|Full name||Club Deportivo Guadalajara S.A. de C.V.|
|Founded||8 May 1906|
Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
|Chairman||Dennis te Kloese|
|Manager||José Luis Real|
Club Deportivo Guadalajara (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkluβ ðeporˈtiβo ɣwaðalaˈxaɾa]); often simply known as Guadalajara [gwaðalaˈxaɾa], and commonly known as the Chivas [ˈt͡ʃiβas]) is a Mexican professional football club based in Guadalajara, Jalisco. Guadalajara plays in the Liga MX with 11 First Division titles, 7 Campeón de Campeones, 1 InterLiga, 1 Copa Challenger, 4 Copa Oros de Occidente, and 2 Copa México. Guadalajara is one of the ten founding members of the Mexican First Division and along with longstanding rivals Club América, it has never been relegated to the second-tier division. Most recently, Guadalajara is the runner-up of the 2010 Copa Libertadores, a feat tying with fellow Mexican club Cruz Azul in 2001.
Guadalajara is the only football club in Mexico to exclusively field Mexican players. The team has constantly emphasized home-grown (cantera) players and has been the launching pad of many internationally successful players, including Javier Hernández, Carlos Vela, Omar Bravo, and Carlos Salcido among others. The team's three colors (red, white, and blue) symbolize "Fraternity, Union, and Sports". The team mascot, as well as their nickname, is the goat or chiva. Chivas is one of Mexico's most successful and popular teams, and holds the Mexican league record for the longest winning streak at the beginning of a season, with 8 consecutive wins.
- 1 History
- 2 Colors and badge
- 3 Stadium
- 4 Rivalries
- 5 Players
- 6 Club officials
- 7 Copa Libertadores record
- 8 Managerial history
- 9 Honors
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Foundation and the Amateur Era 1906–1943
The team was founded by Edgar Everaert, who arrived in Mexico in 1904. Their kit was modeled on that of the founder's favourite team, the Belgian Club Brugge K.V., borrowing the vertical stripes and colour scheme of the Brugge strip in that era (Brugge has since changed their team colours). Some historians assert that the colours came from the French Tricolour because some of the club's first players were French. The first team comprised Mexican, Belgian and French players, named "Union" because of the camaraderie between the players of different nationalities, most of whom were employees of the Fábricas de Francia store, with founder Everaert as coach. A few Spanish and English also became members of the Unión Football Club.
On a tour of Europe, Everaert noticed that European teams named after their respective town or city seemed to generate more support from fans in their communities. So, in 1908, with the approval of Everaert and the players, Club de Futbol Union was renamed as Club Deportivo Guadalajara to engender a sense of loyalty within the city's population. In 1908, it was also decided that the team would only field Mexican-born players because of the growing sense of oppression Mexican nationals felt towards non-Mexican nationals. Following the aftermath of the Mexican Revolution, amateur football tournaments throughout the country flourished and Guadalajara was always involved. Between 1906 and 1943 (the amateur era of Mexican football and the Primera Fuerza), Guadalajara won 13 amateur titles, the first in 1908. Also during this period, the oldest rivalry in Mexican football began to form, between Guadalajara and F.C. Atlas.
Professional Era, El Ya Merito 1943–1953
In 1943 the Liga Mayor was founded after the merging of several regional leagues and the era of professional football began. Guadalajara struggled during the early years, with the exception of the 1948–49 season when they finished third. This same year Guadalajara was given the name "chivas locas" (crazy goats) during a game against Atlas. The name was initially considered an insult, but later adopted as the team's nickname due to the overwhelming popularity of the club. During the 1951–52 and 1954–55 seasons, the team finished as runner-up in the league, leading to the nickname "ya merito" ("almost there!").
El Campeonísimo 1955–1970
During the 1956 season, players such as Salvador "Chava" Reyes, Jaime "El Tubo" Gomez, Isidoro Lopez, and Jose Villegas were part of what is considered one of the finest teams in Mexican football history, El Campeonísimo. Guadalajara won its first championship during this season due to a last minute goal scored by Salvador Reyes. Led by coaches such as Donald Russ and Javier de la Torre in subsequent years, the team won seven league championships, two cups, three CONCACAF titles and seven Champion of Champions titles. It was the only team in Mexico's football history to win four league championships in a row, during the 1958–59, 1959–60, 1960–61, and 1961–62 seasons. El Campeonísimo became internationally recognized and, in 1964 played several matches in Europe against such teams as FC Barcelona, Werder Bremen, and Lille Olympique, resulting in two victories, four draws and four losses for the team.
