Eponymous archon

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Archon (Gr. ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες) means "ruler" or "lord," frequently used as the title of a specific public office.[1] In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called Eponymous archon. The following tables list the archons of Athens.

In Athens a system of nine concurrent Archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders being known as the Eponymos archon (Ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων; the "name" ruler, who gave his name to the year in which he held office), the Polemarch ("war ruler"), and the Archon Basileus ("king ruler").[2][3] The six others were the Thesmothétai, Judicial Officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous Archon was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the Archōn Epōnymos. (Many ancient calendar systems did not number their years consecutively.)

Background[edit]

The archon was the chief magistrate in many Greek cities, but in Athens there was a council of archons which exerted a form of executive government. From the late eighth century BC there were three archons: the archon eponymous, the polemarch (replaced in 501 BC by ten strategoi), and the archon basileus (the ceremonial vestige of the Athenian monarchy).[4] These positions were filled from the aristocracy (the Eupatridae) by elections every ten years. During this period Archon Eponymous was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements.

After 508 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the archon eponymous.[citation needed] The year ran July to June.[5] The archon eponymous was the chief archon, and presided over meetings of the Boule and Ecclesia, the ancient Athenian assemblies. The archon eponymous remained the titular head of state even under the democracy, though with much reduced political importance. Under the reforms of Solon, himself archon eponymous in 594 BC, there was a brief period during which the number of archons rose to ten. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer extremely important politically at that time.

One of the archons oversaw the procedure for ostracism after 487 BC.[6] An archon's court was in charge of epikleroi.[7] Other duties of the archons included supervising the Panathenaea and Dionysia.[8]

List of archons[edit]

In the following list of Archons, years where the name of the archon is unknown are identified as such. Years listed as "anarchy" mean that there was literally "no archon". There are various conflicting reconstructions of lists; sources for this list are given at the end. Note that the term of an archon covered two of our years, beginning in the spring or summer and continuing into the next spring or summer. The polemarch or strategoi, basileus, and thesmothetai (the six assistants to the archons) are also listed, where known.

Archaic period[edit]

Life archons[edit]

The later Athenian tradition varies on the exact position of this line; they held archonship for life, sometimes referred to as "Perpetual Archon," and exercised the sacral powers of kingship, as did the archon basileus later. The historicity of any of this ancient list may be reasonably doubted by the layman and capable of different interpretations, but where there may be no doubt as to historical documents. Aristotle indicates that Medon and Acastus may have ruled as king rather than Archon.[9]

Year Archon Other notable information
1068–1048 BC Medon (Μέδων)[10] First ruler of Attica after the Greek Dark Ages.
1048–1012 BC Acastus (Ἄκαστος)[11][12] Troy VIIb2 destroyed (ca. 1120 BC).
1012–993 BC Archippus[13]
993–952 BC Thersippus[14]
952–922 BC Phorbas (Φόρβας) Troy VIIb3: deserted (ca. 950 BC)
922–892 BC Megacles (Μεγακλῆς)
892–864 BC Diognetus
864–845 BC Pherecles[15] Homer composes the Iliad[16] and Odyssey. (c. 850 BC)[17][18]
845–825 BC Ariphron
824–797 BC Thespieus (Θεσπιεύς)
796–778 BC Agamestor[19]
778–755 BC Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος) First Olympiad[20][21] (776 BC)
755–753 BC Alcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων)


Decennial archons[edit]

In 753 BC the perpetual archonship by the Eupatridae[22] (essentially tyrants (kingship[23])) was limited to 10 years (the "decennial archons"):[24]

Year Archon Other notable information
753–743 BC Charops[25][26] In Rome, Romulus, the first ruler of the city, takes power.[27]
743–733 BC Aesimides[28] In Messenia, First Messenian War begins.
733–723 BC Clidicus[29] Diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics. (724 BC)
723–713 BC Hippomenes[30]
713–703 BC Leocrates
703–693 BC Apsander[31] Hesiod writes "Theogony" (c. 700 BC).
693–683 BC Eryxias Boxing added to the Olympics. (688 BC)[32] Chalcedon colony founded (685 BC).

Annual archons[edit]

After 683 BC the archonship was limited to one year. Archons were chosen from the Areopagus council and resided in the Prytaneum.

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
682–681 BC Creon[33]
681–680 BC Lysiades 4-horse Chariot racing added to the Olympics.
680–679 BC Tlesias
679–671 BC Unknown Greek's 25th Olympiad (676 BC)
671–670 BC Leostratus
670–669 BC Unknown
669–668 BC Pisistratus
668–667 BC Autosthenes
667–666 BC Unknown
666–665 BC Unknown Polemarchus (archon) assassinates King Polydorus of Sparta[34]
665–664 BC Unknown
664–663 BC Miltiades
663–659 BC Unknown
659–658 BC Miltiades
658–645 BC Unknown Cypselus becomes the first tyrant of Corinth (657 BC). Earliest Greek-chronicled solar eclipse (648 BC).
645–644 BC Dropides (644 BC) Terpander[35] the Lesbian[36] starts developing the music of the lyre.
644–639 BC Unknown
639–638 BC Damasias Thales was born[37][38]
638–634 BC Unknown
634–633 BC Epaenetus
633–632 BC Unknown
632–631 BC Megacles Cylon attempts to become tyrant
631–624 BC Unknown
624–623 BC Aristaechmus[39] Birth of Thales (c. 624 BC)
623–621 BC Unknown

Reorganized[edit]

