Cleveland Clinic

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Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland Clinic logo.png
Earlyhospital.jpg
The original Clinic building opened its doors in 1921
Geography
Location 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, United States
Organization
Care system Private
Hospital type Academic
Affiliated university Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Services
Standards JCAHO accreditation
Magnet[1] status
Beds 1440
History
Founded 1921
Links
Website www.clevelandclinic.org
Lists Hospitals in the United States
Other links List of hospitals in the United States

The Cleveland Clinic (formally known as The Cleveland Clinic Foundation) is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. The Cleveland Clinic is regarded as one of the top four hospitals in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.[2] The hospital was established in 1921 for the purpose of providing patient care, research, and medical education. The Cleveland Clinic was ranked number one in America for cardiac care from 1994 to 2014.[3]

Cleveland Clinic is also an Ohio nonprofit corporation[4] which as of December 2010 had 10 regional hospitals in Northeast Ohio, a hospital and family health center in Florida, a health center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and a specialty center in Las Vegas.

History[edit]

George Washington Crile (1864 - 1943), a founder of the Cleveland Clinic.

The Cleveland Clinic was founded in February 1921 by four Cleveland physicians. Three of the founders, Frank Emory Bunts, senior member, George Washington Crile, and William Edgar Lower, shared a medical practice on the west side in 1892. They desired to establish a group practice and invited an internist, John Phillips, to join in their endeavor. With loans from Cleveland Trust Company, as well as personal guarantees, the founders established the Cleveland Clinic Foundation to fund and operate the hospital under the guidance of Edward C. Daoust, son-in-law of Dr. Frank Emory Bunts.[citation needed]

The four doctors assumed positions as officers in the hospital in February 1921.

The hospital grew over time. It suffered a major setback in 1929 which almost closed its doors permanently. On May 15, 1929, a fire started in the basement of the hospital caused by nitrocellulose x-ray film that spontaneously ignited. The fire claimed 125 lives, including that of one of the founders, Dr. Phillips.[5] Following this fire and the subsequent Great Depression, the Cleveland Clinic regained momentum and eventually obtained national recognition, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In the decades since World War II, the hospital has grown further.

Research[edit]

The Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute is home to all laboratory-based, translational and clinical research at Cleveland Clinic, having total annual research expenditures of about $250 million from the National Institutes of Health and other funding sources in 2008. With about 1,500 residents and fellows, the Cleveland Clinic’s graduate medical education program is one of the largest in the country.[6] A medical school, the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, was opened in 2004.

Reputation[edit]

The Cleveland Clinic was ranked as the fourth best hospital in America for complex and demanding situations according to the 2013 U.S. News & World Report America's Best Hospitals report[2] and ranked number one for cardiac care for 20 years in a row.[3]

Altogether, fourteen specialties at the Cleveland Clinic were ranked among the best in the nation by U.S. News & World Report in 2014: heart (cardiology) and cardiac surgery (#1); digestive disorders (gastroenterology) (#2); urology (#1); rheumatology (#2); orthopedic surgery (#3); nephrology (#2); respiratory disorders (pulmonology) (#3); neurology and neurosurgery (#6); endocrinology (#2); gynaecology (#3); ophthalmology (#7); otolaryngology (#6); cancer (oncology) (#13); and geriatrics (#9).[7]

In 2007, Steven Nissen, MD, Chairman of the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world (Time 100) by Time.

Cleveland Clinic strives for its technological efficiency, and was described by Newsweek as "a hospital trying to be a Toyota factory".[8] When Newsweek contacted a dozen hospitals for data on cancer patient outcomes, Cleveland Clinic was the only one which could provide its own data in detail and open to the public.[8]

On February 23, 2011, Becker's Hospital Review listed Cleveland Clinic under the 50 Best Hospitals in America.[9]

Patient Safety Concerns[edit]