The Dark Era 1971–1983
During the 1970s and early 1980s, Guadalajara struggled. The best they could manage was to reach the play-offs twice, with a fifth place finish in 1971–72 and a sixth place finish in 1976–77.
The Resurrection 1983–1991
During 1980–81 season, the team reached a third-place ranking. During the 1981–82 season, a tragic road accident took the life of team member José Martínez. The team finished the season in seventeenth place.
The Club then hired coach Alberto Guerra, who had been a player for Guadalajara during the mid '60s. During the 1982–83 season, Guadalajara finished seventh in the league and qualified for the playoffs, going on to eliminate Atlante F.C. in quarter-finals and Club América in Semifinals. The team reached the Finals for the first time since the playoff format was introduced in the '70s, where it would go on to lose to Puebla F.C. in a penalty shootout. Guadalajara would once again reach the Finals in 1983–84, only to lose to America by an aggregate score of 5–4. However they would continue being very competitive the rest of the '80s and early '90s., with their very best performance on the 1986–87 season, where they would finish 1st in the regular season and win the Championship against Cruz Azul in the final. Their best players during this time were Benjamín Galindo, Eduardo De La Torre|Eduardo "Yayo" De La Torre, José Manuel De La Torre, Fernando Quirarte, Javier Aguirre among other.
"La Promotora" Era 1992-02
By the end of the 1980s, Guadalajara began to experience financial troubles. Team directors decided to create a special financial sector that would be known as La Promotora Deportiva. The team would be "sold" for 10 years starting in 1992 to a petroleum executive named Salvador Martinez Garza, who would be in charge of the Promotora and of team operations. Before Guadalajara began its new era under the Promotora, the team began the 1990s in average form, reaching the Semifinals in 90–91, reaching the Quarterfinals in 91–92, and finishing in thirteenth place in 92–93.
The new directors decided to bring back Guadalajara's champion coach in 1986–87 Alberto Guerra and purchase many players that would become icons for Guadalajara in the early '90s: Missael Espinoza, Alberto "Guameru" Garcia, and Alberto Coyote. The team also decided that it would rely on young talent from its basic training schools. Such talent included Paulo Cesar "Tilon" Chavez and Joel "Tiburon" Sanchez. At the beginning of the 93–94 season, the press and fans dubbed the new and improved team Las Superchivas. However, despite expectations, the team was eliminated early on in the playoffs. The 94–95 season would bring about more change for the team. Guadalajara hired player Ramón Ramírez. Also at the start of the season, directors sold all television rights of the team to Mexican giant Televisa, a move that was heavily criticized by fans because of Televisa's ownership of Club América. Guadalajara would end the 1993–1994 regular season as the leader in the league table, but was narrowly defeated by Club Necaxa in Semis. The 96–97 season saw the exit of coach Alberto Guerra, being replaced by the Dutchman Leo Beenhakker. The team failed to make the playoffs that season.
By 1996, the Primera División de México season format would be changed to two short seasons per year. The first of the seasons, Invierno 1996, saw Guadalajara bring in another coach, Brazilian Ricardo Ferretti. During Ferretti's first season, the team managed to reach third place in the league table, but would be eliminated by Club Necaxa in the Quarterfinals. Guadalajara won its 10th championship under Ferretti in the Verano 1997 season against Toros Neza with the aggregate score of 7–2. Guadalajara would once again reach the Finals in the Invierno 1998 season, only to once again lose to Necaxa. The fans criticized the sale of player Ramon Ramirez to Club América.
Jorge Vergara Era 2002–present
After its tenth year in charge of Guadalajara, La Promotora was still in debt and finally put up for sale. On 31 October 2002, the team was acquired by a Guadalajara native and self-made entrepreneur, Jorge Vergara. Vergara was the founder of a dietary supplement company named Omnilife. Vergara hired directors that would be in charge of handling business affairs. He also removed all sponsorship from Guadalajara's jersey; the jersey has since had limited sponsorship.
