens] didn't know who was good enough to do a thing like that. And with all the excitement around, he didn't pick it up right away. He didn't pick it up until he got ready to get out of the car."[19] After the parade, Owens had to ride the freight elevator at the Waldorf-Astoria to reach the reception honoring him.[20] President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) never invited Jesse Owens to the White House following his triumphs at the Olympics games.[citation needed] Owens, who joined the Republican Party after returning from Europe, was paid to campaign for African American votes for Republican presidential nominee Alf Landon in the 1936 presidential election.[21][22]

Owens said,

"Hitler didn't snub me – it was FDR who snubbed me. The president didn't even send me a telegram."[23]

Hitler sent Owens a commemorative inscribed cabinet photograph of himself.[24] Honors were not bestowed upon Jesse Owens by either President Franklin D. Roosevelt or his successor Harry S. Truman during their terms. In 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower (himself an athlete of note) honored Owens by naming him an "Ambassador of Sports."

Later life[edit]

Jesse Owens on a 1971 UAE stamp

Owens was quoted saying the secret behind his success was "I let my feet spend as little time on the ground as possible. From the air, fast down, and from the ground, fast up."[25][26]

After the games had finished, the Olympic team and Owens were all invited to compete in Sweden. He decided to capitalize on his success by returning to the United States to take up some of the more lucrative commercial offers. United States athletic officials were furious and withdrew his amateur status, ending his career immediately. Owens was angry, saying, "A fellow desires something for himself."[27]

Prohibited from amateur sporting appearances to bolster his profile, Owens found the commercial offers all but disappeared. In 1946, he joined Abe Saperstein in the formation of the West Coast Baseball Association (WCBA), a new Negro baseball league; Owens was Vice-President and the owner of the Portland (Oregon) Rosebuds franchise.[28] He toured with the Rosebuds, sometimes entertaining the audience in between doubleheader games by competing in races against horses.[29] The WCBA disbanded after only two months.[28][29]

Owens helped promote the exploitation film Mom and Dad in African American neighborhoods.[citation needed] He tried to make a living as a sports promoter, essentially an entertainer. He would give local sprinters a ten- or twenty-yard start and beat them in the 100-yd (91-m) dash. He also challenged and defeated racehorses; as he revealed later, the trick was to race a high-strung thoroughbred that would be frightened by the starter's shotgun and give him a bad jump. Owens said, "People say that it was degrading for an Olympic champion to run against a horse, but what was I supposed to do? I had four gold medals, but you can't eat four gold medals."[30]

Owens ran a dry cleaning business and worked as a gas station attendant to earn a living; he eventually filed for bankruptcy. In 1966, he was successfully prosecuted for tax evasion.[31] At rock bottom, he was aided in beginning rehabilitation. The government appointed him a US goodwill ambassador. Owens traveled the world and spoke to companies such as the Ford Motor Company and stakeholders such as the United States Olympic Committee.[citation needed] After he retired, he owned racehorses.

Owens initially refused to support the black power salute by African-American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos at the 1968 Summer Olympics. He told them:[32]

The black fist is a meaningless symbol. When you open it, you have nothing but fingers – weak, empty fingers. The only time the black fist has significance is when there's money inside. There's where the power lies.

Four years later in his 1972 book I Have Changed, he moderated his opinion:

I realized now that militancy in the best sense of the word was the only answer where the black man was concerned, that any black man who wasn't a militant in 1970 was either blind or a coward.

A few months before his death, Owens had tried unsuccessfully to convince President Jimmy Carter not to boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics. He argued that the Olympic ideal was to be a time-out from war and above politics.[citation needed]

Death[edit]

Owens, a pack-a-day cigarette smoker for 35 years, had been hospitalized with an extremely aggressive and drug-resistant type of lung cancer on and off beginning in December 1979. He died in Tucson, Arizona, on March 31, 1980, with his wife and other family members at his bedside.[33] He is buried in Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago.