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
621–620 BC Draco Draco reforms the legal code[40][41]
620–615 BC Unknown
615–614 BC Heniochides
614–605 BC Unknown Anaximander born (c. 610 BC)
605–604 BC Aristocles
604–600 BC Unknown
600–599 BC Critias Cleisthenes of Sicyon rules.
599–597 BC Unknown
597–596 BC Cypselus
596–595 BC Telecles
595–594 BC Philombrotus[42][43] First Sacred War begins.[44]
594–593 BC Solon Solon reforms Draco's code, then leaves Athens, resulting in weak archons and anomie
593–592 BC Dropides
592–591 BC Eucrates
591–590 BC Simon
590–589 BC anarchy
589–588 BC Phormion
588–587 BC Philippus
587–586 BC Unknown
586–585 BC anarchy
585–582 BC Unknown Pythian Games reorganised at Delphi.
582–581 BC Damasias Isthmian Games founded at Corinth.
581–580 BC Damasias Damasias is expelled during his second term
580–579 BC anarchy Committee of 10 men serves jointly as archons[45]
579–578 BC anarchy
578–577 BC Unknown
577–576 BC Archestratidas
576–570 BC Unknown Greek's 50th Olympiad (576 BC)
570–569 BC Aristomenes
569–566 BC Unknown
566–565 BC Hippocleides
565–561 BC Unknown
561–560 BC Comeas[46] Pisistratus becomes tyrant. Rhapsodist at Sicyon.[47]
560–559 BC Hegestratus
559–558 BC Hegesias
559–556 BC Unknown
556–555 BC Hegesias Pisistratus is expelled but returns and becomes tyrant again.
555–554 BC Euthidemus
554–548 BC Unknown Pisistratus expelled around 550 BC
548–547 BC Erxicleides
547–546 BC Thespius Pisistratus becomes tyrant again
546–545 BC Phormion
545–535 BC Unknown
536–535 BC Phrynaeus
535–533 BC Unknown
533–532 BC Thericles
532–528 BC Unknown
528–527 BC Philoneus Hippias[48] and Hipparchus[49] succeed Pisistratus as tyrants
527–526 BC Onetorides
526–525 BC Hippias
525–524 BC Cleisthenes[50] Reforms of Cleisthenes.[51]
524–523 BC Miltiades
523–522 BC Calliades
522–521 BC Pisistratus
521–518 BC Unknown
518–517 BC Hebron
517–511 BC Unknown Hipparchus assassinated around 514 BC[52]
511–510 BC Harpactides Hippias overthrown, Athenian democracy established.
510–509 BC Scamandrius
509–508 BC Lysagoras
508–507 BC Isagoras Cleisthenes competes with Isagoras for archonship, but is expelled by Cleomenes I of Sparta
507–506 BC Alcmeon
506–504 BC Unknown
504–503 BC Acestorides
503–501 BC Unknown
501–500 BC Hermocreon
500–499 BC Smyrus Beginning of the Greco-Persian Wars
499–498 BC Lacratides[53][54]
498–497 BC Unknown
497–496 BC Archias
496–495 BC Hipparchus
495–494 BC Philippus
494–493 BC Pythocritus
493–492 BC Themistocles Themistocles begins to build the Athenian navy. End of the Ionian Revolt.
492–491 BC Diognetus First Persian invasion of Greece.
491–490 BC Hybrilides
490–489 BC Phaenippus Battle of Marathon; Stesileus, Callimachus. Callimachus and Miltiades are strategoi. Hellanicus of Mytilene born (c. 490 BC).
489–488 BC Aristides the Just
488–487 BC Anchises
487–486 BC Telesinus[55][56] Megacles ostracism
486–485 BC Ceures
485–484 BC Philocrates
484–483 BC Leostratus Herodotus born (c. 484).
483–482 BC Nicodemus
482–481 BC Unknown
481–480 BC Hypsichides Outcasts forbidden to form cleruchy on the Geraistos[57] and the Scyllaeum.[58][59][60] Xerxes I of Persia invades.[61]

Classical period[edit]