In order to establish funding for the team, Vergara sought to market the Las Chivas name and capitalize on it, placing the name on anything from its own magazine to toothbrushes and its own brand of cola.
For the Clausura 2003 season, Guadalajara hired Eduardo "Yayo" de la Torre, who had played for the team in the 1980s. The Apertura 2003 season would see poor results in the first half of the tournament, putting an end to "Yayo" de la Torre's tenure as coach. Coaching responsibilities would be temporarily assumed by Dutchman Hans Westerhof (who was in charge of the team's basic training school) and the team would barely qualify for a wild card showdown against Club Deportivo Toluca, but was subsequently eliminated. For the Apertura 2004, Guadalajara would display an offensive style of football and managed to place third in the league standings, qualifying for the playoffs. Players such as goalkeeper Oswaldo Sánchez, Ramon Morales, Omar Bravo, and newly acquired Adolfo Bautista, became instant fan favorites. They defeated Atlante F.C. in the Quarterfinals and Toluca in the Semifinals, but would lose in the Finals against Pumas UNAM in a penalty shootout. Nevertheless, the team had shown, since Vergara's arrival, that it was highly competitive, including in the 2005 Copa Libertadores, where it defeated favorites Boca Juniors 4–0 agg. to reach Semis. Under coach José Manuel "Chepo" de la Torre, who was also a player for Guadalajara in the 1980s, the team won its 11th championship. For the Apertura 2006 season, Las Chivas placed eighth in the league table and qualified for the knock-out round (the "Liguilla") by defeating Veracruz 2–1 in Veracruz and 4–0 in the Estadio Jalisco in a wild card series. Guadalajara advanced to the Quarterfinals where it defeated first place qualified Cruz Azul 2–0 in the first leg and tied 2–2 in the second leg (4–2 aggregate), moving on to the semi-finals against rivals Club América.
These wins allowed Las Chivas to advance to the final of the Primera División against Toluca. The first match was played at Estadio Jalisco, in which Toluca and Las Chivas tied 1–1 with goals from Omar Bravo for Las Chivas and Bruno Marioni for Toluca. On 10 December 2006, Las Chivas played at Toluca's home stadium Estadio Nemesio Díez and won 2–1 (3–2 aggregate), thus becoming the Mexican League champions, holding 11 titles, the most titles of any team in the league. The first goal was scored by Francisco Javier Rodriguez, and the second was by Adolfo Bautista. Bautista dedicated his goal and his team's victory to his mother, who had died shortly before. This championship was goalkeeper Oswaldo Sánchez's first in his career. After the Apertura 2006 championship the team has gone through a series of changes beginning with the departure of players like Oswaldo Sánchez, Adolfo Bautista, and Omar Bravo who went to play to Spain but returned later, however new faces like Jared Borgetti, Carlos Ochoa who these two left the team later and Sergio Amaury Ponce came to the team. José Manuel de la Torre was fired in the Apertura 2007 tournament and replaced by Efrain Flores who coached until being replaced first by Omar Arellano Nuño who only coached one league game and two Copa Libertadores games, and then being replaced by Francisco Ramirez who had an unsuccessful period as a team coach having the lowest percentage of effectiveness of all the coaches hired in the last seven years. After Ramirez poor results he was fired and replaced by Raul Arias, a former coach of Necaxa and San Luis. Then on 4 November 2009, Raul Arias was fired and replaced by Jose Luis Real. Coach Jose Luis Real lead the team to an explosive start of the Bicentenario 2010 tournament, winning its first 8 games in a row. Nevertheless, their winning streak was broken against a low table team, the Jaguars of Chiapas, losing by a score of 4–0. Las Chivas continues to be a major source for the Mexican national team in recent years. Under Jose Luis Real Chivas saw many young and promising players blossoming even more rapidily than expected.
