|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Generic (formerly Amikin)|
|Pregnancy cat.||D (AU) C (US)|
|Legal status||POM (UK) ℞-only (US)|
|ATC code||D06 J01, S01|
|Mol. mass||585.603 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Amikacin (formerly Apothecon's Amikin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. Amikacin works by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of mRNA and leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
Amikacin is most often used for treating severe, hospital-acquired infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. Serratia marcescens and Providencia stuartii are also included in the spectrum. Amikacin can also be used to treat non-tubercular mycobacterial infections and tuberculosis (if caused by sensitive strains) when first-line drugs fail to control the infection.
Liposomal amikacin for inhalation is currently in late stage clinical trials for the treatment of respiratory diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, non-tubercular mycobacterial infections and bronchiectasis.
Side-effects of amikacin are similar to those of other aminoglycosides. Kidney damage and hearing loss are the most important effects. Because of this potential, blood levels of the drug and markers of kidney function (creatinine) may be monitored. Moreover, doses are adjusted specifically based upon serum Creatinine clearance in clinical settings.
Amikacin may be administered once or twice a day but must be given by the intravenous or intramuscular route or via nebulization. There is no oral form available as amikacin is not absorbed orally. In people with kidney failure, dosage must be adjusted according to the creatinine clearance, usually by reducing the dosing frequency.
Amikacin has high resistance against bacterial inactivation. It resists attacks by most bacterial inactivating enzymes. This is accomplished by the L-hydroxyaminobuteroyl amide (L-HABA) moiety attached to N-3, which inhibits acetylation, phosphorylation, and adenylation in the distant amino sugar ring (C-2,C-3,C-4). To prevent the development of bacterial resistance to this antibiotic, its use is tightly regulated.
Bacterial susceptibility data
Amikacin is usually used as a last-resort medication against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The following represents susceptibility data on a few medically significant microorganisms.
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa - 0.5 μg/mL - 32 μg/mL
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa (aminoglycoside-resistant) - 32 μg/mL - 64 μg/mL
- Serratia marcescens - ≤0.25 μg/mL - 8 μg/mL
- Serratia marcescens (multidrug-resistant) - 32 μg/mL
- "Randomized, open-label, active-controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Arikace™ in Cystic Fibrosis patients with chronic infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a European Phase III clinical trial, being conducted across multiple sites in the EU, starting at the Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, in London. https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2011-000441-20/GB
- "A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Liposomal Amikacin for Inhalation (Arikace™) in Patients With Recalcitrant Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease" is a Phase II clinical trial in collaboration with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01315236
- "A Placebo Controlled, Randomized, Parallel Cohort, Safety And Tolerability Study Of 2 Dose Levels Of Liposomal Amikacin For Inhalation (Arikace™) In Patients With Bronchiectasis Complicated By Chronic Infection Due To Pseudomonas Aeruginosa" Phase II (completed). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00775138
- "A Study to Determine the Safety and Tolerability of Arikace™ Versus Placebo in Patients Who Have Bronchiectasis" is a Phase II clinical trial (as ) completed in the UK. http://www.ukctg.nihr.ac.uk/trialdetails/NCT00775138
- Edson RS, Terrell CL. The aminoglycosides. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999 May;74(5):519-28. Review. PMID 10319086