Cognitive behavioral therapy
|Cognitive behavioral therapy|
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach which addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes, and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures. The name refers to behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive principles and research. Most therapists working with patients dealing with anxiety and depression use a blend of cognitive and behavioral therapy. This technique acknowledges that there may be behaviors that cannot be controlled through rational thought. CBT is "problem focused" (undertaken for specific problems) and "action oriented" (therapist tries to assist the client in selecting specific strategies to help address those problems).
CBT is thought to be effective for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, tic, and psychotic disorders. Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments.
CBT was primarily developed through an integration of behavior therapy (the term "behavior modification" appears to have been first used by Edward Thorndike) with cognitive psychology research, first by Donald Meichenbaum and several other authors with the label of cognitive-behavior modification in the late 1970s. This tradition thereafter merged with earlier work of a few clinicians, labeled as Cognitive Therapy (CT), developed by Aaron Beck, and Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) developed by Albert Ellis. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions have been characterised by a constant reference to experimental research to test hypotheses, both at clinical and basic level. Common features of CBT procedures are the focus on the "here and now", a directive or guidance role of the therapist, a structuring of the psychotherapy sessions and path, and on alleviating both symptoms and patients' vulnerability.
The premise of mainstream cognitive behavioral therapy is that changing maladaptive thinking leads to change in affect and in behavior, but recent variants emphasize changes in one's relationship to maladaptive thinking rather than changes in thinking itself. Therapists or computer-based programs use CBT techniques to help individuals challenge their patterns and beliefs and replace "errors in thinking such as overgeneralizing, magnifying negatives, minimizing positives and catastrophizing" with "more realistic and effective thoughts, thus decreasing emotional distress and self-defeating behavior"  or to take a more open, mindful, and aware posture toward them so as to diminish their impact. Mainstream CBT helps individuals replace "maladaptive… coping skills, cognitions, emotions and behaviors with more adaptive ones", by challenging an individual's way of thinking and the way that he/she reacts to certain habits or behaviors, but there is still controversy about the degree to which these traditional cognitive elements account for the effects seen with CBT over and above the earlier behavioral elements such as exposure and skills training. Modern forms of CBT include a number of diverse but related techniques such as exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, cognitive processing therapy, cognitive therapy, relaxation training, dialectical behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy.
CBT has six phases:
- Assessment or psychological assessment;
- Skills acquisition;
- Skills consolidation and application training;
- Generalization and maintenance;
- Post-treatment assessment follow-up.
There are different protocols for delivering cognitive behavioral therapy, with important similarities among them. Use of the term CBT may refer to different interventions, including "self-instructions (e.g. distraction, imagery, motivational self-talk), relaxation and/or biofeedback, development of adaptive coping strategies (e.g. minimizing negative or self-defeating thoughts), changing maladaptive beliefs about pain, and goal setting". Treatment is sometimes manualized, with brief, direct, and time-limited treatments for individual psychological disorders that are specific technique-driven. CBT is used in both individual and group settings, and the techniques are often adapted for self-help applications. Some clinicians and researchers are cognitively oriented (e.g. cognitive restructuring), while others are more behaviorally oriented (e.g. in vivo exposure therapy). Interventions such as imaginal exposure therapy combine both approaches.
Specific applications 
CBT has been applied in both clinical and non-clinical environments to treat disorders such as personality conditions and behavioral problems. A systematic review of CBT in depression and anxiety disorders concluded that "CBT delivered in primary care, especially including computer- or Internet-based self-help programs, is potentially more effective than usual care and could be delivered effectively by primary care therapists."
Emerging evidence suggests a possible role for CBT in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); hypochondriasis; multiple sclerosis; sleep disturbances related to aging; dysmenorrhea; and bipolar disorder, but more study is needed and results should be interpreted with caution. CBT has been studied as an aid in the treatment of anxiety associated with stuttering. Initial studies have shown CBT to be effective in reducing social anxiety in adults who stutter, but not in reducing stuttering frequency.
Martinez-Devesa et al (2010) found no evidence that CBT is effective for tinnitus, although there appears to be an effect on management of associated depression and quality of life in this condition. Turner et al (2007) found no convincing evidence that CBT training helps foster care providers manage difficult behaviors in the youth under their care, and Smedslund et al (2007) found that it was not helpful in treating men who abuse their intimate partners.
In the case of metastatic breast cancer, Edwards et al (2008) maintained that the current body of evidence is not sufficient to rule out the possibility that psychological interventions may cause harm to women with this advanced neoplasm.
In adults, CBT has been shown to have a role in the treatment plans for anxiety disorders; depression; eating disorders; chronic low back pain; personality disorders; psychosis; schizophrenia; substance use disorders; in the adjustment, depression, and anxiety associated with fibromyalgia; and with post-spinal cord injuries. There is some evidence that CBT is superior in the long-term to benzodiazepines and the nonbenzodiazepines in the treatment and management of insomnia.
In children or adolescents, CBT is an effective part of treatment plans for anxiety disorders; body dysmorphic disorder; depression and suicidality; eating disorders and obesity; obsessive–compulsive disorder; and posttraumatic stress disorder; as well as tic disorders, trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders.
In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends CBT in the treatment plans for a number of mental health difficulties, including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, and clinical depression.
Anxiety disorders 
CBT has been shown to be effective in the treatment of all anxiety disorders.
A basic concept in some CBT treatments used in anxiety disorders is in vivo exposure, a term describing a technique where the patient is gradually exposed to the actual, feared stimulus. The treatment is based on the theory that the fear response has been classically conditioned, and that avoidance of it negatively reinforces and maintains the fear. This "two-factor" model is often credited to O. Hobart Mowrer. Through exposure to the stimulus, this harmful conditioning can be "unlearned" (referred to as extinction and habituation).
