Baltiysk

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Baltiysk (English)
Балтийск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Балтийск-коллаж1.jpg
Views of Baltiysk
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Baltiysk is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Baltiysk
Baltiysk
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Baltiysk in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°39′N 19°55′E / 54.650°N 19.917°E / 54.650; 19.917Coordinates: 54°39′N 19°55′E / 54.650°N 19.917°E / 54.650; 19.917
Coat of Arms of Baltiysk (Kaliningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaliningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative district Baltiysky District[1]
Town of district significance Baltiysk[1]
Administrative center of Baltiysky District,[1] town of district significance of Baltiysk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Municipal district Baltiysky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Baltiyskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Baltiysky Municipal District,[2] Baltiyskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Head[citation needed] Maksim Brychuk[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 32,697 inhabitants[3]
Time zone USZ1 (UTC+03:00)[4]
Founded 13th century[citation needed]
Town status since 1725[citation needed]
Previous names Pillau (until 1946)[5]
Postal code(s)[6] 238520–238522, 238525, 238527, 238528
Dialing code(s) +7 40145[citation needed]
Official website
Baltiysk on WikiCommons

Baltiysk (Russian: Балти́йск), prior to 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Polish: Piława; Lithuanian: Piliava), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay. Baltiysk is the westernmost town of Russia. Population: 32,697 (2010 Census);[3] 33,252 (2002 Census);[7] 27,070 (1989 Census).[8]

The town is a major naval base of the Baltic Fleet and a ferry port on the route to St. Petersburg.

History[edit]

Prussian village[edit]

A Prussian fishing village sprang up on the coast at some point in the 13th century, taking its name from pils, the Old Prussian word for "fort".[citation needed] A great tempest created the navigable lagoon in front of the village on September 10, 1510. This fostered the growth of Pillau into an important port of the Duchy of Prussia. A blockhouse was constructed in 1537, followed by a system of storehouses in 1543 and the earliest fortifications in 1550.

During the Thirty Years' War, the Swedes occupied the harbor in the aftermath of their victory over the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. King Gustavus Adolphus landed there with his reinforcements in May 1626. After the ceasefire of Altmark in 1629, the Swedes retained Pillau and set out upgrading its fortifications. They constructed a star fort which remains one of the town's landmarks. In 1635, the citizens of Pillau paid the ransom of 10,000 thalers, whereupon Swedish forces handed over the settlement to the Elector of Brandenburg.

Prussian town[edit]

Lighthouse and Peter the Great monument

By the end of the 17th century, the town had expanded considerably. A lighthouse and a stone church were built. Peter the Great of Russia visited Pillau on three occasions, the first being in 1697, in connection with his Great Embassy to Western Europe. There is a statue of the Tsar next to the lighthouse. After Pillau was granted town privileges in 1725,[citation needed] the town hall was constructed. This Baroque edifice, inaugurated in May 1745, was destroyed at the end of World War II.

Russian forces occupied the town during the Seven Years' War and built a small Orthodox church there. The event is commemorated by the equestrian statue of Empress Elizabeth, unveiled in 2004. In June 1807, Pillau was stormed by Napoleon's Grand Army. No outstanding events took place during the rest of the 19th century. Records of a Scottish "colony" established here in 1815 appeared in an 1890 publication, although their authenticity is questionable. The lighthouse was built up to a height of 31.38 meters (103.0 ft) and the entire fortress was updated and rebuilt by the Prussians in 1871.

Economic demise[edit]

On November 15, 1901, a ship canal was opened between the Frisches Haff and Königsberg. Constructed at a huge cost of thirteen million marks, the waterway allowed vessels of a 21 feet (6.4 m) draught to moor alongside the city or to sail to the capital of East Prussia without stopping at Pillau. This dealt a serious blow to the town's economy.

World War II[edit]

Evacuation of German civilians from Pillau, January 26, 1945, fleeing from the Red Army

During World War II, Pillau had a U-boat training facility. On April 16, 1945, the U-78 was sunk by Soviet artillery fire while she was docked near the electricity supply pier in the German port. This was the only U-boat to be ever sunk by land-based forces in World War II.

As the Red Army entered East Prussia, more than 450,000 refugees were ferried from Pillau to central and western Germany. Pillau was eventually captured by Soviets on April 25, 1945.

