|Full name||Club de Fútbol América S.A. de C.V.|
|Nickname(s)||Las Águilas (The Eagles)
Los Azulcremas (The Blue-Creams)
Los Millonetas (The Million-ateds)
|Founded||12 October 1916|
|Apertura 2014||1st (Champions)|
|Website||Club home page|
Club de Fútbol América S.A. de C.V., commonly known as Club América or América, is a Mexican professional football club based in Mexico City. It competes in the Liga MX, the top professional league in the country. The team's nickname is Las Águilas (The Eagles).
América was founded on 12 October 1916, and is owned by media company Grupo Televisa. The team plays its home games at the Estadio Azteca, the largest stadium in Mexico and Latin America, and the third largest association football-specific stadium in the world.
The club has a long-standing rivalry with Guadalajara, and are the only clubs to never have been relegated to the second division. Matches between them are known as El Súper Clásico. América also play local derbies against Cruz Azul and Universidad Nacional.
América is the most successful club in Mexico. Domestically, the club has a record twelve national titles. América also have eight FIFA recognized international club trophies, the most for a club from the CONCACAF region and tying them with Santos FC, Olimpia, and Étoile du Sahel worldwide. They have won five CONCACAF Champions' Cups, two Copa Interamericana cups, and one CONCACAF Giants Cup.
In 2010, the International Federation of Football History and Statistics named América "Central and North American club of the 21st Century".
- 1 History
- 2 Crest and colors
- 3 Grounds
- 4 Rivalries
- 5 Support
- 6 Sponsorship
- 7 Personnel
- 8 Players
- 9 Managers
- 10 Presidents
- 11 Honours
- 12 International competitions
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
By 1917 football was already a popular sport in Mexico, particularly amongst college students in Mexico City. College students from Colegio Mascarones and Colegio Marista de la Perpetua formed two football teams with the names Récord and Colón. On 12 October 1916, the two squads decided to consolidate to make a more competitive squad. Many names were considered for this new squad, and team player Pedro "Cheto" Quintanilla suggested América since they had formed the team on Columbus Day (Día del descubrimiento de América). The players agreed and soon designed a crest which had the map of America centered with a 'C' for "Club" on the left and an 'A' for "America" on the right. The players had to decide on their team colours. Rafael Garza Gutiérrez went to get some of his father's navy blue trousers and a yellow shirt and it was decided amongst the group that those would be the club's colors.
In 1916, Club América had to prove itself in order to be accepted into the Mexican Football League, which primarily consisted of foreign players. At the time, América was the only team in Mexico City with an all-Mexican club. Necaxa, Atlante, Real Club España, Germania, and Asturias were already members of the Liga Mayor de la Ciudad. América's acceptance into the league depended on three games. In order to be accepted, América could not lose any of the three games. América subsequently won two games and tied the third. América was accepted as a result and formed part of the league.
In 1919, the team changed its name to Club Unión, due to bad results with the original name. The new name didn’t fare too well either and was changed back to América in 1920. From 1924 to 1928, América was crowned league champion and was able to attract impressive crowds. In 1926, América became the first Mexican club to play outside of Mexico. Aside from broadening their horizons, Club América along with Atlante petitioned to reduce the number of foreign players in the league. Shortly after the Mexican Football Federation was formed in 1928, Rafael Garza Gutiérrez, América's founder, was designated as the National Team head coach. Most of the Mexican national team that participated in the 1928 Summer Olympics and 1930 World Cup were players that played for América.
Up until 1942, every league in Mexico was considered a regional league even though the league in Mexico City was considered the strongest of them all. In 1942–43, the first National League was established and it was known as the Liga Mayor (Major League). Club América wasn't the team it had been during the 1920s on through the early 1930s. Aging players, lack of resources, and lack of interest took its toll on the club which led the team to become a bottom-feeder for much of the beginning stages of the professional era7.
During this time, the rivalry between América and Guadalajara was born, especially during the 1945–1946 season in which Guadalajara beat América 6–4 and 4–2. The 1951–1952 season saw América reach their lowest point in the table, reaching position 11 out of 12 with merely a 3-point-difference from Veracruz, who were eventually relegated.
