Battery (chess)

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a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
d8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
d7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black bishop
h7 black pawn
c6 black knight
g6 black pawn
c3 white knight
d3 white rook
f3 white knight
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
f2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
d1 white rook
g1 white king
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The white rooks form a battery to capture the pawn protecting the black king. It is particularly effective to form a battery using rooks: the rooks may be combined to occupy the same rank or file, whereas bishops normally cannot occupy the same diagonal. In this situation, Black has to defend the pawn under attack, possibly with his knight.

A battery in chess is a formation that consists of two or more pieces on the same rank, file, or diagonal. It is a tactic involved in planning a series of captures to remove the protection of the opponent's king, or to simply gain in the exchanges.

Other chess authors limit battery to "an arrangement of two pieces in line with the enemy king on a rank, file, or diagonal so that if the middle piece moves a discovered check will be delivered."[1] However, in Chessgames.com blogs and game annotations of other chess websites, the term is also used in cases where moving the middle piece will uncover a threat other than a check along the opened line.[2]


Discussion and examples[edit]

It is particularly effective to form a battery using rooks because they may be combined to occupy the same rank or file. In theory, bishops may also form a battery in a case of underpromotion of a pawn to a bishop occupying the same diagonal as the other bishop. In actual games, however, the queen and rooks are often employed.

Batteries are often used as part of a combination which may involve other types of chess tactics as well. In some chess openings, the queen is often involved in the set up, and becomes part of a battery but is reserved for the final capture in the series of exchange of pieces.[3] For example, in the main line of the Closed Sicilian characterized by 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.g3 g6 4.Bg2 Bg7 5.d3 d6, where White's main options are 6.Be3 followed by Qd2 and 0-0-0; and 6.f4 followed by Nf3 and 0-0, White's intention is to form a battery with his rooks.

a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
b8 black knight
d8 black queen
e8 black king
h8 black rook
a7 black pawn
b7 black pawn
e7 black pawn
f7 black pawn
g7 black bishop
h7 black pawn
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
g6 black pawn
f4 white pawn
c3 white knight
d3 white pawn
e3 white rook
f3 white knight
g3 white pawn
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
e2 white queen
g2 white bishop
h2 white pawn
c1 white king
e1 white rook
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It is often more effective to involve the queen in forming a battery with the rooks as shown. The battery is attacking the pawn protecting the black king. In this situation, Black has to defend the pawn to be captured, possibly with his bishop, or any of his knights, or by playing e6 or e5.
a b c d e f g h
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 white king
a7 white pawn
b7 white knight
c7 black king
a6 white bishop
h6 black pawn
d5 black bishop
b4 white pawn
h2 black pawn
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6 6
5 5
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White's knight protecting his king cannot be moved and if Black forms a battery with his light-square bishop and either a queen or another bishop once the pawn gets promoted in h1, mate is imminent.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992), The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-866164-9 
  2. ^ "ChessGames.com". Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  3. ^ Golombek, Harry (1977), Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess, Crown Publishing, ISBN 0-517-53146-1 

External links[edit]