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
480–479 BC Calliades Golden Age of Athens begins. Second Persian invasion of Greece begins; Battle of Salamis; Aristides and Themistocles are strategoi.
479–478 BC Xanthippus Battle of Plataea; Aristides is strategos
478–477 BC Timosthenes Delian League founded.
477–476 BC Adimantus
476–475 BC Phaedon
475–474 BC Dromoclides
474–473 BC Acestorides
473–472 BC Menon
472–471 BC Chares
471–470 BC Praxiergus
470–469 BC Demotion
469–468 BC Apsephion Birth of Socrates (c. 469 BC)
468–467 BC Theagenides
467–466 BC Lysistratus
466–465 BC Lysanias
465–464 BC Lysitheus Sophanes is a strategos
464–463 BC Archedemides
463–462 BC Tlepolemus Cimon is a strategos
462–461 BC Conon Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus, and is assassinated
461–460 BC Euthippus
460–459 BC Phrasicles War with Sparta, the First Peloponnesian War. Thucydides born (c. 460). Callisthenes of Olynthus born (c. 360).
459–458 BC Philocles Phrynicus, Dicaeogenes and Hippodamas are strategoi; Ctesias of Cnidus born (c. 459).
458–457 BC Habron
457–456 BC Mnesitheides
456–455 BC Callias Aeschylus dies
455–454 BC Sosistratus
454–453 BC Ariston
453–452 BC Lysicrates
452–451 BC Chaerephanes
451–450 BC Antidotus Anaxicrates and Cimon are strategoi
450–449 BC Euthydemus
449–448 BC Pedieus Second Sacred War begins.
448–447 BC Philiscus Pericles, Tolmides and Epiteles are strategoi; Peace of Callias ends the Greco-Persian Wars
447–446 BC Timarchides Construction of the Parthenon begins.
446–445 BC Callimachus
445–444 BC Lysimachides[62] Peace between Athens and Sparta. Age of Pericles begins.
444–443 BC Praxiteles Pericles is a strategos
443–442 BC Lysanias Pericles is a strategos
442–441 BC Diphilus Pericles is a strategos
441–440 BC Timocles Pericles and Glaucon are strategoi[63][64]
440–439 BC Morychides Pericles is a strategos
439–438 BC Glaucinus Pericles is a strategos
438–437 BC Theodorus Pericles is a strategos
437–436 BC Euthymenes Pericles is a strategos. Construction of the Propylaea begins
436–435 BC Lysimachus Pericles is a strategos
435–434 BC Antiochides Pericles is a strategos
434–433 BC Crates Pericles is a strategos
433–432 BC Apseudes Pericles, Lacedaemonius, Diotimus, and Proteas are strategoi
432–431 BC Pythodorus (Second) Peloponnesian War begins; Pericles and Callias are strategoi
431–430 BC Euthydemus Pericles is a strategos. Xenophon of Athens born (c. 430).
430–429 BC Apollodorus Pericles dies; Xenophon, Hestiodorus, Calliades, Melesandrus, and Phanomachus are strategoi.
429–428 BC Epameinon Phormio is a strategos. Plato[65] born.[66][67]
428–427 BC Diotimus Demosthenes, Asopius, Paches, Cleidippes, and Lysicles are strategoi
427–426 BC Eucles Nicias, Charoiades and Procles are strategoi
426–425 BC Euthynus Laches and Hippocrates are strategoi
425–424 BC Stratocles Nicias, Eurymedon, Pythodorus, and Sophocles are strategoi
424–423 BC Isarchus Demosthenes, Cleon, Thucydides and Hippocrates are strategoi
423–422 BC Aminias Cleon is a strategos
422–421 BC Alcaeus Cleon is a strategos
421–420 BC Aristion Construction of the Erechtheion begins.
420–419 BC Astyphilus Alcibiades is strategos
419–418 BC Archias
418–417 BC Antiphon Laches and Nicostratus[68] are strategoi[69][70]
417–416 BC Euphemus Beginning of the Syracusan Expedition
416–415 BC Arimnestus Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus are strategoi
415–414 BC Charias Alcibiades is a strategos
414–413 BC Tisandrus Lamachus is a strategos
413–412 BC Cleocritus Eurymedon, Demosthenes, and Nicias are strategoi; the latter two are executed in Sicily after the Syracusan Expedition fails
412–411 BC Callias Scambonides
411–410 BC Mnasilochus (died); Theopompus Simichus and Aristarchus are strategoi
410–409 BC Glaucippus
409–408 BC Diocles Anytus is a strategos
408–407 BC Euctemon
407–406 BC Antigenes Alcibiades, Adeimantus, and Aristocrates are strategoi
406–405 BC Callias Angelides Archestratus, Thrasylus, Pericles, Lysias, Diomedon, Aristocrates, Erasinides, Protomachus, and Aristogenes are strategoi
405–404 BC Alexias Adeimantus, Eucrates, Philocles, Menandrus, Tydeus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
404–403 BC Pythodorus Sparta sets up the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants; Pythodorus not recognized as Eponymous Archon
403–402 BC Eucleides[71][72] Thirty Tyrants expelled, democracy reestablished. Old Attic alphabet was officially abolished in favor of the Ionic alphabet of twenty-four letters.
402–401 BC Micon
401–400 BC Xenaenetus
400–399 BC Laches
399–398 BC Aristocrates Trial and death of Socrates
398–397 BC Euthycles
397–396 BC Souniades
396–395 BC Phormion
395–394 BC Diophandus[73][74][75] Athens joins the Corinthian War against Sparta
394–393 BC Ebulides
393–392 BC Demostratus Adeimantus is a strategos
392–391 BC Philocles
391–390 BC Nicoteles
390–389 BC Demostratus Thrasybulus and Ergocles are strategoi
389–388 BC Antipatrus Agyrrhius and Pamphilus are strategoi
388–387 BC Pyrgion Thrasybulus and Dionysius are strategoi
387–386 BC Theodotus Sacred Band of Thebes formed.
386–385 BC Mystichides The Corinthian War ends with the Peace of Antalcidas.
385–384 BC Dexitheus
384–383 BC Dietrephes
383–382 BC Phanostratus
382–381 BC Evandrus
381–380 BC Demophilus
380–379 BC Pytheas
379–378 BC Nicon Renewed war with Sparta
378–377 BC Nausinicus Second Athenian Empire begins.
377–376 BC Calleas
376–375 BC Charisandrus Cedon is a strategos. Athenian fleet defeats Spartans at Battle of Naxos.
375–374 BC Hippodamas
374–373 BC Socratides
373–372 BC Asteius Iphicrates, Callistratus, Chabrias, and Timotheus are strategoi
372–371 BC Alcisthenes
371–370 BC Phrasicleides Peace with Sparta. The Spartans are defeated by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra
370–369 BC Dyscinitus
369–368 BC Lysistratus
368–367 BC Nausigenes
367–366 BC Polyzelus
366–365 BC Ciphisodorus Chabrias is a strategos
365–364 BC Chion Iphicrates is a strategos
364–363 BC Timocrates
363–362 BC Charicleides Ergophilus and Callisthenes are strategoi
362–361 BC Molon Leosthenes and Autocles are strategoi; Athens and Sparta are defeated by the Thebans at Mantinea.
361–360 BC Nicophemus Timomachus is a strategos
360–359 BC Callimides Menon, Timotheus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
359–358 BC Eucharistus
358–357 BC Ciphisodotus
357–356 BC Agathocles Chabrias is a strategos. War of the Allies begins.
356–355 BC Elpines Iphicrates, Timotheus, and Menestheus are strategoi. Third Sacred War begins. Hieronymus of Cardia born (356 BC).
355–354 BC Callistratus
354–353 BC Diotemus
353–352 BC Thudemus
352–351 BC Aristodemus
351–350 BC Theellus Theogenes is Basileus (possibly)
350–349 BC Apollodorus[76][77]
349–348 BC Callimachus Hegesileus is a strategos
348–347 BC Theophilus
347–346 BC Themistocles Proxenus is a strategos
346–345 BC Archias
345–344 BC Ebulus Timaeus born (c. 345 BC).
344–343 BC Lyciscus Phocion is a strategos.
343–342 BC Pythodotus
342–341 BC Sosigenes
341–340 BC Nicomachus
340–339 BC Theophrastus Phocion is a strategos
339–338 BC Lysimachides Phocion is a strategos, and is defeated by Philip II of Macedon
338–337 BC Xaerondas Lysicles is a strategos
337–336 BC Phrynichus
336–335 BC Pythodilus
335–334 BC Evaenetus
334–333 BC Ctisicles
333–332 BC Nicocrates
332–331 BC Nicites
331–330 BC Aristophanes
330–329 BC Aristophon
329–328 BC Ciphisophon
328–327 BC Euthicritus
327–326 BC Hegemon
326–325 BC Chremes
325–324 BC Andicles Philocles is a strategos
324–323 BC Hegesias
323–322 BC Ciphisodorus Phocion and Leosthenes are strategoi; The Lamian War with Macedon erupts upon Alexander the Great's death. Partition of Babylon and the formation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
322–321 BC Philocles Wars of the Diadochi begins.
321–320 BC Archippus
320–319 BC Neaechmus
319–318 BC Apollodorus
318–317 BC Archippus
317–316 BC Demogenes Demetrius Phalereus installed by the Macedonian regent Cassander as Governor.
316–315 BC Democleides
315–314 BC Praxibulus
314–313 BC Nicodorus
313–312 BC Theophrastus
312–311 BC Polemon Seleucid Empire begins.
311–310 BC Simonides
310–309 BC Hieromnemon
309–308 BC Demetrius
308–307 BC Charinus
307–306 BC Anaxicrates Lysias is a thesmothete;[78] Demetrius Phalereus is expelled when Demetrius I Poliorcetes captures the city from Cassander.
306–305 BC Coroebus Pamphilus is a thesmothete. Antigonid dynasty begins.
305–304 BC Euxenippus Autolycus is a thesmothete
304–303 BC Pherecles Epicharinus is a thesmothete
303–302 BC Leostratus Diophantus is a thesmothete