Personal life[edit]

Owens and Minnie Ruth Solomon met at Fairmount Junior High School in Cleveland when he was 15 years old and she was 13 years old. They dated steadily through high school. Ruth gave birth to their first daughter, Gloria, in 1932. They married in 1935 and had two more daughters together: Marlene, born in 1939, and Beverly, born in 1940. They remained married until his death.[34][35]

Legacy[edit]

The dormitory used by Owens during the Olympics has been fully restored into a living museum, with pictures of his accomplishments at the Games, and a letter (intercepted by the Gestapo) from a fan urging him not to shake hands with Hitler.[36]

Awards and honors[edit]

May this light shine forever
as a symbol to all who run
for the freedom of sport,
for the spirit of humanity,
for the memory of Jesse Owens.
  • In 2001, The Ohio State University dedicated Jesse Owens Memorial Stadium for track and field events. The campus also houses three recreational centers for students and staff named in his honor.[38]
  • In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Jesse Owens on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[39]
  • In Cleveland, Ohio, a statue of Owens in his Ohio State track suit was installed at Fort Huntington Park, west of the old Courthouse.[40]
  • Phoenix, Arizona named the Jesse Owens Medical Plaza in his honor, as well as Jesse Owens Parkway.
  • In Markus Zusak's 2006 bestselling novel, The Book Thief, a character named Rudy Steiner, who idolizes Owens, covers himself with charcoal and runs 100 meters at the local sporting field. This was known around Rudy's neighborhood as the "Jesse Owens incident." Later in the book when he dies, the protagonist Liesel Meminger calls him "Jesse Owens" in her attempts to revive him.
  • Jesse Owens Park, located in Tucson, Arizona, is a staple of local youth athletics there.
  • At the 2009 World Athletic Championships in Berlin, all members of the United States Track & Field team wore badges with "JO" to commemorate Owens's victories in the same stadium 73 years before.[41]
  • In early 2010, the Ohio Historical Society proposed Jesse Owens as a finalist from a statewide vote for inclusion in Statuary Hall at the United States Capitol.
  • On November 15, 2010, the city of Cleveland renamed East Roadway, between Rockwell and Superior avenues in Public Square, Jesse Owens Way.[42]
  • A novel in French written by Lebanese novelist Alexandre Najjar, Berlin 36, Plon (publisher), Paris, 2009, tells the story of Owens, particularly during the Berlin Olympic games. Najjar visited Chicago, Ohio and Alabama to achieve this distinguished tribute to Owens.
  • For his contribution to sports in Los Angeles, he was honored with a Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum "Court of Honor" plaque by the Coliseum commissioners.
  • In the London 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, just after the Olympic cauldron had been lit, the 80,000 individual pixels in the audience seating area were used as a giant video screen to show footage of Owens running around the stadium.[43]
  • A feature film titled Race about Owens is being made with Stephan James set to portray Owens. Shooting began in Montreal on July 24, 2014.[44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Litsky, Frank (1980), Jesse Owens Dies Of Cancer at 66, New York Times, retrieved March 23, 2014 
  2. ^ Rothschild, Richard (May 24, 2010). "Greatest 45 minutes ever in sports". Sports Illustrated.com. Retrieved March 23, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Schwartz, Larry (2000). "Owens Pierced A Myth". ESPN. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved July 6, 2000. 
  4. ^ "Top N. American athletes of the century". ESPN.com. Retrieved March 23, 2014. 
  5. ^ Baker, William J. Jesse Owens – An American Life, p.19.
  6. ^ "?". Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved April 5, 2008. 
  7. ^ "Jesse Owens: Track & Field Legend: Biography". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved January 6, 2008. 
  8. ^ Rose, Lacey (November 18, 2005). "The Single Greatest Athletic Achievement". Forbes.com. 
  9. ^ a b Bachrach, Susan D. The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936. ISBN 0-316-07087-4. 
  10. ^ "Jesse Owens, 1913–1980: He Was Once the World's Fastest Runner". Voice Of America. December 20, 2008. Retrieved December 22, 2008. [dead link]
  11. ^ PBS: American Experience. Jessie Owens. (Accessed: May 2, 2012)
