|Região do Algarve|
Porto de Mós beach in Lagos
|Name origin: algarve, from the Arabic (الغرب or al-gharb) for the west|
|- elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
|- elevation||902 m (2,959 ft)|
|Lowest point||Sea level|
|- location||Atlantic Ocean|
|Area||5,412 km2 (2,090 sq mi)|
|Density||83.24 / km2 (216 / sq mi)|
|- summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|GDP per capita (PPS)||€ 19,200 (2006)|
|Wikimedia Commons: Algarve|
|Statistics from INE (2005); geographic detail from Instituto Geográfico Português (2010)|
The Algarve (Portuguese pronunciation: [aɫˈɡaɾv(ɨ)], from Arabic: الغرب, trans. Al-Gharb, meaning "The West") is the southernmost region of mainland Portugal. It has an area of 5,412 square kilometres (2,090 sq mi) with approximately 451,005 permanent inhabitants, and incorporates 16 municipalities. The region coincides with the Faro District, and has as its administrative centre the city of Faro, where both the region's international airport at Faro (FAO) and public university (the University of the Algarve) are located. Tourism and related activities are extensive and make up the bulk of the Algarve's summer economy. Production of food, which includes fish and other seafood, fruit, oranges, carob beans, figs and almonds, is also economically important in the region. The Algarve is the most popular tourist destination in Portugal, and one of the most popular in Europe. Its population triples in the peak holiday season thanks to a high influx of visitors, and receives an average of 7 million foreign tourists each year. In total, including national visitors, almost 10 million people visit the Algarve every year.
The Conii, influenced by Tartessos, were established by the sixth century BC in the region of the Algarve. They would be strongly influenced by the Celtici. The Phoenicians had established trading ports along the coast circa 1000 BC. The Carthaginians founded Portus Hanibalis – known today as Portimão in about 550 BC. The Romans in the 2nd century BC spread through the Iberian Peninsula, and many Roman ruins can still be seen in the region, notably in Lagos. Roman bath complexes and fish salting tanks have been found near the shore in several locations, for example the ones near Vilamoura and Praia da Luz.
In the 5th century the Visigoths took control of the Algarve until the beginning of the Muslim conquest in 711. When the Moors conquered Lagos in 716 it was called Zawaia. Faro, which the Christian residents had called Santa Maria, was renamed Faraon, which means "the settlement of the Knights." Due to the Moorish conquest of Iberia, the region was called Al-Gharb Al-Andalus; Al-Gharb (الغرب) means "the west", while Al-Andalus is the Arabic name of Muslim Iberia. But, for several years, the town of Silves was the capital of the region under Moorish rule.
In the mid-12th century, the Kingdom of Portugal conquered the region in a series of successful military campaigns. The "Al-Gharb" became the Kingdom of the Algarve, but battles with Islamic forces persisted. It was not until the 13th century that the Portuguese finally secured the region against subsequent Muslim attempts to recapture the area, what was referred to as the Reconquista. King Afonso III of Portugal started calling himself King of Portugal and the Algarve. After 1471, with the conquest of several territories in Northern Africa (the area considered an extension of the Algarve) Afonso V of Portugal began fashioning himself as the King of Portugal and the Algarves (referring to the European and African possessions). Prior to the independence of Brazil, the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822) was an official designation for Portugal which also alluded to the Algarve. Portuguese monarchs continued used this title until the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910. Between 1595 and 1808, the Algarve was a semi-autonomous area of Portugal with its own governor, as well as a separate taxation system.[verification needed].
In the 15th century, Prince Henry the Navigator based himself near Lagos and conducted various maritime expeditions which established Portugal as a colonial power. It was also from Lagos that Gil Eanes set sail in 1434 to become the first seafarer to round Cape Bojador in West Africa. The voyages of discovery brought Lagos fame and fortune. Trade flourished and Lagos became the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577 and remained so until after 1755, the year of the fabled Lisbon earthquake. The earthquake damaged many areas in the Algarve and an accompanying tsunami destroyed or damaged coastal fortresses, while coastal towns and villages were heavily damaged (except Faro, which was protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa lagoon). In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many Portuguese coastal regions, including the Algarve, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake proper.
In 1807, while Junot lead the first Napoleonic invasion in the north of Portugal, the Algarve was occupied by Spanish troops under Manuel Godoy. Beginning in 1808, and after subsequent battles in various towns and villages, the region was the first to drive out the Spanish occupiers.
In 1910, with the Portuguese First Republic, the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve ceased to exist as such.