Hellenistic period[edit]

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
302–301 BC Nicocles Nicon is a thesmothete. Antipatrid dynasty begins.
301–300 BC Clearchus Mnesarchus is a thesmothete
300–299 BC Hegemachus
299–298 BC Euctemon Theophilus is a thesmothete
298–297 BC Mnesidemus
297–296 BC Antiphates
296–295 BC Nicias Anticrates is a thesmothete
295–294 BC Nicostratus Dorotheus is a thesmothete
294–293 BC Olympiodorus Thrasycles is a thesmothete
293–292 BC Olympiodorus Epicurus is a thesmothete
292–291 BC Philippus
291–290 BC Cimon
290–289 BC Aristonymus
289–288 BC Charinus (?)
288–287 BC Xenophon (?)
287–286 BC Diocles Xenophon is a thesmothete
286–285 BC Diotimus Lysistratus is a thesmothete
285–284 BC Isaeus
284–283 BC Euthius Nausimenes is a thesmothete
283–282 BC Nicias Theophilus is a thesmothete
282–281 BC Ourius Euxenus is a thesmothete. Attalid dynasty begins.
281–280 BC Gorgias
280–279 BC Sosistratus (?)
279–278 BC Anaxicrates Gallic invasion of the Balkans.
278–277 BC Democles
277–276 BC Euboulus (?)
276–275 BC Olbius Cydias is a thesmothete
275–274 BC Philippides (?)
274–273 BC Glaucippus Euthonius is a thesmothete
273–272 BC Unknown
272–271 BC Telocles (?)
271–270 BC Pytharatus
270–269 BC Peithidemus Cleigenes is a thesmothete
269–268 BC Diogeiton Theodotus is a thesmothete
268–267 BC Menecles Theodorus is a thesmothete
267–266 BC Nicias Isocrates is a thesmothete; The Chremonidean War against Macedon begins
266–265 BC Hagnias (?) Potamon is a thesmothete
265–264 BC Philocrates Hegesippus is a thesmothete
264–263 BC Diognetus
263–262 BC Antipatrus
262–261 BC Arrheneides
261–260 BC Cleomachus Aphthonetus is a thesmothete; Athens is captured by Antigonus II of Macedon, ending the Chremonidean War
260–259 BC Polystratus (?)
259–258 BC Unknown
258–257 BC Antiphon (?)
257–256 BC Thymochares (?) Sostratus is a thesmothete
256–255 BC Alcibiades (?)
255–254 BC Euboulus
254–253 BC Philostratus (?)
253–252 BC Lysitheides (?)
252–251 BC Lyceas (?)
251–250 BC Callimedes Callias is a thesmothete
250–249 BC Antimachus Chaerigenes
249–248 BC Thersilochus Diodotus is a thesmothete
248–247 BC Polyeuctus Chaerephon is a thesmothete
247–246 BC Hieron Phaenylus is a thesmothete
246–245 BC Diomedon Phoryscides is a thesmothete
245–244 BC Theophemus Procles is a thesmothete
244–243 BC Philoneus
243–242 BC Cydenor
242–241 BC Eurycleides
241–240 BC Lysiades Aristomachus is a thesmothete
240–239 BC Athenodorus Arcetus is a thesmothete
239–238 BC Lysias
238–237 BC Pheidostratus
237–236 BC Cimon
236–235 BC Ecphantus
235–234 BC Lysanias Eumelus is a thesmothete
234–233 BC Phanostratus (?)
233–232 BC Unknown
232–231 BC Jason
231–230 BC Unknown
230–229 BC Phanomachus (?)
229–228 BC Heliodorus Charias is a thesmothete
228–227 BC Leochares Theocrisius is a thesmothete
227–226 BC Theophilus Philippus is a thesmothete
226–225 BC Ergochares Zoilus is a thesmothete
225–224 BC Nicetes
224–223 BC Antiphilus
223–222 BC Unknown
222–221 BC Archelaus Moschus is a thesmothete
221–220 BC Thrasyphon
220–219 BC Menecrates
219–218 BC Chaerephon
218–217 BC Callimachus (?) Aristoteles is a thesmothete
217–216 BC Unknown
216–215 BC Hagnias Potamon
215–214 BC Diocles Aristophanes is a thesmothete. First Macedonian War begins. (214 BC)
214–213 BC Euphiletus
213–212 BC Heracleitus
212–211 BC Philinus (?)
211–210 BC Aeschron
210–209 BC Unknown
209–208 BC Callaeschrus Archicles is a thesmothete
208–207 BC Ancylus (?)
207–206 BC Pantiades (?)
206–205 BC Callistratus (?) Hagnonides is a thesmothete
205–204 BC Euandrus (?)
204–203 BC Apollodorus
203–202 BC Proxenides Euboulus is a thesmothete
202–201 BC Euthycritus (?)
201–200 BC Nicophon (?) Second Macedonian War begins(200 BC).
200–199 BC Dionysius (?) Polybius born (c. 200 BC).
199–198 BC Philon (?)
198–197 BC Diodotus
197–196 BC Sositeles
196–195 BC Charicles Aeschrion is a thesmothete
195–193 BC Unknown
193–192 BC Phanarchides Seleucid War begins (192 BC).
192–191 BC Diodotus Procles is a thesmothete
191–190 BC Unknown Cephalus is a thesmothete
190–189 BC Hippias (?) Theodosius is possibly a thesmothete
189–188 BC Isocrates (?)
188–187 BC Symmachus Archicles is a thesmothete
187–186 BC Theoxenus Bioteles is possibly a thesmothete
186–185 BC Zopyrus Megaristus is a thesmothete
185–184 BC Eupolemus Stratonicus is a thesmothete
184–183 BC Sosigenes (?)
183–182 BC Hermogenes
182–181 BC Timesianax
181–180 BC Telesarchides
180–179 BC Dionysius (?) Jason is a thesmothete
179–178 BC Menedemus
178–177 BC Philon Philistion is a thesmothete
177–176 BC Speusippus
176–175 BC Hippacus
175–174 BC Sonicus Pausanias is a thesmothete
174–173 BC Unknown
173–172 BC Alexandrus (?) Third Macedonian War begins (172 BC).
172–171 BC Sosigenes
171–170 BC Antigenes Sosandrus is a thesmothete
170–169 BC Unknown
169–168 BC Eunicus Hieronymus is a thesmothete
168–167 BC Xenocles Sthenedemus is a thesmothete
167–166 BC Nicosthenes (?)
166–165 BC Achaeus Heracleon is a thesmothete
165–164 BC Pelops Dionysicles is a thesmothete
164–163 BC Charias (?)
163–162 BC Erastus Demetrius is a thesmothete
162–161 BC Poseidonius
161–160 BC Aristolas
160–159 BC Tychandrus Sosigenes is a thesmothete
159–158 BC Diocles (?) Dionysodorus is a thesmothete
158–157 BC Aristaechmus
157–156 BC Anthesterius
156–155 BC Callistratus
155–154 BC Mnestheus Philiscus is a thesmothete
154–153 BC Epaenetus (?)
153–152 BC Aristophantus (?)
152–151 BC Phaedrias (?)
151–150 BC Andreas (?)
150–149 BC Zeleucus (?) Fourth Macedonian War begins (150 BC).
149–148 BC Micion (?)
148–147 BC Lysiades (?)
147–146 BC Archon Rome takes control of Greece