Schizophrenia, psychosis and mood disorders 
Cognitive behavioral therapy has been shown as an effective treatment for clinical depression. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines (April 2000) indicated that, among psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy had the best-documented efficacy for treatment of major depressive disorder. One etiological theory of depression is Aaron T. Beck's cognitive theory of depression. His theory states that depressed people think the way they do because their thinking is biased towards negative interpretations. According to this theory, depressed people acquire a negative schema of the world in childhood and adolescence as an effect of stressful life events, and the negative schema is activated later in life when the person encounters similar situations.
Beck also described a negative cognitive triad, made up of the negative schemata and cognitive biases of the person, theorizing that depressed individuals make negative evaluations of themselves, the world, and the future. Depressed people, according to this theory, have views such as, "I never do a good job", "It is impossible to have a good day", and "things will never get better." A negative schema helps give rise to the cognitive bias, and the cognitive bias helps fuel the negative schema. This is the negative triad. Beck further proposed that depressed people often have the following cognitive biases: arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, over-generalization, magnification, and minimization. These cognitive biases are quick to make negative, generalized, and personal inferences of the self, thus fueling the negative schema.
In long-term psychoses, CBT is used to complement medication and is adapted to meet individual needs. Interventions particularly related to these conditions include exploring reality testing, changing delusions and hallucinations, examining factors which precipitate relapse, and managing relapses. Several meta-analyses have shown CBT to be effective in schizophrenia, and the American Psychiatric Association includes CBT in its schizophrenia guideline as an evidence-based treatment. There is also some (limited) evidence of effectiveness for CBT in bipolar disorder and severe depression.
A 2010 meta-analysis found that no trial employing both blinding and psychological placebo has shown CBT to be effective in either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and that the effect size of CBT was small in major depressive disorder. They also found a lack of evidence to conclude that CBT was effective in preventing relapses in bipolar disorder. Evidence that severe depression is mitigated by CBT is also lacking, with anti-depressant medications still viewed as significantly more effective than CBT, although success with CBT for depression was observed beginning in the 1990s.
According to Cox, Abramson, Devine, and Hollon (2012), cognitive behavioral therapy can also be used to reduce prejudice towards others. This other-directed prejudice can cause depression in the "others," or in the self when a person becomes part of a group he or she previously had prejudice towards (i.e. deprejudice). "Devine and colleagues (2012) developed a successful Prejudice Perpetrator intervention with many conceptual parallels to CBT. Like CBT, their intervention taught Sources to be aware of their automative thoughts and to intentionally deploy a variety of cognitive techniques against automatic stereotyping."
Chronic fatigue syndrome 
|This section requires expansion. (May 2012)|
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with older adults 
CBT is used to help people of all ages, but the therapy should be adjusted based on the age of the patient with whom the therapist is dealing. Older individuals in particular have certain characteristics that need to be acknowledged and the therapy altered to account for these differences thanks to age. Some of the challenges to CBT because of age include the following:
- The Cohort Effect
- The times that each generation lives through partially shape its thought processes as well as values, so a 70-year-old may react to the therapy very differently from a 30-year-old, because of the different culture in which they were brought up. A tie-in to this effect is that each generation has to interact with one another, and the differing values clashing with one another may make the therapy more difficult.
- Established Role
- By the time one reaches old age, the person has a definitive idea of her or his role in life and is invested in that role. This social role can dominate who the person thinks he or she is and may make it difficult to adapt to the changes required in CBT.
- Mentality toward Aging
- If the older individual sees aging itself as a negative, this can exacerbate whatever malady the therapy is trying to help (depression and anxiety for example). Negative stereotypes and prejudice against the elderly cause depression as the stereotypes become self-relevant.
- Processing Speed Decreases
- As we age, we take longer to learn new information, and as a result may take more time to learn and retain the cognitive therapy. Therefore, therapists should slow down the pacing of the therapy and use any tools both written and verbal that will improve the retention of the cognitive behavioral therapy.
- Later Age Hardships
- Problems that are found more in later life versus dealing with younger individuals, such as chronic illness, disability, and grief from loss of loved ones, can also affect the patient’s mentality and greatly influence the work and efficacy of any CBT.
Methods of access 
A typical CBT programme would consist of face-to-face sessions between patient and therapist, made up of 6-18 sessions of around an hour each with a gap of a 1–3 weeks between sessions. This initial programme might be followed by some booster sessions, for instance after one month and three months. CBT has also been found to be effective if patient and therapist type in real time to each other over computer links.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is most closely allied with the scientist–practitioner model in which clinical practice and research is informed by a scientific perspective, clear operationalization of the problem, and an emphasis on measurement, including measuring changes in cognition and behavior and in the attainment of goals. These are often met through "homework" assignments in which the patient and the therapist work together to craft an assignment to complete before the next session. The completion of these assignments – which can be as simple as a person suffering from depression attending some kind of social event – indicates a dedication to treatment compliance and a desire to change. The therapists can then logically gauge the next step of treatment based on how thoroughly the patient completes the assignment. Effective cognitive behavioral therapy is dependent on a therapeutic alliance between the healthcare practitioner and the person seeking assistance. Unlike many other forms of psychotherapy, the patient is very involved in CBT. For example, an anxious patient may be asked to talk to a stranger as a homework assignment, but if that is too difficult, he or she can work out an easier assignment first. The therapist needs to be flexible and willing to listen to the patient rather than acting as an authority figure.
Computerized CBT 
Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CCBT) has been described by NICE as a "generic term for delivering CBT via an interactive computer interface delivered by a personal computer, internet, or interactive voice response system", instead of face-to-face with a human therapist. CCBT has potential to improve access to evidence-based therapies, and to overcome the prohibitive costs and lack of availability sometimes associated with retaining a human therapist.