Between 2010 and 2013, Cleveland Clinic was placed on CMS "termination track" (to lose $1B annually in Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement) for serious safety violations. Within a few hours of the Modern Healthcare cover story 8 June 2014,[10] CEO Cosgrove issued a press release declining his consideration for the Secretary of Veterans Affairs VA position. Modern Healthcare disclosed "stonewalling" by Cleveland Clinic officials in the CMS investigations of patient harm.[11] CMS cited Condition and Standard violations of patient rights, informed consent, governing body, medical staff, surgical staff, foreign objects left in patients, da Vinci surgery without patient knowledge, unreported operating room fires injuring patients, etc. Cosgrove was personally cited by CMS for his failures.[12] CMS cited the Urology Department for having no credentialing of staff or residents and no privileging requirements for use of the da Vinci robot in two consecutive surveys. CMS data for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HACs) gave Cleveland Clinic a score of 8.7 (1-10 possible with 10 being the worst) placing Cleveland Clinic in the bottom 7% of all hospitals. Leapfrog Group awarded Cleveland Clinic with the first ever “D” rating for patient safety.[13]

In August 2012, Consumer Reports rated the Cleveland Clinic 98th among 105 rated hospitals in the State of Ohio for overall patient safety, with a score of 39 out of 100 possible points. Nationwide, the top 10 hospitals in this survey received scores of 68 to 72, and the bottom 10 hospitals received scores of 16-25.[14]

Medical firsts[edit]

The Cleveland Clinic has been the site of numerous medical firsts, including:

Campus and location[edit]

A portion of the Cleveland Clinic's main campus

The main campus of the Cleveland Clinic consists of 41 buildings on about 140 acres (57 ha) near University Circle, in the Fairfax neighborhood of Cleveland. The Cleveland Clinic operates 14 family health and ambulatory surgery centers in surrounding communities, a multispecialty hospital and family health center in Weston, Florida, and an outpatient clinic in Toronto, Ontario.[23]

The Cleveland Clinic serves its community through ten northeast Ohio hospitals plus affiliates:

Ashtabula County Medical Center (ACMC) is one of the affiliates of the Cleveland Clinic. The Cleveland Clinic has a children's hospital located within the main campus and at its Shaker Campus.

Future growth[edit]

Vascular surgeon Kenneth Ouriel was selected in 2007 to serve as CEO of the Cleveland Clinic's specialty hospital in Abu Dhabi.[24]

In September 2006, the Clinic announced plans to operate a specialty hospital in UAE, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, to be built and owned by the UAE government.[25] This facility is scheduled to open in early 2015.[26] The current president and CEO of the Clinic, Delos M. "Toby" Cosgrove, M.D., recently indicated plans to expand into other markets abroad including Austria, Abu Dhabi,[27] and Singapore.[28]

Finances[edit]

The Clinic has about 35,000 employees across the United States[29] and revenues exceeding $4.4 billion annually. In August 2011, Becker's Hospital Review listed the Cleveland Clinic as number two on the 100 Top Grossing Hospitals in America with $9.14 billion in gross revenue.[30]