Roman period[edit]

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
146–145 BC Epicrates
145–144 BC Metrophanes Epigenes is a thesmothete
144–143 BC Hermias (?)
143–142 BC Theaetetus
142–141 BC Aristophon
141–140 BC Pleistaenus (?)
140–139 BC Hagnotheus Menecrates is a thesmothete
139–138 BC Apollodorus
138–137 BC Timarchus
137–136 BC Heracleitus Dionysius is a thesmothete
136–135 BC Timarchides
135–134 BC Dionysius Theolytus is a thesmothete
134–133 BC Nicomachus
133–132 BC Xenon
132–131 BC Ergocles
131–130 BC Epicles Gorgilus is a thesmothete
130–129 BC Demostratus
129–128 BC Lyciscus
128–127 BC Dionysius
127–126 BC Theodorides Sosicrates is a thesmothete
126–125 BC Diotimus
125–124 BC Jason Athenodorus is a thesmothete
124–123 BC Nicias (died); Isigenes
123–122 BC Demetrius
122–121 BC Nicodemus Epigenes is a thesmothete
121–120 BC Phocion (?) Euandros is possibly a thesmothete
120–119 BC Eumachus
119–118 BC Hipparchus
118–117 BC Lenaeus Isidorus is a thesmothete
117–116 BC Menoites
116–115 BC Sarapion Sophocles is a thesmothete
115–114 BC Nausias
114–113 BC Pleistaenus
113–112 BC Paramonus
112–111 BC Dionysius Lamius is a thesmothete
111–110 BC Sosicrates
110–109 BC Polycleitus
109–108 BC Jason Epiphanes is a thesmothete
108–107 BC Demochares
107–106 BC Aristarchus Telestes is a thesmothete
106–105 BC Agathocles Eucles is a thesmothete
105–104 BC Heracleides
104–103 BC Diocles (?)
103–102 BC Theocles
102–101 BC Echecrates
101–100 BC Medeius Philion is a thesmothete
100–99 BC Theodosius
99–98 BC Procles
98–97 BC Argeius
97–96 BC Argeius
96–95 BC Heracleitus
95–94 BC Diocles (?)
94–93 BC Isocrates (?)
93–92 BC Callias
92–91 BC Menedemos (?)
91–90 BC Medeius
90–89 BC Medeius
89–88 BC Medeius
88–87 BC anarchy
87–86 BC Philanthes Rome annexes Athens
86–85 BC Hierophantes
85–84 BC Pythocritus
84–83 BC Aeschraeus (?) Athens is captured by the Roman troops of Lucius Cornelius Sulla
83–82 BC Seleucus (?)
82–81 BC Herecleodorus (?)
81–80 BC Apollodorus (?)
80–78 BC Unknown
78–77 BC Zenion (?)
77–75 BC Unknown
75–74 BC Aeschines
74–73 BC Unknown
73–72 BC Nicetes (?)
72–71 BC Unknown
71–70 BC Aristoxenus (?)
70–69 BC Criton (?)
69–67 BC Unknown
67–66 BC Theoxenus (?)
66–65 BC Medeius (?)
65–62 BC Unknown
62–61 BC Aristeius
61–60 BC Theophemus
60–59 BC Herodes
59–58 BC Leucius
58–57 BC Calliphon
57–56 BC Diocles
56–55 BC Cointus
55–54 BC Aristoxenus (or Aristodemus?)
54–53 BC Zenon
53–52 BC Diodorus
52–51 BC Lysandrus
51–50 BC Lysiades
50–49 BC Demetrius
49–48 BC Demochares
48–47 BC Philocrates
47–46 BC Diocles
46–45 BC Apolexis
45–44 BC Polycharmus
44–43 BC or 43–42 BC Diocles Azenieus
42–41 BC Euthydomus
41–40 BC Nicandrus
40–39 BC Philostratus
39–38 BC Diocles Meliteus
38–37 BC Menandrus
37–36 BC Theopeithes
36–35 BC Asclepiodorus
35–34 BC Unknown
34–33 BC Pammenes (?)
33–32 BC Cleidamus (?)
32–31 BC Epicrates (?)
31–30 BC Polycleitus Phlyeus (?)
30–29 BC Architemus (?)
29–26 BC Unknown
26–25 BC Dioteimus Alaieus
25–21 BC Unknown
21–20 BC Demeas Azenieus
20–19 BC Apolexis
19–16 BC Unknown
16–15 BC Pythagoras
15–14 BC Antiochus
14–13 BC Polyainus
13–12 BC Zenon
12–11 BC Leonides
11–10 BC Theophilus
10–9 BC Unknown
9–8 BC Nicias Athmoneus (?)
8–7 BC Demochares Azanieus (?)
7–6 BC Unknown
6–5 BC Xenon Phlyeus (?)
5–4 BC Apolexis Philocratous ex Oiou (?)
4–3 BC Aristodemus (?)
3–2 BC Nicostratus (?)
2–1 BC Demochares Azenius (?)
1–1 Anaxagoras (?)
1–2 Areius Paianieus (?)
2–3 Cedeides (?)
3–4 Menneas (?)
4–5 Polyainus Marathonius (?)
5–6 Polycharmus Azenius (?)
6–7 Theophilus (?)
7–24 Unknown
24–25 Charmides
25–26 Callicratides
26–27 Pamphilus Julio-Claudian dynasty begins.
27–28 Themistocles Marathonius
28–29 Oinophilus
29–30 Boethus
30–36 Unknown
36–37 Rhoemetalcas the younger
37–38 Polycritus
38–39 Zenon
39–40 Secoundus
40–46 Unknown
45–46 Antipatrus the younger Phlyeus
46–49 Unknown
49–50 Deinophilus
50–54 Unknown
53–54 Dionysodorus
54–55 Unknown
55–56 Conon
56–61 Unknown
61–62 Thrasyllus
62–65 Unknown
64–65 Gaius Carreinas Secundus
65–66 Demostratus