Post-war changes[edit]

Old church

After the war, this part of East Prussia passed to the Soviet Union and the German inhabitants were expelled. During the Russification campaign, the town's name was changed to Baltiysk in 1946.[5]

In 1952, the Soviet authorities inaugurated a naval base of the Baltic Fleet of the Soviet Navy at Baltiysk. As a result, it became a closed town: access was forbidden to foreigners or those without a permit. During the Cold War it was served by the Baltiysk air base. The town, along with Kaliningrad, remains one of only two year-round, "ice-free" ports along the Baltic Sea coastline available to Russia.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Baltiysk serves as the administrative center of Baltiysky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated within Baltiysky District as the town of district significance of Baltiysk.[1] As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Baltiysk is incorporated within Baltiysky Municipal District as Baltiyskoye Urban Settlement.[2]

Climate[edit]

Baltiysk has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb).[9] Winters are cold to mild, while summers are warm. In July and August, the warmest season, high temperatures average 21 °C (70 °F) and low temperatures average 15 °C (59 °F). In January and February, the coldest season, high temperatures average 3 °C (37 °F) with low temperatures averaging −2 °C (28 °F).

Climate data for Baltiysk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.5
(58.1)
17.1
(62.8)
14.9
(58.8)
25.0
(77)
27.1
(80.8)
29.4
(84.9)
31.7
(89.1)
31.3
(88.3)
26.7
(80.1)
22.6
(72.7)
17.1
(62.8)
17.0
(62.6)
31.7
(89.1)
Average high °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
2.5
(36.5)
4.6
(40.3)
9.7
(49.5)
14.9
(58.8)
17.8
(64)
20.6
(69.1)
21.0
(69.8)
16.8
(62.2)
12.4
(54.3)
6.4
(43.5)
3.5
(38.3)
11.1
(52)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.4
(32.7)
2.5
(36.5)
7.0
(44.6)
11.7
(53.1)
15.0
(59)
17.9
(64.2)
18.4
(65.1)
14.4
(57.9)
10.1
(50.2)
4.6
(40.3)
1.4
(34.5)
8.7
(47.7)
Average low °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.3
(32.5)
4.0
(39.2)
8.2
(46.8)
11.8
(53.2)
14.8
(58.6)
15.6
(60.1)
12.1
(53.8)
8.1
(46.6)
2.9
(37.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−17.6
(0.3)
−12.9
(8.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
1.4
(34.5)
7.8
(46)
8.1
(46.6)
4.3
(39.7)
−1.4
(29.5)
−8.8
(16.2)
−14.8
(5.4)
−20.8
(−5.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 65
(2.56)
54
(2.13)
50
(1.97)
41
(1.61)
53
(2.09)
71
(2.8)
78
(3.07)
69
(2.72)
73
(2.87)
62
(2.44)
66
(2.6)
73
(2.87)
752
(29.61)
Source: Kaliningrad-meteo.ru[10]

Landmarks[edit]

Historical buildings in and around the town include the pentagonal Pillau Citadel, founded by the Swedes in 1626, completed by the Prussians in 1670, renovated in 1870, and currently holding a naval museum; the ruins of the 13th-century Lochstadt Castle; a maze of 19th-century naval fortifications; the Naval Cathedral of St. George (1866); the 32-meter (105 ft) Expressionist observation tower (1932); the Gothic Revival building of the Baltic Fleet Museum (1903); and an elegant lighthouse, dating from 1813-1816. A stone cross, erected in 1830 to commemorate the supposed spot of St. Adalbert of Prague's martyrdom, was destroyed by the Soviets and restored a millennium after the event, in 1997.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Landsat satellite photo taken circa 2000

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Baltiysk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #640
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #274
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 36. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Weatherbase Climate Summary
  10. ^ "Kaliningrad-meteo.ru". Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Elbląg - Podstrony / Miasta partnerskie". Elbląski Dziennik Internetowy (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  12. ^ "Elbląg - Miasta partnerskie". Elbląg.net (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-01. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №274 от 3 июля 2008 г «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования "Балтийский городской округ"», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №124, 11 июля 2008 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #274 of July 3, 2008 On the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Baltiysky Urban Okrug", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Baedeker, Karl, Northern Germany, 14th revised (English-language) edition, Leipzig, London, and New York, 1904.

External links[edit]