At $2.7 billion, the Clinic's endowment rivals those of top American universities.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ aling.org/magnet/index.html ANCC Magnet Recognition Program
  2. ^ a b Leonard, Kimberly. "Best Hospitals 2013–14: Overview and Honor Roll". US News & World Report. Retrieved July 16, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Cleveland Clinic tops U.S. News list for heart care 20 years running". Cleveland Plain Dealer. July 15, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-26. 
  4. ^ Board of Directors. Cleveland Clinic.
  5. ^ Bunts, Alexander, MD & Crile, George, Jr., MD; "To Act as a Unit, The Story of the Cleveland Clinic," The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, February, 1971
  6. ^ "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History:CLEVELAND CLINIC FOUNDATION". Ech.cwru.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-11. 
  7. ^ News & World Report "Best Hospitals 2014–15". U.S. News & World Report Website. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 26, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Adler J. (2009). The Hospital That Could Cure Health Care. Newsweek.
  9. ^ Becker's Between 2010 and 2013, Cleveland Clinic was placed on CMS "termination track" (to lose $1B annually in Medicare/Medicaid reimbursement) for serious safety violations. Within a few hours of the Modern Healthcare cover story 8 June 2014 (http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20140607/MAGAZINE/306079939/cleveland-clinic-cases-highlight-safety-oversight-flaws?utm_source=frontpage&utm_medium=newsitem309&utm_campaign=carousel-traffic), CEO Cosgrove issued a press release withdrawing his name from consideration for Secretary of the Veterans Administration. Modern Healthcare disclosed "stonewalling" by Cleveland Clinic officials in CMS investigations of patient harm. (http://www.modernhealthcare.com/inspections) CMS cited Condition and Standard violations of patient rights, informed consent, governing body, medical staff, surgical staff, foreign objects left in patients, da Vinci surgery without patient knowledge, unreported operating room fires injuring patients, etc. Cosgrove was personally cited by CMS for his failures (https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B6FohU_aOdk5WXEyZjBfTlJpaWs/view?usp=sharing). CMS cited the Urology Department for having no credentialing of staff or residents and no privileging requirements for use of the da Vinci robot in two consecutive surveys. CMS data for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HACs) gave Cleveland Clinic a score of 8.7 (1-10 possible with 10 being the worst) placing Cleveland Clinic in the bottom 7% of all hospitals. Leapfrog Group awarded Cleveland Clinic with the first ever “D” rating for patient safety.( http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/page-1/LED-286906/Leapfrogs-New-Safety-Report-Card-Alarms-Hospitals%29 ) Hospital Review
  10. ^ "Cleveland Clinic cases highlight safety oversight flaws - Modern Healthcare". 
  11. ^ "Selected Cleveland Clinic hospital inspection reports - Modern Healthcare". 
  12. ^ "20150429 CMS Letters to CEO Cosgrove_Redacted.pdf - Google Drive". 
  13. ^ "Leapfrog’s New Safety Report Card Alarms Hospitals". 
  14. ^ "www.leapfroggroup.org" (PDF). 
  15. ^ "www.jbc.org" (PDF). 
  16. ^ Meyer, Bill. "Having his say: Larynx transplant patient progresses, even feels strong enough to sing". THE PLAIN DEALER. The Plain Dealer. Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  17. ^ Wang, L; Fan, C., Topol, S.E., Topol, E.J., and Q.Wang (November 2008). "Mutation of MEF2A in an inherited disorder with features of coronary artery disease". Science 302 (5650): 1578–1581. doi:10.1126/science.1088477. PMC 1618876. PMID 14645853. 
  18. ^ PHALEN GS, GARDNER WJ, LA LONDE AA (January 1950). "Neuropathy of the median nerve due to compression beneath the transverse carpal ligament". J Bone Joint Surg Am 32A (1): 109–12. PMID 15401727. 
  19. ^ Phalen GS (March 1966). "The carpal-tunnel syndrome. Seventeen years' experience in diagnosis and treatment of six hundred fifty-four hands". J Bone Joint Surg Am 48 (2): 211–28. PMID 5934271. 
  20. ^ Altman, Lawrence K. (December 16, 2008). "First Face Transplant Performed in the U.S.". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-25. 
  21. ^ Cleveland Clinic. "Cleveland Clinic performs first transvaginal kidney removal, plans a second". Blog.cleveland.com. Retrieved 2013-04-11. 
  22. ^ Townsend, Angela (April 9, 2012). "Single-sperm freezing technique at Cleveland Clinic results in first successful pregnancy". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 16, 2012. 
  23. ^ www.clevelandcliniccanada.com
  24. ^ Sarah Treffinger, June 04, 2007,Cleveland Plain Dealer, Clinic to expand in Abu Dhabi, Accessed August 27, 2013, quote = ... Dr. Kenneth Ouriel ... moved to Abu Dhabi to serve as chief executive officer.
  25. ^ February 2009, Cleveland Plain Dealer
  26. ^ [1]
  27. ^ [Becker's Healthcare http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/lists/50-of-the-most-powerful-people-in-healthcare-2015.html]
  28. ^ Tue, Nov 29, 2011 @ 10:23 AM (2011-11-29). "4 Ways the Cleveland Clinic Represents the Model for Hospital and Healthcare Innovation". Globalpartnersinc.com. Retrieved 2013-04-11. 
  29. ^ Cleveland.com
  30. ^ Oh, Jaimie (2011-08-29). "100 Top Grossing Hospitals in America | Lists". Beckershospitalreview.com. Retrieved 2013-04-11. 
  31. ^ "Charity Navigator Rating - Yale University". Charitynavigator.org. Retrieved 2013-04-11. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°30′08″N 81°37′03″W / 41.50236°N 81.61755°W / 41.50236; -81.61755