66–91 Unknown Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69). Flavian dynasty begins (AD 69).
91–92 Titus Flavius Domitianus Also Roman Emperor
92–93 Trevilius Rufus
93–94 Unknown
94–95 Octavius Theion
95–96 Octavius Proclus Nerva–Antonine dynasty begins.
96–97 Aeolion
97–98 Unknown
98–99 Coponius Maximus Agnoösius
99–100 Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus
100–101 Flavius Stratolaus Phylesius
101–102 Claudius Demophilus
102–103 Flavius Sophocles Sounieus
103–104 Flavius Pintenus Gargottius
104–105 Flavius Conon Sounieus
105–107 Unknown
107–108 Flavius Alcibiades Paeanieus
108–109 Julius Antiochus Philopappus (died); Laelianus
109–110 Cassius Diogenes
110–111 Flavius Euphanes
111–112 Gaius Julius Cassius Steirieus
112–113 Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Later Roman Emperor
113–114 Deëdius Secundus Sphettius
114–115 Unknown
115–116 Publius Fulvius Mitrodorus Sounieus
116–117 Flavius Macreanus Acharneus
117–118 Unknown
118–119 Maximus Agnoösius
119–126 Unknown
126–127 Claudius Herodes Marathonius
127–128 Gaius Memmius Peissandrus Colytteus
128–131 Unknown
131–132 Claudius Philogenus Visseieus
132–133 Claudius Domitianus Visseieus
133–134 Unknown
134–135 Antisthenes
135–138 Unknown
138–139 Praxagoras Thoricius
139–140 Flavius Alcibiades Paianieus
140–141 Claudius Attalus Sphettius
141–142 Publius Aelius Phileas Meliteus
142–143 Aelius Alexandrus Phalereus
143–144 Publius Aelius Vibullius Rufus
144–145 Syllas
145–146 Flavius Arrianus Paianieus
146–147 Titus Flavius Alcibiades Paeanieus
147–148 Soteles Philippus Estiaeothen
148–149 Lucius Nummius Ieroceryx Phalereus
149–150 Quintus Alleius Epictetus
150–151 Aelius Ardys
151–152 Aelius Callicrates
152–153 Lucius Nummius Menis Phalereus
153–154 Aelius Alexandrus III
154–155 Praxagoras Meliteus
155–156 Popillius Theotimus Sounieus
156–157 Aelius Gelus II
157–158 Lycomedes
158–159 Titus Aurelius Philemon Philades
159–160 Tiberius Claudius Lysiades Meliteus
160–161 Publius Aelius Themison Pammenes Azenieus
161–162 Lucius Memmius Thoricius
162–163 Pompeius Alexandrus Acharneus
163–164 Philisteides Peiraieus
164–165 Pompeius Daidouchus
165–166 Sextus Phalereus
166–167 Marcus Valerius Mamertinus Marathonius
167–168 anarchy
168–169 Tineius Ponticus Besaieus
169–170 anarchy
170–171 Tiberius Memmius Phlaccus Marathonius
171–172 anarchy
172–173 Biesius Peison Meliteus
173–174 Sallustianus Aeolion Phlyeus
174–175 Aurelius Dionysius
175–176 Claudius Heracleides Meliteus
176–177 Aristocleides Peiraieus
177–178 Scribonius Capiton (?)
178–179 Flavius Stratolaus Phylasius
179–180 Athenodorus Agrippas Iteaius
180–181 Claudius Demostratus Meliteus
181–182 Daedouchus
182–183 Marcus Munatius Maximianus Ouopiscus
183–184 Domitius Aristaius Paionides
184–185 Titus Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus
185–186 Philoteimus Arcesidemou Eleousius
186–187 Gaius Fabius Thisbianus Marathonius
187–188 Tiberius Claudius Bradouas Atticus Marathonius
188–189 Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Also Roman Emperor
189–190 Menogenes
190–191 Gaius Peinarius Proclus Agnousius
191–192 Unknown
192–193 Gaius Helvidius Secundus Palleneus Severan dynasty begins.
193–199 Unknown
199–200 Gaius Quintus Imerus Marathonius
200–203 Unknown
203–204 Gaius Cassianus Steirieus
204–209 Unknown
209–210 Flavius Diogenes Marathonius
210–212 Unknown
212–213 Aurelius Dionysius Acharneus
213–220 Unknown
220–221 Titus Flavius (?) Philinus
221–222 Aurelius Melpomenus Antinoeus
222–230 Unknown
230–231 Cassianus Hieroceryx Steirieus
231–233 Unknown
233–234 Vib. Lysandrus
234–235 Epictetus Acharneus
235–240 Unknown Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235).
240–241 Cassianus Philippus Steirieus
241–254 Unknown Diocletian born (AD 244)
254–255 Lucius Flavius Philustratus Steirieus
255–262 Unknown
262–263 Publius Herennius Dexippus (?) Also archon Basileus?
263–264 Unknown
264–265 Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Also Roman Emperor
265–274 Unknown
274–275 Titus Flavius Mondon Phlyeus