CCBT completion rates and treatment efficacy have been found in some studies to be higher when use of CCBT is prescribed and supported, than when use is in a self-help form without medical professional involvement.
In February 2006 NICE recommended that CCBT be made available for use within the NHS across England and Wales for patients presenting with mild-to-moderate depression, rather than immediately opting for antidepressant medication, and CCBT is made available by some health systems. The 2009 NICE guideline recognized that there are likely to be a number of computerized CBT products that are useful to patients, but removed endorsement of any specific product.
A relatively new avenue of research is the combination of artificial intelligence and CCBT. It has been proposed to use modern technology to create CCBT that simulates face-to-face therapy. This might be achieved in cognitive behaviour therapy for a specific disorders using the comprehensive domain knowledge of CBT. One area where this has been attempted, is the specific domain area of social anxiety in those who stutter.
Reading self-help materials 
Enabling patients to read self-help CBT guides has been shown to be effective by some studies. However one study found a negative effect in patients who tended to ruminate, and another meta-analysis found that the benefit was only significant when the self-help was guided (e.g. by a medical professional).
Group educational course 
Patient participation in group courses has been shown to be effective.
Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 
Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (BCBT) is a form of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) which has been developed for situations in which there are time constraints on the therapy sessions. BCBT takes place over a couple of sessions that can last up to 12 accumulated hours by design. This technique was first implemented and developed on soldiers overseas in active duty by David M. Rudd to prevent suicide.
Breakdown of treatment
- Commitment to treatment
- Crisis response and safety planning
- Means restriction
- Survival kit
- Reasons for living card
- Model of suicidality
- Treatment journal
- Lessons learned
- Skill focus
- Skill development worksheets
- Coping cards
- Skill refinement
- Relapse Prevention
- Skill generalization
- Skill refinement
Evaluation of effectiveness 
In adults, CBT has been shown to have effectiveness and a role in the treatment plans for anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, chronic low back pain, personality disorders, psychosis, schizophrenia, substance use disorders, in the adjustment, depression, and anxiety associated with fibromyalgia, and with post-spinal cord injuries. Evidence has shown CBT is effective in helping treat schizophrenia, and it is now offered in most treatment guidelines.
In children or adolescents, CBT is an effective part of treatment plans for anxiety disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, depression and suicidality, eating disorders and obesity, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as tic disorders, trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders.
Cochrane reviews have found no evidence that CBT is effective for tinnitus, although there appears to be an effect on management of associated depression and quality of life in this condition. Other recent Cochrane Reviews found no convincing evidence that CBT training helps foster care providers manage difficult behaviors in the youth under their care, nor was it helpful in treating men who abuse their intimate partners.
According to a 2004 review by INSERM of three methods, cognitive behavioral therapy was either "proven" or "presumed" to be an effective therapy on several specific mental disorders. According to the study, CBT was effective at treating schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress, anxiety disorders, bulimia, anorexia, personality disorders and alcohol dependency.
Some meta-analyses find CBT more effective than psychodynamic therapy and equal to other therapies in treating anxiety and depression. However, psychodynamic therapy may provide better long-term outcomes.
Computerized CBT (CCBT) has been proven to be effective by randomized controlled and other trials in treating depression and anxiety disorders, as well as insomnia. Some research has found similar effectiveness to an intervention of informational websites and weekly telephone calls. CCBT was found to be equally effective as face-to-face CBT in adolescent anxiety and insomnia.
Criticism of CBT sometimes focuses on implementations (such as the UK IAPT) which may result initially in low quality therapy being offered by poorly trained practitioners. However evidence supports the effectiveness of CBT for anxiety and depression.
Use in prevention of mental illness 
For anxiety disorders, use of CBT with people at risk has significantly reduced the number of episodes of generalized anxiety disorder and other anxiety symptoms, and also given significant improvements in explanatory style, hopelessness, and dysfunctional attitudes. In another study 3% of the group receiving the CBT intervention developed GAD by 12 months postintervention compared with 14% in the control group. Subthreshold panic disorder sufferers were found to significantly benefit from use of CBT. Use of CBT was found to significantly reduce social anxiety prevalence.
For depressive disorders, a stepped-care intervention (watchful waiting, CBT and medication if appropriate) achieved a 50% lower incidence rate in a patient group aged 75 or older. Another depression study found a neutral effect compared to personal, social, and health education, and usual school provision, and included a comment on potential for increased depression scores from people who have received CBT due to greater self recognition and acknowledgement of existing symptoms of depression and negative thinking styles. A further study also saw a neutral result. A meta-study of the Coping with Depression course, a cognitive behavioural intervention delivered by a psychoeducational method, saw a 38% reduction in risk of major depression.
Behavior therapy roots 
Precursors of certain fundamental aspects of CBT have been identified in various ancient philosophical traditions, particularly Stoicism.[page needed] For example, Aaron T. Beck's original treatment manual for depression states, "The philosophical origins of cognitive therapy can be traced back to the Stoic philosophers". The modern roots of CBT can be traced to the development of behavior therapy in the early 20th century, the development of cognitive therapy in the 1960s, and the subsequent merging of the two. Behaviorally-centered therapeutic approaches appeared as early as 1924 with Mary Cover Jones' work on the unlearning of fears in children. In 1937, American psychiatrist Abraham Low developed cognitive training techniques for patient aftercare following psychiatric hospitalization.
