Martyr

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For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation).
The Christian martyrs of Japan. 17th-century Japanese painting.

A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is somebody who suffers persecution and/or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a belief or cause of either a religious or secular nature. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming a symbol of exceptional leadership and heroism. Martyrs play significant roles in religions such as Christianity, Mormonism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Bahá'í Faith, and Sikhism. Similarly, martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including specific figures such as Socrates, as well as in politics and Chinese culture.

Meaning[edit]

In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible.[1] The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e.g. Josephus) and from the New Testament that witnesses often died for their testimonies.

During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of a believer who is called to witness for their religious belief, and on account of this witness, endures suffering and/or death. The term, in this later sense, entered the English language as a loanword. The death of a martyr or the value attributed to it is called martyrdom.

The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion.[2][3][4] The early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr.[5]

The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms.

Common features of stereotypical martyrdoms[6]
1. A hero A person of some renown who is devoted to a cause believed to be admirable.
2. Opposition People who oppose that cause.
3. Foreseeable risk The hero foresees action by opponents to harm him or her, because of his or her commitment to the cause.
4. Courage and Commitment The hero continues, despite knowing the risk, out of commitment to the cause.
5. Death The opponents kill the hero because of his or her commitment to the cause.
6. Audience response The hero's death is commemorated. People may label the hero explicitly as a martyr. Other people may in turn be inspired to pursue the same cause.

Christianity[edit]

Main article: Christian martyrs
From the Gallery of 20th Century Martyrs at Westminster Abbey—l. to r. Mother Elizabeth of Russia, Rev. Martin Luther King, Archbishop Oscar Romero and Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer

In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony, usually written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more generally, the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness whether or not death follows.[7] However, over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, and the witnesses put to death, and the word martyr developed its present sense. Where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of Jesus in offering up their lives for truth.

Christian martyrs burned at the stake by Ranavalona I in Madagascar

The concept of Jesus as a martyr has recently received greater attention. Analyses of the Gospel passion narratives have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style.[8][9][10] Several scholars have also concluded that Paul the Apostle understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom.[11][12][13][14][15][16] In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the Christians of the first few centuries would have interpreted the crucifixion of Jesus as a martyrdom.[5][17]

In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, it developed that a martyr was one who was killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will almost certainly result in imminent death (though without intentionally seeking death). This definition of martyr is not specifically restricted to the Christian faith. The first Christian witness to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen (whose name means "crown"), and those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned." From the time of Constantine Christianity became the religion of the realm and there was less and less persecution. As some wondered how then they could most closely follow Christ there was a development of desert spirituality, desert monks, self-mortification, ascetics, (Paul the Hermit, St. Anthony), following Christ by separation from the world. This was a kind of white martyrdom, dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a red martyrdom, the giving of ones life in a violent death.[18]

In Christianity death in sectarian persecution, can be viewed as martyrdom. For example, there were martyrs recognised on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, with two hundred eighty Christians martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I in England leading to the split with Rome in 1559 and then three hundred Roman Catholics martyred by the Church authorities in England over the following hundred and fifty years in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Even more modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as Jesus Freaks though the numbers are disputed. There are claims that the numbers of Christians killed for their faith annually are greatly exaggerated.[19]

Mormonism[edit]

Joseph Smith, the first prophet of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was martyred on June 27, 1844, marking a turning point for the Latter Day Saint movement, of which Smith was the founder and leader. Along with his brother Hyrum Smith, he was accused of having ordered the destruction of facilities producing the Nauvoo Expositor, a newspaper set up by individuals opposing the Mormons. Smith was then the mayor of Nauvoo, Illinois, and was also running for President of the United States.[20] He left his families, announcing: "I am going like a lamb to the slaughter, but I am calm like a summer's morning,"[21] then voluntarily surrendered to the authorities at the county seat at Carthage, Illinois. While in jail awaiting trial on a charge of treason, an armed mob of men with painted faces stormed the jail. Joseph Smith wounded three of the assailants with a gun smuggled into the jail cell, before the mob shot both Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum to death.[21]

Islam[edit]

The painting by commemorating the martyrdom of Shia Imam Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala, 680 AD
Main article: Shahid

In Arabic, a martyr is termed shaheed, شهيد. Shaheed appears in the Quran in a variety of contexts, including witnessing to righteousness, witnessing a financial transaction and being killed, even in an accident as long as it doesn't happen with the intention to commit a sin, when they are believed to remain alive making them witnesses over worldly events without taking part in them anymore (Quran 3:140). The word also appears with these various meanings in the hadith, the sayings of Muhammad. The Greek origin of the word also means 'witness.'