In 1956, the club was sold to soft drink manufacturer Jarritos. The new owner was trying to build upon the club's National Cup titles in 1954 and 1955 against Guadalajara, their soon to be rival. During the 1954–55 season América won their first Campeón de Campeones championship, defeating Zacatepec 2–3. The owner failed to build upon the previous success and on 22 July 1959, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, owner of Telesistema Mexicano, bought América from Isaac Bessudo. Following the acquisition, Azcárraga told his players, "I do not know much about football, but I do know a lot about business, and this, gentlemen, will be a business7".
The 1959–1960 season saw América reach second place for the first time, behind Guadalajara. On 21 April 1964, at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario, the team, now coached by Alejandro Scopelli, defeated Monterrey 6–5 in the final match of the Copa México. During the match Alfonso Portugal scored five of the six goals for América; José González scored the other goal to win the championship.
In 1965 América regained the Mexican "Copa" championship, beating the "Canarios" of Morelia 4–0 on 7 March at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario in Ciudad Universitaria. The goals were scored by Javier Fragoso and Vavá, each scoring twice.
After the 1970 FIFA World Cup (which Mexico hosted), the league tournament format was changed in order to bring more excitement over the championship's dispute, hence the Liguilla (play-offs) format was born. The first play-off final was in 1971 between the leaders of groups 1 and 2, Toluca and América. América got a 0–0 draw playing as visitor and defeated Toluca 2–0 in the Azteca Stadium to win their second championship. The following season saw a playoff match between rivals Cruz Azul and América, who beat them 1–4 in the Azteca Stadium. Revenge was assured for América in the 1973 Copa Mexico, defeating Cruz Azul 2–0. After some years of not qualifying to the playoffs, América reached first place in group one in the 1975–1976 season, beating Tecos UAG and Union de Curtidores to reach the final, playing against Universidad de Guadalajara. América won the championship after beating U de G in the Jalisco Stadium 3–0 and later 1–0 in the Azteca Stadium, winning their third title. They also won the Campeon de Campeones title by beating Tigres UANL 2–0.
In 1977, América participated in their first Copa Interamericana, playing against Argentine club Boca Juniors, winners of that year's Copa Libertadores. After losing the first-leg and winning the second, América would win the championship in a playoff match in 1978 by a score of 2–1 after extra-time, with a last second free-kick goal by midfielder Carlos Reinoso. América became the first team from Mexico and from the CONCACAF region to win the competition. América also became the first confederation side to earn the "double" in a single year as it won the delayed 1977 CONCACAF Champions' Cup.
The 1980s are generally considered América's "golden decade". During this time, América won the league title five times, including three consecutive titles; the 1983–84 season, the 1984–85 season, the Prode 1985, the 1987–88 and 1988–89 seasons. They also won the Mexican Super Cup twice, in 1987–88 and 1988–89, and they won the 1987 CONCACAF Champions' Cup.
The 1983–1984 season saw América reach the top of the table and reach the finals. The opponent was Guadalajara, and América defeated them in the Azteca Stadium 3–1. The following season América once again reached the finals, this time against UNAM Pumas. After two draws in both the Azteca Stadium and the Mexico '68 Stadium, the last game was played in the Estadio Corregidora in Querétaro, where Daniel Brailovsky secured the championship for América by scoring two goals with the final score of 3–1.
Due to Mexico hosting the 1986 World Cup and stadium and infrastructure preparations, the tournament was split in two short tournaments: Prode-85 and Mexico-86. América got the top of their group in the Prode-85 and defeated Universidad de Guadalajara and Atlante to get to the final round, where they played Jaibos Tampico Madero. The game in Tampico was a 4–1 victory for Tampico, but at the Azteca Stadium, América beat Tampico Madero 4–0 to win the championship.
For the 1987–88 final América played UNAM in a replay of the 1985 final. They defeated UNAM by an aggregate score of 4–2. The following season, América once again reached the league final and faced Cruz Azul, which was the first time the two clubs met in the final since 1972. The first-leg finished in a 3–2 victory for América. A 2–2 draw in the second-leg meant América won the championship by a 5–4 aggregate score.