It was during the period 1950 to 1970 that behavioral therapy became widely utilized by researchers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Africa, who were inspired by the behaviorist learning theory of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and Clark L. Hull. In Britain, this work was mostly focused on the neurotic disorders through the work of Joseph Wolpe, who applied the findings of animal experiments to his method of systematic desensitization, the precursor to today's fear reduction techniques. British psychologist Hans Eysenck, inspired by the writings of Karl Popper, criticized psychoanalysis in arguing that "if you get rid of the symptoms, you get rid of the neurosis",[page needed] and presented behavior therapy as a constructive alternative. In the United States, psychologists were applying the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner to clinical use. Much of this work was concentrated on severe chronic psychiatric disorders, such as psychotic behavior and autism.
Other roots 
Although the early behavioral approaches were successful in many of the neurotic disorders, they had little success in treating depression. Behaviorism was also losing in popularity due to the so-called "cognitive revolution". The therapeutic approaches of Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck gained popularity among behavior therapists, despite the earlier behaviorist rejection of "mentalistic" concepts like thoughts and cognitions. Both of these systems included behavioral elements and interventions and primarily concentrated on problems in the present. Albert Ellis' system, originated in the early 1950s, was first called rational therapy, and can (arguably) be called one of the first forms of cognitive behavioral therapy. It was partly founded as a reaction against popular psychotherapeutic theories at the time (mainly psychoanalysis).[page needed] Beck, inspired by Ellis, developed cognitive therapy in the 1960s. Beck describes his therapeutic approach as originating in a realization he made while conducting free association with patients in the context of classical psychoanalysis. He noted that patients had not been reporting certain thoughts at the fringe of consciousness - thoughts which often preceded intense emotional reactions. This realization led Beck to begin viewing emotional reactions as resulting from cognitions, rather than understanding emotion within the abstract psychoanalytic framework. He named these cognitions "automatic thoughts" because he believed that people were not necessarily aware that the cognitions existed, but that they could identify these types of thoughts when questioned closely. Beck believed that pushing his clients to identify these automatic thoughts was integral to overcoming a particular difficulty.
In initial studies, cognitive therapy was often contrasted with behavioral treatments to see which was most effective. During the 1980s and 1990s, cognitive and behavioral techniques were merged into cognitive behavioral therapy. Pivotal to this merging was the successful development of treatments for panic disorder by David M. Clark in the UK and David H. Barlow in the US.
Starting in the late 1950s and continuing through the 1970s, concurrently with the contributions of Ellis and Beck, Arnold A. Lazarus developed what was arguably the first form of "broad-spectrum" cognitive behavioral therapy. He later broadened the focus of behavioral treatment to incorporate cognitive aspects. Lazarus, seeking to optimize the efficacy of therapy and effect durable treatment using cognitive and behavioral methods, developed a new form of therapy called multimodal therapy, based on CBT, but also including interpersonal relationships, biological factors, physical sensations (as distinct from emotional states), and visual images (as distinct from language-based thinking).
Society and culture 
The UK's National Health Service announced in 2008 that more therapists would be trained to provide CBT at government expense as part of an initiative called Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT). NICE said that CBT would become the mainstay of treatment for non-severe depression, with medication used only in cases where CBT had failed. Therapists complained that the data does not fully support the attention and funding CBT receives. Psychotherapist and professor Andrew Samuels stated that this constitutes "a coup, a power play by a community that has suddenly found itself on the brink of corralling an enormous amount of money ... Everyone has been seduced by CBT's apparent cheapness." The UK Council for Psychotherapy issued a press release in 2012 saying that the IAPT's policies were undermining traditional psychotherapy and criticized proposals that would limit some approved therapies to CBT, claiming that they restricted patients to "a watered down version of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), often delivered by very lightly trained staff".
See also 
- Applied behavior analysis
- Cognitive Emotional Behaviour Therapy
- Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy
- Token economy
- Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. T., & Wegner, D. M. (2010). Psychology. (2nd ed., p. 600). New York: Worth Pub.
- Lambert MJ, Bergin AE, Garfield SL (2004). "Introduction and Historical Overview". In Lambert MJ. Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (5th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 3–15. ISBN 0-471-37755-4.
- Rachman, S (1997). "The evolution of cognitive behaviour therapy". In Clark, D, Fairburn, CG & Gelder, MG. Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 0-19-262726-0.
- Hassett, Afton L.; Gevirtz, Richard N. (2009). "Nonpharmacologic Treatment for Fibromyalgia: Patient Education, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Relaxation Techniques, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine". Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 35 (2): 393–407. doi:10.1016/j.rdc.2009.05.003. PMC 2743408. PMID 19647150.
- Hayes, Steven C.; Villatte, Matthieu; Levin, Michael; Hildebrandt, Mikaela (2011). "Open, Aware, and Active: Contextual Approaches as an Emerging Trend in the Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 7: 141–68. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032210-104449. PMID 21219193.
- Gatchel, Robert J.; Rollings, Kathryn H. (2008). "Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with cognitive behavioral therapy". The Spine Journal 8 (1): 40–4. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.007. PMC 3237294. PMID 18164452.
- Kozier B (2008). Fundamentals of nursing: concepts, process and practice. Pearson Education. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-13-197653-5.
- Longmore, Richard J.; Worrell, Michael (2007). "Do we need to challenge thoughts in cognitive behavior therapy?". Clinical Psychology Review 27 (2): 173–87. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.08.001. PMID 17157970.
- E. B. Foa, Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Guilford, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2009.[page needed]
- Hofmann SG (2011). An Introduction to Modern CBT. Psychological Solutions to Mental Health Problems. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-470-97175-4.[page needed]
- Hofmann, Stefan G.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela (2010). "The Empirical Status of the "New Wave" of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 701–10. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.006. PMC 2898899. PMID 20599141.
- Foa, Edna B.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Furr, Jami M. (Jan 2003). "Augmenting exposure therapy with other CBT procedures". Psychiatric Annals 33 (1): 47–53.