Islam views a martyr as a man or woman who dies while conducting jihad, whether on or off the battlefield (see greater jihad and lesser jihad).[22] However, opinions in the Muslim world vary widely on whether suicide bombers can count as martyrs. A substantial minority of Muslims, especially in the Middle East, consider suicide bombers "martyrs" of Islam. However, opinions on suicide attacks on civilians vary widely between countries and regions. For example, according to a 2014 survey by Pew, 62% of Gazans thought suicide attacks on civilians in the name of Islam were "sometimes" or "often" justified, while only 15% of Jordanians thought so.[23]

Judaism[edit]

Martyrdom of the seven Hebrew brothers, Attavante degli Attavanti, Vatican Library
Main article: Martyrdom in Judaism

Martyrdom in Judaism is one of the main examples of Kiddush Hashem, meaning "sanctification of God's name" through public dedication to Jewish practice. Religious martyrdom is considered one of the more significant contributions of Hellenistic Judaism to Western Civilization. 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees recount numerous martyrdoms suffered by Jews resisting Hellenizing (adoption of Greek ideas or customs of a Hellenistic civilization) by their Seleucid overlords, being executed for such crimes as observing the Sabbath, circumcising their boys or refusing to eat pork or meat sacrificed to foreign gods. According to W. H. C. Frend, "Judaism was itself a religion of martyrdom" and it was this "Jewish psychology of martyrdom" that inspired Christian martyrdom.

Hinduism[edit]

Despite the promotion of ahimsa (non-violence) within Sanatana Dharma, there is also the concept of righteous duty (dharma), where violence is used as a last resort to resolution after all other means have failed. Examples of this are found in the Mahabharata. Upon completion of their exile, the Pandavas were refused the return of their portion of the kingdom by their cousin Duruyodhana; and following which all means of peace talks by Krishna, Vidura and Sanjaya failed. During the great war which commenced, even Arjuna was brought down with doubts, e.g., attachment, sorrow, fear. This is where Krishna instructs Arjuna how to carry out his duty as a righteous warrior and fight.

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

In the Bahá'í Faith, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God.[24] However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained that martyrdom is devoting oneself to service to humanity.[24]

Sikhism[edit]

Sculpture at Mehdiana Sahib of the execution of Banda Singh Bahadur by Indian Muslims in 1716
Main article: Martyrdom in Sikhism

Martyrdom (called shahadat in Punjabi) is a fundamental concept in Sikhism and represents an important institution of the faith. The Sikh Gurus and the Sikhs that followed them are some of the greatest examples of martyrs who fought [25] against Mughal tyranny and oppression, upholding the fundamentals of Sikhism, where their lives were taken during non-violent protesting or in battles. Sikhism believes in Ibaadat se Shahadat (from love to martyrdom). Some famous Sikh martyrs include:[26]

  • Guru Arjan, the fifth leader of Sikhism. Guru ji was brutally tortured for almost 5 days before he attained shaheedi, or martyrdom.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth guru of Sikhism, martyred on 11 November 1675. He is also known as Hind Di Chadar (i.e. "the shield of India"), suggesting that to save Hinduism, the guru gave his life.
  • Bhai Dayala is one of the Sikhs who was martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 due to his refusal to accept Islam.
  • Bhai Mati Das is one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history, martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 to save Hindu Brahmins.
  • Bhai Sati Das is one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history, martyred along with Guru Teg Bahadur at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 to save kashmiri pandits.
  • Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh - The four sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh guru.[27]

Chinese culture[edit]

Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the Tongmenghui and the Kuomintang party in modern China, revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution and throughout the Republic of China period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs.

The cult of the revolutionary martyr was also strongly developed in Vietnam and North Korea.

A communist "martyrs column" in Alappuzha, Kerala, India

Socrates[edit]

Much of what is known about the life of Socrates has been drawn from the writings of Plato, which more often than not focus on the events surrounding the death of Socrates. Plato’s writings discuss how the state charges Socrates with corrupting the youth. Socrates reached martyrdom when he chose death over escape, as in so doing he chose to die for what he believed in.[28] This is significant in the extent to which it affected his followers and the legacy of his ideas.

Political martyrs[edit]

A political martyr is someone who suffers persecution and/or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a political belief or cause, usually during times of recently installed dictatorship.

The Manchester Martyrs were three Irishmen executed after being condemned for association with the killing of a policeman in Manchester, England in 1867. The day after the executions, Frederick Engels wrote to Karl Marx: "Yesterday morning the Tories, by the hand of Mr Calcraft, accomplished the final act of separation between England and Ireland. The only thing that the Fenians still lacked were martyrs. ... To my knowledge, the only time that anybody has been executed for a similar matter in a civilised country was the case of John Brown at Harpers Ferry. The Fenians could not have wished for a better precedent."[29]

The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century agricultural labourers in Dorset, England, who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. The rules of the society showed it was clearly structured as a friendly society, that is, a mutual association for the purposes of insurance, pensions, savings or cooperative banking; and it operated as a trade-specific benefit society. But at the time, friendly societies had strong elements of what are now considered to be the principal role of trade unions, and wages were at issue. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were sentenced not to death but to transportation to Australia, a harsh form of exile.[30]

Some noted martyrs[edit]

Further Research[edit]