In the 1990s, América won only the CONCACAF Champions' Cup in 1990, an Interamericana Cup Championship in 1993, and a second CONCACAF Champions' Cup in 1993. During the 1990–1991 season, América dominated its group and reached the playoffs to eliminate Universidad de Guadalajara in the quarterfinal round and Guadalajara in the semifinal round, only to reach the final and lose to UNAM.
In 1994, club president Emilio Diez Barroso announced the hiring of Dutch manager Leo Beenhakker, who had previously coached Spanish club Real Madrid to a La Liga title. The club also announced the signing of two African players, Cameroon international François Omam-Biyik and Zambian national team captain Kalusha Bwalya. Other Mexican players such as Joaquín del Olmo, Raúl Gutierrez, among others were signed as well. América finished the season with 51 points, and scoring 88 goals. With only a few matches remaining in the regular season, Beenhakker was fired as manager. It was rumored that conflict between the coach and Diez Barosso regarding Beenhacker's defending of playing Del Olmo was the reason for his sacking. América reached the semifinals, losing to Cruz Azul. This América team is considered one of the best in the club's history, despite not winning any silverware.
In 1998 América, along with Guadalajara, became the first Mexican clubs to participate in the Copa Libertadores tournament. They were inserted in a group where both teams confronted clubs from Venezuela. América finished in second position of the qualifying stage and advanced to the group stages. América was put in Group 3 along with Guadalajara and Brazilian clubs Grêmio and Vasco da Gama. América qualified to the next round finishing in third place, being eliminated by Argentine club River Plate.
On 19 April 2006, América defeated fellow-Mexican side Toluca to win the CONCACAF Champions' Cup, thus qualifying for the FIFA Club World Cup that same year. At the tournament, América won its first match against Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors of South Korea. América went on to lose the next match against Spanish side FC Barcelona. It ended its participation in the tournament, losing the match for third place to Al-Ahly of Egypt.
After the Club World Cup, América qualified for the playoffs of the Clausura 2007 defeating Atlas and Guadalajara in the quarter and semi-finals. They played the final against Pachuca, finishing runners-up.
For the Apertura 2007, after starting off the season on a poor run, Luis Fernando Tena was sacked, and was replaced by Daniel Brailovsky. After finishing third in their group and sixth in the general standings, América played Morelia for the last spot in the playoffs, being beaten 3–0 in the first-leg, and winning 1–0 in the second-leg. With this, América was eliminated from the competition.
América also participated in the Copa Sudamericana, reaching the finals to play against Arsenal de Sarandí of Argentina. They would lose the first-leg at the Estadio Azteca by a 2–3 score, and win 2–1 in Argentina. The aggregate result was 4–4, but due to the away goals rule, Arsenal won the championship.
The Clausura 2008 saw América end in next-to-last place in the general standings. This had not been seen since the mid-1950s. In the first five months of 2008, América was showered with twelve defeats, two draws and three victories, which resulted in the third-straight tournament without qualifying for the playoffs. The manager at the time was Rubén Omar Romano, who was one of the least successful coaches in the club's history. Coincidently, after being replaced by Juan Antonio Luna, América got their third victory of the Clausura against Monterrey. Despite their poor domestic form, América fared well in the Copa Libertadores, defeating Brazilian side Flamengo in the round-of-16 3–0 at the Estádio do Maracanã, overturning a 2–4 first-leg deficit, and advancing to the quarter-finals.
For the Apertura 2010, América brought back former manager Manuel Lapuente, who lead the club to the league title in 2002. The return of striker Vicente Matías Vuoso and the signing of Uruguayan Vicente Sánchez gave América one of the most dangerous front lines in all of the league. They finished the tournament in first place of Group 2, fourth in the general standings, with 27 points. With this, they would advance to the playoffs, and automatically qualify for the first time since 2008, for the 2011 Copa Libertadores. They would be eliminated in the semi-finals by Santos Laguna by a 4–5 aggragate score.
América had a bad start to the Clausura 2011 tournament. With a 0–2–1 record in the first three games the tournament, Lapuente was sacked. His successor would be Carlos Reinoso, who had already managed the club two times before. His first game was against Atlas, which América won 2–0. América ended the Clausura with an 8–1–5 record. They would be eliminated in the quarter-finals by Morelia.