The New Dark Era 2011–present
Since the release of Jose Luis Real as coach in October 2011, Chivas have struggled to maintain form, finding themselves with 6 coaches(Fernando Quirarte, Ignacio Ambríz, Alberto Coyote, John van 't Schip, Benjamin Galindo, Juan Carlos Ortega) in the past 2 years and are now in danger of being relegated to the second division for the first time in history. On November 22, Guadalajara put six players in the transfer list for the upcoming season, including Marco Fabian, Luis Michel, and Hector Reynoso, who is the current longest player that has been in the sqaud since 2000. On November 25, 2013, Jose Luis Real was announced to return to Club Guadalajara as head coach.
Colors and badge
Once the team was renamed in 1908 as Club Guadalajara, they used initials, C.G., in the center of the jersey. After a few years of the team's existence, the first proper crest was designed, still using the team's initials. They were eventually placed around a circle. This design would be used in the team's limited edition Centennial jerseys in 2006.
Guadalajara's current crest was designed in 1923 and uses as its base, the crest of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco. The crest was then complemented with a blue circle and the words Club Deportivo Guadalajara, five red stripes and six white stripes, eventual colors that were adopted by the team, and eleven stars representing each championship the team has won. The actual crest design is credited to brothers Everardo and Jose Espinosa, Angel Bolumar, and Antonio Villalvazo, all of whom were players or directors of the team during that time.
|1986–1987||Le Coq Sportif||None||1987–1988||Le Coq Sportif||Nissan|
|1988–1989||Eder do Brasil||Nissan||1989–1990||Adidas|
|1990–1991||Adidas||1991–1992||Lotería Nacional de México|
|1999–2000||Cemento Tolteca||2000–2001||Cemento Tolteca|
- JVC is a brand of property of the team's president, Jorge Vergara (JVC are the initials of his father's name, Jorge Vergara Cabrera), although these are manufactured by Grendene de México S.A. de C.V.
From the 1930s to 1960 Guadalajara played in a small stadium known as "Parque Oblatos". Guadalajara shared the Estadio Jalisco, with their town rivals Atlas. Estadio Jalisco was opened on 31 January 1960. It was host for eight games in the 1970 FIFA World Cup, six for group stage matches, and two for quarter and semi-finals. The stadium was host for nine games in the 1986 FIFA World Cup, six of which were group stage matches, and one was a round of sixteen and the last two were quarter and semifinals. Chivas played in the Jalisco Stadium from 1960 to 2010. Due to the aging structure of the stadium and the desire of Chivas to have an own stadium (Jalisco Stadium was always shared with various teams from the city such as Atlas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Club Oro among others.) Chivas administration with an investment of 130 million dollars began to build a new home.
In 2010, Jorge Vergara opened a new stadium to be used as Las Chivas' new home field. The stadium, named Estadio Omnilife after the nutrition company owned by Vergara, has the form of a volcano with a cloud on top. The idea of the design is to integrate the stadium with nature because of its proximity to a forest area. It is also used for conventions and as a Business JVC Center. Construction of the stadium began in May 2007 and concluded in July 2010. The stadium seats are colored red except for the loge seats which are white. It has a large main entrance and 18 exits. Total seating capacity is 49,850 which includes 330 suites with capacities of 9, 11, 12 and 13 guests. An underground parking lot is available for suite renters which holds up to 850 cars and a parking outside the stadium with a capacity for 8000 cars. The new stadium also has a store, museum, and various food and beverage concessions. A climbing wall and an area for children are planned to be built for a near future. The stadium's opening date was 30 July 2010. The opening match on that day was a friendly between Las Chivas and Manchester United in which Chivas defeated Manchester United 3–2, with the first goal scored by Javier Hernandez.
El Súper Clásico
Las Chivas has developed two important rivalries over the years. Perhaps its most intense rivalry is with Mexico City-based Club América. Their meetings, which have become known as El Súper Clásico, are played at least twice a year and signal a national derby. Both are the most successful and most popular teams in Mexico. The first confrontation between them ended with a victory for Guadalajara with a score of 3–0.The rivalry began to flourish after the second match when Club América defeated Chivas de Guadalajara with a score of 7–2. Although the huge defeat sparked embarrassment within Chivas, it was almost two decades before the rivalry became The Clásico. One of the very reasons why these two teams are arch rivals is because in 1983 and 1986 they brawled with each other, raising excitement among the fans. Thus, every time they play it is considered a match that everyone will remember. To this day, El Súper Clásico continues to raise huge excitement in the whole country as well as in other parts of the world where there are fans of either team. The intensity of the game is lived so passionately that every time these two teams play a game, regardless of what position they are in on the charts or what level they show throughout the league, it is always considered the most important game of the season.