  • Bélanger, Jocelyn J., et al. "The Psychology of Martyrdom: Making the Ultimate Sacrifice in the Name of a Cause." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 107.3 (2014): 494-515. Print.
  • Kateb, George. "Morality and Self-Sacrifice, Martyrdom and Self-Denial." Social Research 75.2 (2008): 353-94. Print.
  • Olivola, Christopher Y. and Eldar Shafir. "The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 26, no. 1 (2013): 91-105.
  • PBS. "Plato and the Legacy of Socrates." PBS. http://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/background/41a.html (accessed October 21, 2014).
  • Reeve, C. D. C.. A Plato Reader: Eight Essential Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Co., 2012. Print.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ See e.g. Alison A. Trites, The New Testament Concept of Witness, ISBN 0-521-60934-8 and ISBN 978-0-521-60934-0.
  2. ^ Frances M. Young, The Use of Sacrificial Ideas in Greek Christian Writers from the New Testament to John Chrysostom (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2004), pp. 107.
  3. ^ Eusebius wrote of the early Christians: "They were so eager to imitate Christ ... they gladly yielded the title of martyr to Christ, the true Martyr and Firstborn from the dead." Eusebius, Church History 5.1.2.
  4. ^ Scholars believe that Revelation was written during the period when the word for witness was gaining its meaning of martyr. Revelation describes several Christian reh with the term martyr (Rev 17:6, 12:11, 2:10-13), and describes Jesus in the same way ("Jesus Christ, the faithful witness/martyr" in Rev 1:5, and see also Rev 3:14).
  5. ^ a b A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk, Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation (New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp. 217-229.
  6. ^ From A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk, Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation (New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp. 218.
  7. ^ See Davis, R."Martyr, or Witness?", New Matthew Bible Project
  8. ^ J. W. van Henten, "Jewish Martyrdom and Jesus' Death" in Jörg Frey & Jens Schröter (eds.), Deutungen des Todes Jesu im Neuen Testament (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005) pp. 157 – 168.
  9. ^ Donald W. Riddle, "The Martyr Motif in the Gospel According to Mark." The Journal of Religion, IV.4 (1924), pp. 397 – 410.
  10. ^ M. E. Vines, M. E. Vines, "The 'Trial Scene' Chronotype in Mark and the Jewish Novel", in G. van Oyen and T. Shepherd (eds.), The Trial and Death of Jesus: Essays on the Passion Narrative in Mark (Leuven: Peeters, 2006), pp. 189 – 203.
  11. ^ Stephen Finlan, The Background and Content of Paul's Cultic Atonement Metaphors (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2004), pp. 193 – 210
  12. ^ Sam K. Williams, Death as Saving Event: The Background and Origin of a Concept (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press for Harvard Theological Review, 1975), pp. 38 – 41.
  13. ^ David Seeley, The Noble Death (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990), pp. 83 – 112.
  14. ^ Stanley Stowers, A Rereading of Romans: Justice, Jews, and Gentiles (Ann Arbor: Yale University Press, 1997), p. 212f.
  15. ^ Jarvis J. Williams, Maccabean Martyr Traditions in Paul's Theology of Atonement (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2010)
  16. ^ S. A. Cummins, Paul and the Crucified Christ in Antioch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  17. ^ Stephen J. Patterson, Beyond the Passion: Rethinking the Death and Life of Jesus (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2004).
  18. ^ Arena, Saints, directed by Paul Tickell, 2006
  19. ^ Alexander, Ruth (2013-11-12). "Are there really 100,000 new Christian martyrs every year?". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  20. ^ Quinn (1994, p. 119)
  21. ^ a b "The Martyrdom", Chapter 22 of Church History in the Fulness of Times: Student Manual, 2003, LDS Church, pp. 273–285
  22. ^ A. Ezzati (1986). The Concept Of Martyrdom In Islam. Tehran University.
  23. ^ http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/07/01/concerns-about-islamic-extremism-on-the-rise-in-middle-east/
  24. ^ a b Winters, Jonah (1997-09-19). "Conclusion". Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shi'i and Babi Religions. M.A. Thesis. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  25. ^ "The Concept of Martyrdom and Sikhism" (PDF). globalsikhstudies.net. 
  26. ^ Sandeep Singh Bajwa (2000-02-11). "Biographies of Great Sikh Martyrs". Sikh-history.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  27. ^ "Sacrifice and Martyrdom - Gateway to Sikhism". Allaboutsikhs.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  28. ^ Reeve, C.D.C. (2012). A Plato Reader: Eight Essential Dialogues. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company Inc. pp. 47–59. ISBN 978-1-60384-811-4. 
  29. ^ Marx and Engels in Ireland (1971) Progress Publishers, Moscow. Letter of November 24 1867 Engels to Marx
  30. ^ "The Tolpuddle Martyrs". Historic-uk.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 

Bibliography

  • "Martyrs", Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Foster, Claude R. Jr. (1995). Paul Schneider, the Buchenwald apostle: a Christian martyr in Nazi Germany: A Sourcebook on the German Church Struggle. Westchester, PA: SSI Bookstore, West Chester University. ISBN 978-1-887732-01-7

External links[edit]