On 18 September 2011, Reinoso was sacked as manager, with Alfredo Tena taking over as interim-manager. América would finish the Apertura in 17th place, the second worst finish in the club's history. On 8 November, Michel Bauer stepped down as President. That same day, former América player Ricardo Peláez was presented as Sporting President, while Yon De Luisa would be named Operations President. Miguel Herrera was presented as the club's new manager, the fourth in a year. In his first year at the helm, Herrera brought the team to the semi-finals on two consecutive occasions.
On 26 May 2013, América won their eleventh league title by defeating Cruz Azul in the Clausura final 4–2 on penalties after a dramatic comeback from a 0–1 first-leg loss to win 2–1 in the second-leg, and tie 2–2 on aggregate, with goalkeeper Moisés Muñoz scoring the second goal in injury-time. With this, América tied Guadalajara for most league titles. For the Apertura 2013, América finished the regular phase of the tournament at the top of the standings with 37 points and would again appear in the league final, though failing to achieve a repeat, being defeated by León by an aggregate score of 1–5.
On 17 December 2013, Antonio Mohamed was announced as América's new manager for the Clausura 2014 tournament, replacing Miguel Herrera after two years in charge. América would finish fifth in the standings, and was eliminated in the quarter-finals by Santos Laguna due to the away-goals rule after drawing 6–6 on aggregate.
América finished the Apertura 2014 tournament at the top of the general standings with 31 points, and defeated UNAM and Monterrey in the quarter-finals and semi-finals, respectively. Prior to the league final, the club was marred with controversy, such as media speculation regarding the future Antonio Mohamed (he ultimately admitted he would leave the club after the final), and the separation of Paul Aguilar from the team before playing the first-leg of the semi-finals. On 14 December, América won a record-twelfth league title after defeating UANL 3–1 on aggregate in the final, coming back from a 0–1 first-leg loss to win 3–0 in the second-leg at the Estadio Azteca.
Crest and colors
When Club América was founded in 1916, the crest consisted of the letter 'C', standing for "Club", overlapped by an 'A', which stood for "América". After a brief period in which the team's name was changed to Club Unión, it was reverted to Club América in the mid-1920s, and the crest was modified, with a map of the Americas behind the 'CA', and encased in a football, all in the team's colors - which where cream and blue. Since then, the badge has seen minimal change, such as the removal of a line at the crest's center at the beginning of the 21st century. During the early 1980s, the crest was surrounded by an image of an eagle (due to the club's nickname), and was even enclosed in a triangle.
The most recent modification of the crest was in 2010, with the yellow and blue more vibrant and a darker outline and border.
Club founder Rafael Garza Gutiérrez chose what would be América's first uniform. He took some of his father's navy blue trousers and a yellow-cream shirt and it was decided amongst the other players that those would be the club's colors. It would not be until the 1980s that the colors changed, with the cream replaced with a more solid yellow. América also played with a white shirt, but it was not as common.
During the Apertura 2011 tournament – what would be the club's 95th anniversary – a commemorative jersey was unveiled paying homage to the original uniform, as well as an altered crest. The uniform was used during the league match against Guadalajara.
América plays its home games at the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City. The stadium was designed by Mexican architect Pedro Ramírez Vázquez, and was inaugurated on 29 May 1966 with a match between América and Torino, which was tied 2–2. The first goal was scored was by Brazilian Arlindo Dos Santos and the second by José Alves. Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, President of Mexico, made the initial kick and Sir Stanley Rous, FIFA President, was the witness.
The club has shared the stadium as a home ground with the Mexico national football team since its inauguration. Other club sides have also used the stadium as their home at different times, namely Necaxa (1966–70 and 1982–2003), Atlante (1966–82, 1996–2001 and 2004–2007), Universidad Nacional (1967–1969), Atlético Español (1970–1982) and Cruz Azul (1971–1996).
As well as acting as a home ground the stadium has also hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics, 1970 FIFA World Cup, 1975 Pan American Games, 1983 FIFA World Youth Championship, 1986 FIFA World Cup, 1999 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2011 FIFA U-17 World Cup Final, Copa Interamericana, Copa Libertadores de América, music concerts, political events and the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1999.