El Clásico Tapatío
The Clásico Tapatío, as it is known, is considered the oldest local derby in Mexican football since its inception in 1916, being a game that is lived with great passion on the part of supporters of both clubs. In the early stages the Chivas started to dub players of Atlas by calling them "Margaritas". In reaction to the name, a group of Atlas supporters reacted by claiming that their rivals ran like "Chivas Locas" (Crazy Goats) and to the Chivas players it was considered an insult. Over time the meaning of "Chivas" changed due to the popularity of the club and now it is an honor to be named a Chiva. They both shared the same stadium Estadio Jalisco which causes controversies with the fans and the police.
El Clásico Chiva
The first meeting between the two teams came in 2007 in Guadalajara’s previous home stadium, Estadio Jalisco. A ‘return leg’ was scheduled for the following year in the United States but it did not happen until 2009, when the two clubs met in Pasadena’s Rose Bowl Stadium for the first official "Chiva Clásico" on American soil; Guadalajara defeated Chivas USA 2-0 with goalsfrom Omar Arellano in front of over 20,000 fans. A year later, the LA-based team earned their first Chiva Clásico trophy in PETCO Park in San Diego after beating the brother club in penalties after a draw. Although they are called as brother teams with respect, fans from both sides believe their Chiva team is better causing excitement when both teams face each other.
- As of July 2013.
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
For recent transfers, see List of Mexican football transfers summer 2013.
- Chivas USA
- Affiliate team that plays in the Major League Soccer in the first level of the United States and Canadian soccer league system.
- Chivas Rayadas
- Reserve team that plays in the Segunda División in the third level of the Mexican league system.
- Reserve team that plays in the Tercera División in the fourth level of the Mexican league system. The games are held in the Verde Valle training facilities. They are coached by Joaquín Moreno.
- 8 – Salvador Reyes, Forward (1953–1967, 2008)
- 12 – Club Supporters ("The 12th Man")
- 22 – José Martínez González, Midfielder (1970–1981)
Top goalscorers in domestic league
Players in bold are still active with the team.
- Salvador Reyes (122)
- Omar Bravo (108)
- Eduardo de la Torre (90)
- Benjamín Galindo (78)
- Maximiano Prieto (72)
- Crescencio Gutiérrez (72)
- Javier de la Torre (70)
- Javier Valdivia (69)
- Francisco Jara (68)
- Ramón Morales (66)
Most appearances in domestic league
Players in bold are still active with the team.
- Ramón Morales (373)
- Hector Reynoso (360)
- Alberto Medina (323)
- Benjamín Galindo (305)
- Omar Bravo (298)
- Joel Sánchez (282)
- Oswaldo Sánchez (272)
- Owner: Jorge Vergara
- Honorary president: Angélica Fuentes
- Chairman: Dennis te Klose
- Reserve team chairman: Salvador Flores Martell
- Sporting president: Francisco Palencia
- Director of Communications: Eugenia Valdez Flores
- Coaching staff
- Manager: José Luis Real
- Assistant manager: Héctor Real Casillas
- Assistant manager: Marco Antonio Ruíz
- Goalkeeping coach: Luis Valls
- Strength & conditioning coach: Guillermo Hernández
- Reserve team manager: Jesús Rodríguez
- Director of youth football: Juan Carlos Ortega
- Medical staff
- Club doctor: Dr. Rafael Ortega
- Assistant club doctor: Alberto Robles
- First team physiotherapist: María Madrigal Valadez
- Masseurs: Alfredo Torres Sánchez, Jaime Castillo Jiménez
- Club dietician: Juan Ramón Arana
Copa Libertadores record
|Copa Libertadores record|
|2009*||Round of 16||6||2||3||1||9||7|
- Guadalajara withdrew from the tournament following concerns raised over the H1N1 flu outbreak in Mexico, and later secured a place in the round of 16 for the 2010 Copa Libertadores.