  12. ^ "How Adidas and Puma were born". In.rediff.com. November 8, 2005. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  13. ^ Berlin Games: How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream (2012) Guy Walters, Hachette UK, 2012 ISBN 9781848547490
  14. ^ Rick Shenkman, Adolf Hitler, Jesse Owens and the Olympics Myth of 1936 February 13, 2002 from History News Network (article excerpted from Rick Shenkman's Legends, Lies and Cherished Myths of American History, William Morrow & Co, 1988 ISBN 0-688-06580-5)
  15. ^ Out of the Shadows: A Biographical History of African American Athletes (2006) David Kenneth Wiggins, University of Arkansas Press, p119 ISBN 9781610752954
  16. ^ Owens Arrives With Kind Words For All Officials – The Pittsburgh Press, 24 August 1936. News.google.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
  17. ^ Anspach, Emma; Almog, Hilah (2009). "Hitler, Nazi Philosophy and Sport". Duke.edu. Retrieved March 23, 2014. 
  18. ^ [1] Did Hitler shake hands with black 1936 Olympic hero Jesse Owens? - The UK Mail Online, 11 August 2009 Retrieved on 2014-07-29
  19. ^ "Ruth Owens; Widow of Legendary Olympian". latimes.com. June 30, 2001. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  20. ^ Schwartz, Larry (2007). "Owens pierced a myth". 
  21. ^ Streissguth, Thomas (2005). Jesse Owens. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 70. ISBN 0-822-53070-8. 
  22. ^ Magill, Frank N., ed. (2013). The 20th Century O-Z: Dictionary of World Biography. Routledge. p. 2863. ISBN 1-136-59362-4. 
  23. ^ Schaap, Jeremy (2007). Triumph: The Untold Story of Jesse Owens and Hitler's Olympics. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-68822-7. 
  24. ^ OWENS WEIGHS HIS PRO OFFERS – The Baltimore Sun, August 18, 1936. Pqasb.pqarchiver.com (1936-08-18). Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
  25. ^ Altman, Alex (August 18, 2009). "Usain Bolt: The World's Fastest Human". TIME. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  26. ^ ThinkExist.com Quotations. "Jesse Owens quotes". Thinkexist.com. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  27. ^ Riley, Liam. "BBC – An Emperor among Professionals". BBC. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  28. ^ a b "West Coast Baseball Association". Organizing Black America: An Encyclopedia of African American Associations. BookRags. 2005-02-10. Retrieved July 31, 2010. [dead link]
  29. ^ a b Simonich, Milan (July 12, 2010). "Sun City home to the Negro Leagues for one weekend". Hidden El Paso. El Paso Times. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 
  30. ^ Schwartz, Larry. "Owens Pierced a Myth". ESPN. Retrieved April 30, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Jesse Owens Is Fined in Tax Case". The Times-News. United Press International. February 2, 1966. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Jesse Owens: Olympic Legend-quotes". Retrieved May 8, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Jesse Owens Dies Of Cancer At 66: Hero of the 1936 Berlin Olympics". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  34. ^ The Owens Family at the Wayback Machine (archived June 1, 2009). library.osu.edu
  35. ^ "Jesse Owens". Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved August 6, 2013. 
  36. ^ "Hitler’s Olympic Village Faces Conservation Battle". Voice of America. August 26, 2012. 
  37. ^ Deitch, Linda (2011-10-07). "Did Jesse Owens plant a tree at OSU?". The Colombus Dispatch. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  38. ^ "Get caught". Ohio State Recreational Sports. Retrieved August 31, 2010. 
  39. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  40. ^ Soul of Cleveland website Last retrieved 1/31/2009.
  41. ^ "12th IAAF World Championships in Athletics – Berlin 2009 – Owens and Long families to meet at Owens exhibition in Berlin". Berlin.iaaf.org. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  42. ^ Blogs - Yahoo! News[dead link]. News.yahoo.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
  43. ^ Danny Boyle and Frank Cottrell Boyce, the director and writer of the ceremony, in their audio commentary track to the BBC DVD of the entire opening ceremony
  44. ^ Kit, Borys (July 16, 2014). "Jason Sudeikis, Jeremy Irons Join Jesse Owens Drama 'Race'". hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved July 28, 2014. 

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