El Súper Clásico
- América vs. Guadalajara
- América vs. Club Universidad Nacional
- The rivalry between Club América and Club Universidad Nacional is known as the "Clásico Capitalino", played between two of the three teams which represent Mexico City and the metropolitan area of the Primera División de México. The first match between these two clubs was on 1 July 1962, where América hosted UNAM who had recently been promoted from the second division. In Mexico the match is often perceived as the representation of a struggle between two antagonistic powers and institutions: Club América has always been regarded as the club of the establishment and the wealthy. The fact that the club is owned by the multimedia mass media company Televisa has further intensified this image. UNAM, representing the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, identifies itself as the club of the intellectuals and middle-class. The rivalry is particularly fierce from UNAM's side: according to surveys the majority of their supporters consider América as their main rival. However, America’s fans see it as an important match but deem the match against Chivas as more important.
- América vs. Cruz Azul
- Club América's other capital-based rival is Cruz Azul, whom they compete in a derby known as the "Clásico Joven" (Juvenile Classic in Spanish). Although both teams reside in Mexico City, Cruz Azul originated in Jasso, Hidalgo. In a similar perspective between América and UNAM's rivalry, the rivalry between América and Cruz Azul is also seen as based on social class differences: América representing the wealthy and powerful while Cruz Azul is said to represent the working class, hence fans of Cruz Azul and the team itself being insulted by the nickname of "Los Albañiles" (bricklayers in Spanish), a reference to Cruz Azul's eponymous parent company, which is one of Mexico's major companies specializing in concrete and construction.
Ever since América was bought by Emilio Azcárraga Milmo from Issac Bessudo in 1959, the club has had the unique distinction of being both the most popular and hated club in the country. An emphasis on heavy spending on Mexican and foreign players and managers in subsequent seasons, as well as success in domestic and international competitions, created an increasing sense of enmity from rival fans. The fact that Azcárraga Milmo was also the owner of telecommunications company Telesistema Mexicano further created the notion that América was the club of the "establishment" and the "wealthy", while others were considered teams representing the "working class".
In December 2013 Mexican newspaper Reforma had América as the country's most popular club with 25 percent in a nationwide survey, and the most popular club in Mexico City. They were also voted the most hated club in the same survey with 41 percent of the votes. According to a February 2015 poll conducted by Mexican pollster Consulta Mitofsky, América is Mexico's most popular football club with 31.1 percent, and the most hated with 41.5 percent. According to a study conducted by consulting agency EuroAmericas Sports Marketing, América is the most popular Mexican club in Asia, and the third most popular from the American continent after Corinthians of Brazil and Boca Juniors of Argentina.
Being reputed as the most-hated club in the country has been embraced by the club and its fans, with the phrase "Ódiame Más" — or "Hate me more" in English — being known as one of the team's unofficial slogans.
América has the highest attendance numbers in Mexico and the eighth most in the world.
Kit manufacturers and sponsors
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt partner|
|Owner||Emilio Azcárraga Jean|
|Operations President||José Romano|
|Sporting President||Ricardo Peláez|
|Director of Football||Yon de Luisa|
|Operations Director||Mauricio Lanz|
|Communications Director||Andrés Castro|
|Administrative Director||Marco Barrios|
|Assistant Managers||Edwin Santibañez|
|Goalkeeper Coach||Marcelo Capirossi|
|Fitness Coach||José Altieri|
|Team Doctors||Alfonso Díaz Rivera|
|Youth Academy Directors||Rafael Loredo Silva|
|José Luis Arce|
|Scout||Mario Hernández Lash|
- As of 29 January 2015
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
For recent transfers, see List of Mexican football transfers winter 2014–15.
Out on loan
- América Coapa
- Reserve team that plays in the Segunda División in the third level of the Mexican league system.
Hall of Fame
The following players have been inducted into the Club América Hall of Fame, as indicated by the club's official website.