Titus Flavius Mondon Phlyeus was the last known Archon. After him, the office was presumably abolished.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

General information
Sources
  • Adapted from my.raex.com
  • Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece New York: Oxford University Press 1997 ISBN 0-19-512491-X
  • Aristotle's Athenian Constitution
  • William Bell Dinsmoor, The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age. Cambridge, 1931 (1966 reprint)
  • William Bell Dinsmoor, The Athenian Archon List in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Columbia University Press, 1939 (1974 reprint, ISBN 0-8371-4735-2)
  • Fox, Robin Lane The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian New York: Basic Books 2006 ISBN 0-465-02496-3
  • Debra Hamel, Athenian Generals: Military Authority in the Classical Period. Koninklijke Brill NV, 1998.
  • Lacey, W. K. The Family in Classical Greece Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 1968
Citations
  1. ^ At first, then, the chief of the city was only a priest. "The charge of the public sacrifices of the city," said Aristotle ("Politics," book viii. (v).) "belongs according to religious custom, not to special priests, but to those men who derive their dignity from the hearth, and who are here called kings, elsewhere prytanes, and again archons."
  2. ^ Michael Rostovtseff, Greece, passim.
  3. ^ The history of ancient civilization: a handbook. By Gustave Ducoudray. Pg 129. (cf. The Athenian archons when they entered upon their duties ascended to the Acropolis wearing crowns of myrtles, and offered a sacrifice to the titular, divinity of the town. It was also customary for them to wear crowns of foliage when they exercised their functions. And it is certain that the crown, which became and which still remains the emblem of power, was then only a religious symbol, an exterior sign, which accompanied prayer and sacrifice. Amongst the nine archons, the second archon, the one called the King, was the representative of the high priestly function of the old Kings, but each of his colleagues had some priestly duty to fulfill, some sacrifice to offer to the gods.)
  4. ^ Gods, Heroes and Tyrants: Greek Chronology in Chaos By Emmet John Sweeney.
  5. ^ Green, Peter (2009). "Diodorus Siculus on the Third Sacred War". In Marincola, John. A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World 2. Oxford, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. p. 364. ISBN 9780470766286. 
  6. ^ Fox The Classical World p. 122
  7. ^ Lacey The Family in Ancient Greece p. 139-145
  8. ^ Adkins Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece p. 35-36
  9. ^ Aristotle Constitution of Athens 3
  10. ^ The son of Codrus was lame, which was why his brother Neileus would not let him rule, but the Delphian oracle bestowed the kingdom upon Medon. For more see Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7. 2. 1.
  11. ^ Constitution of Athens and Related Texts – Page 70
  12. ^ John Blair. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Paternoster Row., 1844. Pg 27
  13. ^ John Lemprière. A Classical Dictionary. Page 183
  14. ^ Pausanias's Description of Greece – Volume 3 – Page 64. (cf. The successors of Codrus were Medon (son of Codrus), Acastus (son of Medon), Archippus (son of Acastus), Thersippus (son of Archippus), Phorbas (son of Thersippus), Megacles (son of Phorbas), Diognetus (son of Megacles), Pherecles (son of Diognetus), Ariphron (son of Pherecles), Thespieus (son of Ariphron), Agamestor (son of Thespieus), Aeschylus (son of Agamestor), Alcmaeon. All these, according to the common tradition, held the archonship for life. After Alcmaeon the tenure of the office was made decennial. The first decennial archon was Charops, the second was Aesimides, and the third was Clidicus. See Eusebius, Chronic. vol. 1. pp. 185–190, ed. Schone.)
  15. ^ A Connection of Sacred and Profane History. By Michael Russell, Michael Russell (bp. of Glasgow and Galloway). Pg 355
  16. ^ See Historicity of the Iliad.
  17. ^ Herodotus 2.53.
  18. ^ When he lived is unknown. Herodotus estimates that he lived 400 years before his own time, which would place him around 850 BC. Other ancient sources claim that he lived much nearer to the supposed time of the Trojan War. Most modern researchers place Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC.
  19. ^ Universal Historical Dictionary. By George Crabb. PG 91
  20. ^ According to Diodorus Siculus (of the 1st century BC).
  21. ^ John Blair. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Paternoster Row., 1844. Pg 30
  22. ^ Herodotus, George Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson. The History of Herodotus: A New English Version, Ed. with Copious Notes and Appendices, Illustrating the History and Geography of Herodotus, from the Most Recent Sources of Information; and Embodying the Chief Results, Historical and Ethnographical, which Have Been Obtained in the Progress of Cuneiform and Hieroglyphical Discovery, Volume 3. Appleton, 1882. Pg 316
  23. ^ See also: Kings of Athens
  24. ^ Evelyn Abbott. A Skeleton Outline of Greek History: Chronologically Arranged. Pg 27.
  25. ^ The Roman Antiquities, Volume 1. By Dionysius (Halicarnassensis). pg 162.
  26. ^ History of Ancient and Modern Greece. By John Frost. Pg 35
  27. ^ According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus
  28. ^ Pausanias's Description of Greece, Volume 3 By Pausanias. Pg 64
  29. ^ Henry-Fines Clinton. Fasti Hellenici, the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the Earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. University Press, 1834 pg 241, Pg 166
  30. ^ Nicolas Lenglet Dufresnoy. Chronological Tables of Universal History: Sacred and Profane, Ecclesiastical and Civil; from the Creation of the World, to the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty-three. With a Preliminary Discourse on the Short Method of Studying History; and a Catalogue of Books Necessary for that Purpose; with Some Remarks on Them, Volume 1. A. Millar, 1762. Pg 124