- Butler, A; Chapman, J; Forman, E; Beck, A (2006). "The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses". Clinical Psychology Review 26 (1): 17–31. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.07.003. PMID 16199119.
- Hoifodt, R. S.; Strom, C.; Kolstrup, N.; Eisemann, M.; Waterloo, K. (2011). "Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy in primary health care: A review". Family Practice 28 (5): 489–504. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmr017. PMID 21555339.
- Knouse, Laura E.; Safren, Steven A. (2010). "Current Status of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 497–509. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.001. PMC 2909688. PMID 20599129.
- Thomson, Alex; Page, Lisa (2007). "Psychotherapies for hypochondriasis". In Thomson, Alex. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006520. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006520.pub2. PMID 17943915.
- Thomas, Peter W; Thomas, Sarah; Hillier, Charles; Galvin, Kate; Baker, Roger (2006). "Psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis". In Thomas, Peter W. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD004431. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004431.pub2. PMID 16437487.
- Montgomery, Paul; Dennis, Jane A (2003). "Cognitive behavioural interventions for sleep problems in adults aged 60+". In Montgomery, Paul. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003161. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003161. PMID 12076472.
- Proctor, Michelle; Murphy, Patricia A; Pattison, Helen M; Suckling, Jane A; Farquhar, Cindy (2007). "Behavioural interventions for dysmenorrhoea". In Proctor, Michelle. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD002248. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002248.pub3. PMID 17636702.
- Costa, Rafael Thomaz da; Rangé, Bernard Pimentel; Malagris, Lucia Emmanoel Novaes; Sardinha, Aline; Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Nardi, Antonio Egidio (2010). "Cognitive–behavioral therapy for bipolar disorder". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10 (7): 1089–99. doi:10.1586/ern.10.75. PMID 20586690.
- O'Brian, S.; Onslow, M. (2011). "Clinical management of stuttering in children and adults". BMJ 342: d3742. doi:10.1136/bmj.d3742. PMID 21705407.
- Iverach, L.; Menzies, R. G.; O'Brian, S.; Packman, A.; Onslow, M. (2011). "Anxiety and Stuttering: Continuing to Explore a Complex Relationship". American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 20 (3): 221–32. doi:10.1044/1058-0360(2011/10-0091). PMID 21478283.
- Menzies, Ross G.; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; o’Brian, Sue (2009). "Cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter: A tutorial for speech-language pathologists". Journal of Fluency Disorders 34 (3): 187–200. doi:10.1016/j.jfludis.2009.09.002. PMID 19948272.
- Martinez-Devesa, Pablo; Perera, Rafael; Theodoulou, Megan; Waddell, Angus (2010). "Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus". In Martinez-Devesa, Pablo. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD005233. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005233.pub3. PMID 20824844.
- Turner, William; MacDonald, Geraldine; Dennis, Jane A (2007). "Behavioural and cognitive behavioural training interventions for assisting foster carers in the management of difficult behaviour". In Turner, William. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD003760. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003760.pub3. PMID 17253496.
- Smedslund, Geir; Dalsbø, Therese K; Steiro, Asbjørn; Winsvold, Aina; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne (2007). "Cognitive behavioural therapy for men who physically abuse their female partner". In Smedslund, Geir. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD006048. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006048.pub2. PMID 17636823.
- Edwards, Adrian GK; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas; Neal, Richard D (2008). "Psychological interventions for women with metastatic breast cancer". In Edwards, Adrian GK. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD004253. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004253.pub3. PMID 18646104.
- Otte, C (2011). "Cognitive behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders: Current state of the evidence". Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 13 (4): 413–21. PMC 3263389. PMID 22275847.
- Driessen, Ellen; Hollon, Steven D. (2010). "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mood Disorders: Efficacy, Moderators and Mediators". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 537–55. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.005. PMC 2933381. PMID 20599132.
- Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G. (2010). "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 611–27. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.004. PMC 2928448. PMID 20599136.
- Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Banducci, Annie N.; Lejuez, C.W. (2010). "The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Personality Disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 657–85. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.007. PMC 3138327. PMID 20599139.
- Gutiérrez, M; Sánchez, M; Trujillo, A; Sánchez, L (2009). "Cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic psychosis". Actas espanolas de psiquiatria 37 (2): 106–14. PMID 19401859.
- Rathod, Shanaya; Phiri, Peter; Kingdon, David (2010). "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 527–36. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.009. PMID 20599131.
- McHugh, R. Kathryn; Hearon, Bridget A.; Otto, Michael W. (2010). "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 33 (3): 511–25. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.012. PMC 2897895. PMID 20599130.
- Mehta, Swati; Orenczuk, Steven; Hansen, Kevin T.; Aubut, Jo-Anne L.; Hitzig, Sander L.; Legassic, Matthew; Teasell, Robert W.; Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence Research Team (2011). "An evidence-based review of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosocial issues post-spinal cord injury". Rehabilitation Psychology 56 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1037/a0022743. PMC 3206089. PMID 21401282.
- Mitchell, Matthew D; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Umscheid, Craig A (2012). "Comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: A systematic review". BMC Family Practice 13: 40. doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-40. PMC 3481424. PMID 22631616.
- Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H. (2011). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20 (2): 217–38. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.003. PMC 3091167. PMID 21440852.
- Phillips, Katharine A.; Rogers, Jamison (2011). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth with Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20 (2): 287–304. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.004. PMC 3070293. PMID 21440856.
- Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen (2011). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression and Suicidality". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20 (2): 191–204. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.012. PMC 3073681. PMID 21440850.
- Wilfley, Denise E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Kass, Andrea E. (2011). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Weight Management and Eating Disorders in Children and Adolescents". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20 (2): 271–85. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.002. PMC 3065663. PMID 21440855.
- Boileau, B (2011). "A review of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents". Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 13 (4): 401–11. PMC 3263388. PMID 22275846.