As of November 2013
- Liga Occidental: (13)
- 1908–09, 1909–10, 1911–12, 1921–22, 1922–23, 1923–24, 1924–25, 1927–28, 1928–29, 1929–30, 1932–33, 1934–35 and 1937–38
- Campeón de Campeones
- Torneo de una Tarde
- Primera División: (11)
- 1956–57, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1969–70, 1986–87, Verano 1997, and Apertura 2006
- Copa México: (2)
- 1963, 1970
- Campeón de Campeones: (7)
- 1956–1957, 1958–1959, 1959–1960, 1960–1961, 1963–1964, 1964–1965, and 1969–1970
- Copa Challenger
- Central American Champion: (2)
- Central American in 1959, North Central American and Caribbean in 1962
- Copa Libertadores de America
- Runner-up: 2010
- I Mexico City International Pentagonal Tournament: 1958
- III Mexico City International Pentagonal Tournament: 1958
- II Jalisco International Pentagonal: 1962
- "Fiestas de Octubre" Quadrangular: 1982
- Copa Internacional Los Angeles: 1982
- Jalisco International Quadrangular: 1994
- "Copa Informador de Futbol" Los Angeles: 1999
- Copa Coliseo: 1998
- Copa Reforma: 1911
- Torneo de Primavera: 1917
- Medalla de la Junta de Festejos Patrios de la Villa de Zapopan: 1917
- Medalla Colón: 1918
- Medalla Caridad: 1918
- Copa Militarización: 1918
- Copa Deportivo Nacional de Torreón: 1919
- Copa Eugenio Pinzón: 1921
- Copa Francia: 1921–22
- Copa Fábricas de Francia: 1924
- Campeonato Oficial de Segunda Fuerza: 1924–25, 1928–29, 1934–35, 1937–38
- Campeonato Categoría Juvenil: 1928–29
- Trofeo Casino Español: 1928
- Copa Presidencial: 1953
- Copa de Oro: 1954–1956
- Trofeo de Don Adolfo López Mateos (4):. 1959, 1960, 1961, 1963
- Campeonato de Segunda Categoria de Occidente: 1939
- Campeonato Oficial de Tercera Fuerza: 1928–29, 1937–38.
- Torneo de la Ciudad de Guadalajara: 1961
- Trofeo Campeonísimo: 1961–62
- Copa Presidente Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
- Copa California: 1977
- Campeón 1a. División Amateur: 1983–84
- Copa Europa: 1985
- Trofeo al Equipo menos goleado: 1991–92
- Copa México de Segunda División: 1996
- Copa Estrella del Milenio: 1999
- Campeón Juvenil: 1998
- Copa Pachuca: 2000
- Copa Tecate (2): 1994, 2001
- Copa León: 2003
- Campeón de Filiales de Segunda División: Apertura 2004, Apertura 2006, Clausura 2008.
- Liga Premier de Ascenso: Torneo Revolución 2011
- Campeón de Filiales de Tercera División: Clausura 2005, Apertura 2005, Bicentenario 2010
- Torneo Nacional Sub-15: Invierno 2011, 2013
- Torneo Nacional Sub-17: Apertura 2011, Clausura 2012, Apertura 2013
- Torneo Nacional Sub-20: Clausura 2013
- Copa Diario ESTO: 2006
- Copa Marval: 2009
- Copa 100 años de la UNAM: 2010
- Copa Gol Marketing: 2011
- Copa Jalisco: 2013
- Gonzalez, Raymundo. "Cantera de Chivas evita pérdida millonaria". mediotiempo.com. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- "Chivas Guadalajara". Fifa.com. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- Los 80s[dead link]
- Los 80;s[dead link]
- La Promotora[dead link]
- Soy de Chivas | Yo te sigo Rebaño[dead link]
- "Die Führungsetagen: Televisa vs. Vergara". Transfermarkt.de. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Vergara Bio". Economia.com.mx. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "5 questions to Jose Luis Real". CHAMPS.ws. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Escudo". Chivascampeon.com. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Estadio Chivas Official Site". Estadiochivas.com.mx. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Chivas VS America Bronca 1983 on YouTube
- Chivas Vs America Bronca 1986 on YouTube
- "Squad profiles". C.D. Guadalajara. Retrieved November 2013.
- "CD Guadalajara History". RSSSF.com. Retrieved 19 June 2012.