The Algarve has approximately 5412 square km, extending just south of the Tagus valley to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Its highest point is Fóia, 902 metres (2,959 ft), in the mountain range of Monchique. It also includes some islands and islets. The region is also the home of the Ria Formosa lagoon, a nature reserve of over 170 square kilometres and a stopping place for hundreds of different birds. The length of the south-facing coastline is approximately 155 kilometres. Beyond the westernmost point of Cape St. Vincent it stretches a further 50 kilometres to the north. The coastline is notable for picturesque limestone caves and grottoes, particularly around Lagos, which are accessible by powerboat.
The maximum recorded temperatures in the Algarve fluctuate between 25 °C (77 °F) in winter and 48 °C (118 °F) in summer, with the temperature never usually falling below zero in the winter months. The winter of 2008/2009 was exceptionally cold and wet. Temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) were recorded for the first time in many years.
There are about 450,000 permanent inhabitants (76 residents per square kilometre) living in the area annually, although this figure increases to over a million people at the height of summer, due to an influx of tourists. The Algarve has several cities, towns and villages: the region's capital is the city of Faro, while other cities include Albufeira, Lagoa, Lagos, Loulé, Olhão, Portimão, Quarteira, Silves, Tavira, and Vila Real de Santo António, in addition to various summer retreats such as Vilamoura, Praia da Rocha, Armação de Pêra, Alvor, Monte Gordo, Tavira, and Sagres.
The region is subdivided into 16 municipalities, within the District of Faro:
Agricultural products of the region include fig, almond, orange, carob bean, strawberry tree and cork oak. Horticulture is important and the region's landscape was known for the large areas of land covered with plastic greenhouses which are used for that end. Fishing and aquaculture are important activities in the coastal area of Algarve, with sardines, soles, cyprinids, gilt-head bream and various seafood, including the grooved carpet shell, being the major productions. Algarve's wines are also renowned. There are four wines in the region which have Protected Designation of Origin (Denominação de Origem Controlada - DOC): Lagoa DOC, Lagos DOC, Portimão DOC and Tavira DOC. Food processing, cement and construction, are the main industries. Tourism related activities are extensive and make the bulk of Algarve's economy during summer time. The Algarve's economy has always been closely linked to the sea, and fishing has been an important activity since ancient times. Only since the 1960s, has the region embraced tourism, which has become its most important economic activity.
Since the 1960s, Algarve has been experiencing a large development due to the need to accommodate its visitors. The region started the construction of better infrastructures, mainly roads, sanitation, power grids, telecommunications, hospitals and better housing. Sadly due to the austerity measures introduced in 2011, tolls have now been put in place on the main motorway that crosses the region which has reduced the use of the new infrastructure and is expected to seriously affect the local economy. It also started the construction of a huge variety of hotels, resorts, golf courses (which are considered to be some of the best in Europe) and villas. All this led to a huge development in the region, especially for locals who had previously lived in poorer circumstances. Today, Algarve is amongst the regions in Portugal with best quality of life and safety. And it's one of the many reasons why millions of tourists, mostly European, choose this sunny part of Portugal as their holiday destination.
In the 1960s the Algarve became a very popular destination for tourists, mainly from Britain. It has since become a common destination for Germans, Dutch and Irish people. Many of these tourists own their own property in the region. There are Algarve-based English-written publications and newspapers specifically addressed to this community. In addition to the natural beauties and plenty of beaches, the Algarve has invested in the creation of a network of golf courses. Well-known beaches in the Algarve range from Marinha Beach to Armação de Pêra. A well known spa town is Caldas de Monchique.
The Algarve is a popular destination for tourism, primarily because of its beaches, Mediterranean climate, safety, cuisine and relatively low costs. Is also popular for religious tourism, for example with the pilgrimages to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Piety (best known as the Sovereign Mother), a Marian shrine dedicated to the patron saint of Loulé, that attract thousands of pilgrims of the Catholic faithful to the city, or with the international pilgrimages to the apparitions site of Our Lady Mother of Goodness occurred near São Marcos da Serra.
Algarve's mild climate has attracted interest from Northern Europeans wishing to have a holiday home or residence in the region. Being a region of Portugal, and therefore in the European Union, any EU citizen has the right to freely buy property and reside with little formality in the Algarve. British expatriates, followed by German, Dutch and Scandinavians, are among the largest groups wishing to own a home in this sunny region of Portugal.
Tourism plays an important role in the economy of the Algarve. A large number of seasonal job opportunities are tourism-related and are fulfilled by thousands of immigrant workers from countries like Brazil, Ukraine and Cape Verde, among others.
In March 2007, the Minister of Economy, Manuel Pinho, announced the creation of the "Allgarve" brand, as a part of a strategical promotion of the Algarve as a tourism destination for foreign citizens.