- Kowalik, Joanna; Weller, Jennifer; Venter, Jacob; Drachman, David (2011). "Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and meta-analysis". Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 42 (3): 405–13. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.02.002. PMID 21458405.
- Flessner, Christopher A. (2011). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Tic Disorders and Trichotillomania". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 20 (2): 319–28. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.007. PMC 3074180. PMID 21440858.
- Hoffman, Stefan G.; Smits, Jasper A. J. (2008). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adult Anxiety Disorders". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69 (4): 621–32. doi:10.4088/JCP.v69n0415. PMC 2409267. PMID 18363421.
- Mowrer OH (1960). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-88275-127-1.[page needed]
- "Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Bipolar Disorder Second Edition". APA Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Comprehensive Guidelines and Guideline Watches 1. 2006. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890423363.50051. ISBN 0-89042-336-9.[page needed]
- Neale JM, Davison GC (2001). Abnormal psychology (8th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 247. ISBN 0-471-31811-6.
- Wykes, T.; Steel, C.; Everitt, B.; Tarrier, N. (2007). "Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: Effect Sizes, Clinical Models, and Methodological Rigor". Schizophrenia Bulletin 34 (3): 523–37. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm114. PMC 2632426. PMID 17962231.
- Kingdon, David; Price, Jessica (April 17, 2009). "Cognitive-behavioral Therapy in Severe Mental Illness". Psychiatric Times 26 (5).
- Lynch, D.; Laws, K. R.; McKenna, P. J. (2009). "Cognitive behavioural therapy for major psychiatric disorder: Does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials". Psychological Medicine 40 (1): 9–24. doi:10.1017/S003329170900590X. PMID 19476688.
- Gloaguen, Valérie; Cottraux, Jean; Cucherat, Michel; Ivy-Marie Blackburn, IM (1998). "A meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depressed patients". Journal of Affective Disorders 49 (1): 59–72. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(97)00199-7. PMID 9574861.
- Cox, W. T. L.; Abramson, L. Y.; Devine, P. G.; Hollon, S. D. (2012). "Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Depression: The Integrated Perspective". Perspectives on Psychological Science 7 (5): 427–49. doi:10.1177/1745691612455204.
- Devine, Patricia G.; Forscher, Patrick S.; Austin, Anthony J.; Cox, William T.L. (2012). "Long-term reduction in implicit race bias: A prejudice habit-breaking intervention". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (6): 1267–1278. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2012.06.003. PMC 3603687. PMID 23524616.
- Chambers, D.; Bagnall, A.-M.; Hempel, S.; Forbes, C. (2006). "Interventions for the treatment, management and rehabilitation of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: An updated systematic review". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 99 (10): 506–20. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.10.506. PMC 1592057. PMID 17021301.
- Bienenfeld, David (2009). "Cognitive therapy with older adults". Psychiatric Annals 39 (9): 828–32. doi:10.3928/00485713-20090821-02.
- Satre, Derek D.; Knight, Bob G.; David, Steven (2006). "Cognitive-behavioral interventions with older adults: Integrating clinical and gerontological research". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 37 (5): 489–98. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.5.489.
- Cognitive behavioural therapy for the management of common mental health problems. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. April 2008.[page needed]
- Kessler, David; Lewis, Glyn; Kaur, Surinder; Wiles, Nicola; King, Michael; Weich, Scott; Sharp, Debbie J; Araya, Ricardo et al. (2009). "Therapist-delivered internet psychotherapy for depression in primary care: A randomised controlled trial". The Lancet 374 (9690): 628–34. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61257-5. PMID 19700005.
- Hollinghurst, S.; Peters, T. J.; Kaur, S.; Wiles, N.; Lewis, G.; Kessler, D. (2010). "Cost-effectiveness of therapist-delivered online cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression: Randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry 197 (4): 297–304. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.073080. PMID 20884953.
- [unreliable medical source?] Martin, Ben. "In-Depth: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy". PsychCentral. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "Depression and anxiety – computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (CCBT)". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- Marks, Isaac M.; Mataix-Cols, David; Kenwright, Mark; Cameron, Rachel; Hirsch, Steven; Gega, Lina (2003). "Pragmatic evaluation of computer-aided self-help for anxiety and depression". The British Journal of Psychiatry 183: 57–65. doi:10.1192/bjp.02-463 (inactive April 26, 2013). PMID 12835245.
- Spurgeon, Joyce A.; Wright, Jesse H. (2010). "Computer-Assisted Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy". Current Psychiatry Reports 12 (6): 547–52. doi:10.1007/s11920-010-0152-4. PMID 20872100.
- http://www.devonpartnership.nhs.uk/uploads/tx_mocarticles/CCBT_Leaflet.pdf[full citation needed]
- "CG91 Depression with a chronic physical health problem". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 28 October 2009.[page needed]
- Helgadóttir, Fjóla Dögg; Menzies, Ross G; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue (2009). "Online CBT I: Bridging the Gap Between Eliza and Modern Online CBT Treatment Packages". Behaviour Change 26 (4): 245–53. doi:10.1375/bech.26.4.245.
- Helgadóttir, Fjóla Dögg; Menzies, Ross G; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue (2009). "Online CBT II: A Phase I Trial of a Standalone, Online CBT Treatment Program for Social Anxiety in Stuttering". Behaviour Change 26 (4): 254–70. doi:10.1375/bech.26.4.254.
- http://www.mindinbexley.org.uk/docs/E-self_help_guide.pdf[full citation needed]
- Williams, Christopher; Wilson, Philip; Morrison, Jill; McMahon, Alex; Andrew, Walker; Allan, Lesley; McConnachie, Alex; McNeill, Yvonne et al. (2013). "Guided Self-Help Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression in Primary Care: A Randomised Controlled Trial". In Andersson, Gerhard. PLoS ONE 8 (1): e52735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052735. PMC 3543408. PMID 23326352.