  31. ^ John Blair. Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables: From the Creation to the Present Time, with Additions and Corrections from the Most Authentic Writers, Including the Computation of St. Paul, as Connecting the Period from the Exode to the Temple. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, Paternoster Row., 1844. Pg 38
  32. ^ Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables. Pg 39
  33. ^ The Journal of sacred literature, ed. by J. Kitto. pg 98
  34. ^ A Classical Dictionary By John Lemprière. Pg 618
  35. ^ William Smith (Ed.) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Oarses-Zygia. J. Murray, 1880. "Terpander". Pg 1002+.
  36. ^ son of Derdenes
  37. ^ according to Laertius
  38. ^ Two discourses on prophecy. By Samuel Farmar Jarvis, William Mille. 1843.
  39. ^ Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh – Royal Society of Edinburgh. pg 142
  40. ^ Gustav Gilbert. The Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens. Swan Sonnenschein & Company, 1895.
  41. ^ A guide to the study of history. [With] Tables. Reviews 1821. Pg 377.
  42. ^ An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece. By Henry Fynes Clinton. Pg 92
  43. ^ The History of Greece. By E. Pococke, J. B. Ottley, John T. Rutt, Thomas Noon Talfourd. Griffin, 1852. Page 515.
  44. ^ The Ionians (Ἴωνες) of Athens participated.
  45. ^ The Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens By Gustav Gilber. Pg 223
  46. ^ Aristotle on the Constitution of Athens By Aristotle, Sir Frederic George Kenyon. Page 47 (cf. the archonship of Comeas is also given on the Parian Marble, as 297 years before the archonship of Diognetus (264 B. 0.), which according to the inclusive method prevalent in the early part of the chronicle (rf. Busolt, I. 493) gives 560 B. C., the date usually adopted.)
  47. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature ; the R.S. Peale Reprint, with New Maps and Original American Articles, Volume 12. Werner Company, 1893. (cf. The first notice of rhapsody meets us at Sicyon, in the reign of Clisthenes [of Sicyon] (600-560 B.c), who, as Herodotus tells us (v. 67), "put down the rhapsodists on account of the poems of Homer, because they are all about Argos and the Argives.)
  48. ^ From Polis to Empire: The Ancient World, C. 800 B.c. – A.d. 500. Edited by Andrew G. Traver. Pg 197.
  49. ^ Plato. The Works of Plato: Philebus, Charmides, Laches, Menexenus, Hippias major, Hippias minor, Ion, First Alcibiades, Second Alcibiades, Theages, The rivals, Hipparchus. Minos, Clitopho, The epistles. H.G. Bohn, 1851
  50. ^ The Athenian Constitution By Aristotle Part 22.
  51. ^ Herodotus, books V and VI: Terpsichore and Erato By Herodotus. Pg 10
  52. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 4 edited by John Boardman. Pg 287.
  53. ^ Fifth Greek reader, Volume 1. Pg 324. {By Evelyn Abbot} (cf. Lacratides is said to have been an archon in the time of Darius I. He was probably a man in some way remarkable for decrepitude in old age. The Scholiast says that a great frost happened in his archonship so that the expression 'as cold as (the archonship of) Lacratides,' became proverbial.)
  54. ^ The Classical Review, Volume 30. Pg 183
  55. ^ Nine archons were appointed by lot by the tribes from 500 nominees chosen by the demes and that this was the method in the Archonship of Telesinus. See also the Areopagite constitution.
  56. ^ University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Volume 66. University of Pennsylvania Law School, 1918.
  57. ^ Geraestus, the southernmost cape of Euboea
  58. ^ Likely the Akra Skilaion (Cape Skyli), a projecting rocky headland, jutting out boldly into the sea, and united to the mainland by a narrow neck or isthmus, so as to form two small but well sheltered bay. See also, the Italian Scylla and Scyllaeum.
  59. ^ Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies, Issue 1. Columbia University Press, 1920. Pg160
  60. ^ The Geraistos-Skyllaion area was the boundary of Attica and perhaps also marked the limit of Athenian influence. For more, see History of the Hellenic world, Volume 2. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1975. Page 350.
  61. ^ Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies, Issue 1. pg 160
  62. ^ Chronological Tables of Greek History. By Carl Pete. Pg 52
  63. ^ Classical Philology. Pg 53
  64. ^ The Works of Xenophon: & II and Anabasis. 1890 By Xenophon. Pg 98
  65. ^ The Tlatun of the Arabs and Persians, an eminent philosopher of Greece.
  66. ^ Son of Ariston and Perictione; original name was Aristocles but he received the name of Plato from the breadth of his forehead and chest. Plato, Epicharmus, and others adopted a philosophy similar to that of the Vedanta, a system of perceptions of primary or secondary qualities.
  67. ^ Edward Balfour. The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. Volume 4. Pg 604.
  68. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology By William Smith. Pg 1200
  69. ^ Thucydides: Arguments. Peloponnesian War, Book III (cont'd.)-VI By Thucydides. Pg 208
  70. ^ Laches and Nicostratus commanded a force which consisted of a thousand heavy-armed and three hundred horsemen.
  71. ^ Sophocles: The Oedipus Coloneus. 3d ed. 1900 By Sophocles, Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb. Pg 4. (cf. Micon was [the Archon of] 402 B.C., Callias of [the Archon of] 406 B.C. Between them came Alexias (405), Pythodorus (404, the Anarchy), and Eucleides (403).)
  72. ^ The Attica of Pausanias By Pausânias. Pg 36
  73. ^ Also known as Diophantus.
  74. ^ The History of Greece, Volume 4 By Ernst Curtius, William Alfred Packard. Pg 296
  75. ^ Henry-Fines Clinton. Fasti Hellenici, the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the Earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. University Press, 1841. Pg 102
  76. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Abaeus-Dysponteus edited by William George Smith. Pg 232
  77. ^ Sir William Smith. Abaeus-Dysponteus.J. Murray, 1890 Pg236
  78. ^ The name “Thesmothetes” applied to every Archon; only as the first three were ordinarily designated by other titles, the six who had no special designation came to be regarded as properly a law, and was so used by Solon (Fr. xxiv. l. 2). In early times the distinction between laws and decrees or edicts is unknown.