Accommodation in the Algarve ranges from high rise resorts in places like Albufeira to traditional guesthouses, located in the small towns and villages surrounding the Algarve coast. Over the past 50 years the Algarve has seen an increase in development, particularly from non-Portuguese developers. Over the past few years many tourists visiting the Algarve have moved away from the resorts, and have chosen the comfort of a traditional Algarve guesthouse, many of these run by ex-pats from England, Holland, and Germany who have escaped to the Algarve for a higher quality of life.
The University of the Algarve, headquartered in Faro with an extension in Portimão, is a public university which awards all academic degrees in fields ranging from marine biology to economics to environmental engineering. There are also several higher education private institutions, state-run and private secondary education schools, including a number of international schools, and a wide network of kindergartens and primary schools.
The Algarve has many sports clubs, including football teams which play in the first (Olhanense, Portimonense), second and third layers of the main national football championships' pyramid. SC Farense is the most successful football club in the Algarve, however, after financial troubles it is currently (season 2012/2013) playing in the 3rd level of Portuguese football. The Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira is a noted Portuguese cycling team. The major stadium in the Algarve is the Estádio Algarve, where SC Farense and Louletano play their home matches. The region is also host to the annual Algarve Cup invitational tournament for national teams in women's football. The Autódromo Internacional do Algarve, a 4.692 kilometres (2.915 mi) race circuit, is located in Portimão.
The Algarve is famous for its pottery and ceramics, particularly hand-painted pottery and azulejos or tiles. There are numerous ceramics and pottery outlets throughout the Algarve. For working potteries/ceramics workshops the main, or best-known, pottery centers are located in the towns of Almancil, Porches and Loulé. But there are many other potteries and workshops in the Algarve region.
- Aníbal Cavaco Silva (current Portuguese President and former Prime Minister)
- Adelino da Palma Carlos (former Portuguese Prime Minister)
- António Aleixo (poet)
- António Calvário (singer)
- Bartolomeu Dias (navigator)
- Carlos Brito (politician and writer)
- Diogo Rodrigues (explorer of the Indian Ocean)
- Duarte Pacheco (former Minister of Public Education and Public Works and Communications and Mayor of Lisbon)
- Francisco Barreto (soldier and explorer. An officer in Morocco, viceroy of Portuguese India, he was tasked with an expedition to southeast Africa in search of legendary gold mines.)
- Gil Eannes (navigator)
- Helena Vieira (soprano)
- João de Deus (poet)
- João Moutinho (football player)
- João Vaz Corte-Real (claimed by some accounts to have been an pre-Columbian explorer of a land called New Land of the Codfish, possibly part of North America)
- José Mendes Cabeçadas (former Portuguese President and Prime Minister)
- José Miguel Júdice (journalist)
- Júlio Dantas (writer, physician)
- Lídia Jorge (writer)
- Manuel Teixeira Gomes (former Portuguese President and writer)
- Maria Barroso (actress, wife of former Portuguese President and Prime Minister Mário Soares)
- Maria Cavaco Silva (wife of present Portuguese President and former Prime Minister)
- Maria das Dores Formosinho Vieira (wife of former Portuguese President and Prime Minister José Mendes Cabeçadas)
- Maria José Rodrigues Ritta (wife of former Portuguese President Jorge Sampaio)
- Maria Margarida Pinto Ribeiro de Sousa Uva (wife of José Manuel Durão Barroso, President of the European Commission and former Prime Minister of Portugal)
- Nuno Júdice (poet)
- Nuno Krus Abecassis (former Mayor of Lisbon)
- Clive Dunn, British film and television actor (Dad's Army), from the 1980s until his death in 2012.
- Patrick Swift (Artist. Lived in Algarve from 1962 until his death in 1983. Founded Porches Pottery/Olaria Algarve.)
- Katherine Swift (artist) (Artist and ceramicist. Worked at Porches Pottery and founded Estudio Destra in Silves.)
- Tomaz Cabreira (former Minister of the Finances)
The city of Tavira
The historic centre of Lagos
A street in Silves
Partial view of Praia da Luz
A beach in Albufeira
The city of Vila Real de Santo António
Marina beach in Vilamoura
- "GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania to 336% in Inner London". Eurostat.
- "Censos 2011 Resultados Preliminares 2011". INE.
- ESTAT-2002-05354-00-00-EN-TRA-00 (FR)
- The Algarve region and the Faro District are coexistent (comprise exactly the same territory).
- "On the Rights of Citizens of the Union...", EC Directive 2004/58 EC, retrieved 25 May 2007.
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