- Williams, C. (2001). "Use of written cognitive-behavioural therapy self-help materials to treat depression". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7 (3): 233–40. doi:10.1192/apt.7.3.233.
- Haeffel, Gerald J. (2010). "When self-help is no help: Traditional cognitive skills training does not prevent depressive symptoms in people who ruminate". Behaviour Research and Therapy 48 (2): 152–7. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2009.09.016. PMID 19875102.
- Gellatly, Judith; Bower, Peter; Hennessy, SUE; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon; Lovell, Karina (2007). "What makes self-help interventions effective in the management of depressive symptoms? Meta-analysis and meta-regression". Psychological Medicine 37 (9): 1217–28. doi:10.1017/S0033291707000062. PMID 17306044.
- Houghton, Simon; Saxon, Dave (2007). "An evaluation of large group CBT psycho-education for anxiety disorders delivered in routine practice". Patient Education and Counseling 68 (1): 107–10. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2007.05.010. PMID 17582724.
- Rudd, M. David (2012). "Brief cognitive behavioral therapy (BCBT) for suicidality in military populations". Military Psychology 24 (6): 592–603. doi:10.1080/08995605.2012.736325.
- Robinson, Emma; Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; McIntyre, Karen; Schwencke, Genevieve; Solley, Karen (2010). "Internet Treatment for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Clinician vs. Technician Assistance". In García, Antonio Verdejo. PLoS ONE 5 (6): e10942. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010942. PMC 2880592. PMID 20532167.
- Foroushani, Pooria; Schneider, Justine; Assareh, Neda (2011). "Meta-review of the effectiveness of computerised CBT in treating depression". BMC Psychiatry 11: 131. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-11-131. PMC 3180363. PMID 21838902.
- http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11786/43610/43610.pdf[full citation needed]
- INSERM Collective Expertise Centre (2000). Psychotherapy: Three approaches evaluated. PMID 21348158.
- Tolin, David F. (2010). "Is cognitive–behavioral therapy more effective than other therapies?A meta-analytic review". Clinical Psychology Review 30 (6): 710–20. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.05.003. PMID 20547435.
- Cuijpers, Pim; Van Straten, Annemieke; Andersson, Gerhard; Van Oppen, Patricia (2008). "Psychotherapy for depression in adults: A meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 76 (6): 909–22. doi:10.1037/a0013075. PMID 19045960.
- Shedler, Jonathan (2010). "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy". American Psychologist 65 (2): 98–109. doi:10.1037/a0018378. PMID 20141265.
- http://www.ehub.anu.edu.au/assist/about/research.php[full citation needed]
- Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; Sachdev, Perminder (2010). "Computer-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy: Effective and getting ready for dissemination". F1000 Medicine Reports 2: 49. doi:10.3410/M2-49. PMC 2950044. PMID 20948835.
- Williams, Alishia D; Andrews, Gavin (2013). "The Effectiveness of Internet Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (iCBT) for Depression in Primary Care: A Quality Assurance Study". In Andersson, Gerhard. PLoS ONE 8 (2): e57447. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057447. PMC 3579844. PMID 23451231.
- Espie, Colin A.; Kyle, Simon D.; Williams, Chris; Ong, Jason C.; Douglas, Neil J.; Hames, Peter; Brown, June S.L. (2012). "A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia Disorder Delivered via an Automated Media-Rich Web Application". Sleep 35 (6): 769–81. doi:10.5665/sleep.1872. PMC 3353040. PMID 22654196.
- http://www.bohrf.org.uk/downloads/Computerised_CBT-Sep2012.pdf[full citation needed]
- http://www.thementalelf.net/mental-health-conditions/anxiety-disorders/moodgym-no-better-than-informational-websites-according-to-new-workplace-rct/[full citation needed][self-published source?]
- Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin (2011). "A randomized controlled trial of online versus clinic-based CBT for adolescent anxiety". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79 (5): 629–42. doi:10.1037/a0024512. PMID 21744945.
- "UKCP response to Andy Burnham's speech on mental health" (Press release). UK Council for Psychotherapy. 1 February 2012. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- Leahy, Robert L. (November 23, 2011). "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Proven Effectiveness". Psychology Today.
- Kirsch, Irving; Montgomery, Guy; Sapirstein, Guy (1995). "Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: A meta-analysis". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 (2): 214–20. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.63.2.214. PMID 7751482.
- Alladin, Assen; Alibhai, Alisha (2007). "Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Depression:An Empirical Investigation". International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 55 (2): 147–66. doi:10.1080/00207140601177897. PMID 17365072.
- Elkins, Gary; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William (2012). "Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Pain Management". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 54 (4): 294–310. doi:10.1080/00029157.2011.654284. PMID 22655332.
- Seligman, Martin E. P.; Schulman, Peter; Derubeis, Robert J.; Hollon, Steven D. (1999). "The prevention of depression and anxiety". Prevention & Treatment 2 (1). doi:10.1037/1522-37188.8.131.52a.
- Schmidt, Norman B.; Eggleston, A. Meade; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Vasey, Michael W.; Richey, J. Anthony (2007). "Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT): A longitudinal primary prevention program targeting cognitive vulnerability". Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21 (3): 302–19. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.06.002. PMID 16889931.
- Higgins, Diana M.; Hecker, Jeffrey E. (2008). "A Randomized Trial of Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Prevention of Generalized Anxiety Disorder". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69 (8): 1336. doi:10.4088/JCP.v69n0819a. PMID 18816156.