The following managers have won at least one trophy while in charge of América:
|Rafael Garza Gutiérrez||1917–19, 1920–26, 1929–31, 1933–35, 1935–36, 1937–42||Primera División (2): 1924–25, 1925–26|
|Percy Clifford||1926–29||Primera Fuerza (2): 1926–27, 1927–28|
|Octavio Vial||1949–50, 1952–55||Copa México (2): 1953–54, 1954–55; Campeón de Campeones (1): 1954–55|
|Alejandro Scopelli||1964–65||Copa México (2): 1963–64, 1964–65|
|Roberto Scarone||1965–66||Primera División (1): 1965–66|
|José Antonio Roca||1971–75||Primera División (1): 1970–71; Copa México (1): 1973–74|
|Raúl Cárdenas||1975–78||Primera División (1): 1975–76; Campeón de Campeones (1): 1975–76; CONCACAF Champions' Cup (1): 1977; Copa Interamericana (1): 1977|
|Carlos Reinoso||1981–84||Primera División (2): 1983–84, 1984–85|
|Miguel Ángel López||1985–87||Primera División (1): Prode-85; CONCACAF Champions' Cup (2): 1987, 1992|
|Jorge Vieira||1987–89||Primera División (2): 1987–88, 1988–89; Campéon de Campeónes (2): 1987–88, 1988–89|
|Carlos Miloc||1990–91||CONCACAF Champions' Cup (1): 1990, Copa Interamericana (1): 1991|
|Alfio Basile||2001||CONCACAF Giants Cup (1): 2001|
|Manuel Lapuente||2001–02, 2002–03, 2006||Primera División (1): Verano 2002; CONCACAF Champions' Cup (1): 2006|
|Mario Carrillo||2004–05||Primera División (1): Clausura 2005; Campeón de Campeones (1): 2004–05|
|Miguel Herrera||2012–13||Liga MX (1): Clausura 2013|
|Antonio Mohamed||2014||Liga MX (1): Apertura 2014|
Since the club was established in 1916, América has had 26 club presidents, with the first being Florencio Domínguez, who served from 1916 to 1920. Guillermo Cañedo de la Bácerna is the club's longest-serving president who served from 1961 to 1981. Filiberto Zapata had the shortest term in the club's history — serving less than year — in 1940. Ricardo Peláez, who was named in 2011, is the club's current president.
América is the most successful club in Mexican football history. As of 14 December 2014, the club has won a record 16 league titles (4 amateur, 12 professional), 6 Copa México championships (1 amateur, 5 professional), 5 Campeón de Campeones, 1 Copa Challenger and 1 InterLiga tournament. Internationally, América have won eight titles, the most for a club from the CONCACAF region. The club has won 5 CONCACAF Champions' Cup/Champions' League titles, 2 Copa Interamericana cups, and 1 CONCACAF Giants Cup.
- Amateur era
- Winners (1): 1937–38
- Copa Challenger
- Winners (1): 1927
- Professional era
- Winners (12): 1965–66, 1970–71, 1975–76, 1983–84, 1984–85, Prode-1985, 1987–88, 1988–89, Verano 2002, Clausura 2005, Clausura 2013, Apertura 2014
- Winners (5): 1953–54, 1954–55, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1973–74
- Winners (1): 2008
- Winners (1): 2001
- Liga Excélsior (1): 1920
- Copa Vizcaya (1): 1920
- Copa Baltamar (1): 1922
- Junta Española Covadonga (1): 1927
- Copa Presidente Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (1): 1964–65
- Copa Independencia (2): 1966–67, 1974–75
- Copa Revolución Mexicana (1): 1980–81
- Cuadrangular Ciudad de México (1): 1981
- Trofeo Águila Azteca (1): 1982
- Los Angeles Nations Cup (1): 1983
- Trofeo de la Vendimia (1): 1983–84
- Triangular Ciudad de México (1): 1987
- Copa Cofraternidad (1): 1988
- Copa Pachuca (2): 1995, 1997
- Cuadrangular Los Angeles (1): 1999
- Copa de Tejas (1): 2004
- Copa San José (1): 2006
- Copa "El Mexicano" (1): 2008
- Copa Insurgentes (1): 2010
- Copa Reto Águila (1): 2010
- Copa Centenario del C.D. Olimpia (1): 2012
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With Cruz Azul and América taking to the field on the television behind him at the cantina, Mr. Villoro sought to put the game, a traditional matchup between dominant teams in the capital, in context. “This is the Mexico City classic,” he explained. “The game itself is one thing, who scores, who wins. But Cruz Azul represents the working class here; that is their following. América is the upper class, the rich or wannabe rich. So this condenses into the workers versus the wannabes.”
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