- Meulenbeek, P.; Willemse, G.; Smit, F.; Van Balkom, A.; Spinhoven, P.; Cuijpers, P. (2010). "Early intervention in panic: Pragmatic randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry 196 (4): 326–31. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.072504. PMID 20357312.
- Gardenswartz, Cara Ann; Craske, Michelle G. (2001). "Prevention of panic disorder". Behavior Therapy 32 (4): 725–37. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(01)80017-4.
- Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C. (2009). "Universal-based prevention of syndromal and subsyndromal social anxiety: A randomized controlled study". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 77 (5): 867–79. doi:10.1037/a0015813. PMID 19803567.
- van't Veer-Tazelaar, Petronella J.; Van Marwijk, HW; Van Oppen, P; Van Hout, HP; Van Der Horst, HE; Cuijpers, P; Smit, F; Beekman, AT (2009). "Stepped-Care Prevention of Anxiety and Depression in Late Life: A Randomized Controlled Trial". Archives of General Psychiatry 66 (3): 297–304. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.555. PMID 19255379.
- Stallard, P.; Sayal, K.; Phillips, R.; Taylor, J. A.; Spears, M.; Anderson, R.; Araya, R.; Lewis, G. et al. (2012). "Classroom based cognitive behavioural therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in high risk adolescents: Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial". BMJ 345: e6058. doi:10.1136/bmj.e6058. PMC 3465253. PMID 23043090.
- Clarke, G. N.; Hawkins, W.; Murphy, M.; Sheeber, L. (1993). "School-Based Primary Prevention of Depressive Symptomatology in Adolescents: Findings from Two Studies". Journal of Adolescent Research 8 (2): 183. doi:10.1177/074355489382004.
- Cuijpers, Pim; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Clarke, Gregory N.; Lewinsohn, Peter M. (2009). "Psychoeducational treatment and prevention of depression: The 'coping with depression' course thirty years later". Clinical Psychology Review 29 (5): 449–58. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.04.005. PMID 19450912.
- Stafford, M. R.; Jackson, H.; Mayo-Wilson, E.; Morrison, A. P.; Kendall, T. (2013). "Early interventions to prevent psychosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ 346: f185. doi:10.1136/bmj.f185. PMC 3548617. PMID 23335473.
- McGorry, Patrick D.; Nelson, Barnaby; Phillips, Lisa J.; Yuen, Hok Pan; Francey, Shona M.; Thampi, Annette; Berger, Gregor E.; Amminger, G. Paul et al. (2013). "Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions for Young People at Ultra-High Risk of Psychosis". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 74 (4): 349–56. doi:10.4088/JCP.12m07785. PMID 23218022.
- Robertson, Donald (2010). The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Stoicism as Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy. London: Karnac. ISBN 978-1-85575-756-1.[page needed]
- Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-89862-000-7.
- Jones, M. C. (1924). "The Elimination of Children's Fears". Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (5): 382. doi:10.1037/h0072283.
- Murray, P (1996). "Recovery, Inc., as an adjunct to treatment in an era of managed care". Psychiatric services 47 (12): 1378–81. PMID 9117478.
- Kurtz, Linda, Farris (1997). "Chapter 2: Help Characteristics and Change Mechanisms in Self-Help and Support Groups: Change Mechanisms in Self-Help Groups". Self-help and support groups: a handbook for practitioners. SAGE. pp. 24–29. ISBN 0-8039-7099-4. OCLC 35558964.
- Low, Abraham A. (1945). "The Combined System of Group Psychotherapy and Self-Help as Practiced by Recovery, Inc". Sociometry 8 (3/4): 94–9. doi:10.2307/2785030. JSTOR 2785030.
- Wechsler, Henry (1960). "The Self-Help Organization in the Mental Health Field". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 130 (4): 297–314. doi:10.1097/00005053-196004000-00004. PMID 13843358.
- Wolpe J (1958). Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0509-7.[page needed]
- Eysenck, H (1960). Behavior therapy and the neuroses. Pergamon, Oxford.[page needed]
- Eysenck, H. J. (1952). "The effects of psychotherapy: An evaluation". Journal of Consulting Psychology 16 (5): 319–24. doi:10.1037/h0063633. PMID 13000035.
- Ayllon T, Azrin N (1968). The token economy. Wiley.[page needed]
- Lovaas, OI (1961). "Interaction between verbal and nonverbal behavior". Child development 32: 329–36. PMID 13763751.
- Ellis A (1975). A New Guide to Rational Living. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-370650-8.[page needed]
- Beck, Aaron T., Prisoners of Hate: The Cognitive Basis of Anger, Hostility, and Violence, Harper Collins, 1999, Introduction.[page needed]
- Lazarus, Arnold A. (1971). Behavior therapy & beyond. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-036800-7.[page needed]
- Samenow, Stanton E.; Yochelson, Samuel (1994). The Criminal Personality: The Change Process. Northvale, N.J: Jason Aronson. ISBN 1-56821-349-2. OCLC 505141632.[page needed]
- Laurance J (December 16, 2008). "The big question: can cognitive behavioural gherapy help people with eating disorders?". The Independent. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- Leader D (September 8, 2008). "A quick fix for the soul". The Guardian. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- "CBT superiority questioned at conference". University of East Anglia. July 7, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- "UKCP response to Andy Burnham's speech on mental health" (Press release). UK Council for Psychotherapy. February 1, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
Further reading 
- Butler G, Fennell M, and Hackmann A. (2008). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders. New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-869-1
- Dattilio FM, Freeman A. (Eds.) (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies in Crisis Intervention (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-648-2
- Hofmann, SG. (2011). An Introduction to Modern CBT. Psychological Solutions to Mental Health Problems. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-470-97175-4.
- Willson R, Branch R. (2006). Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Dummies. ISBN 978-0-470-01838-5
- Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT)
- British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies
- National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists