County Tipperary

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County Tipperary
Contae Thiobraid Árann
Coat of arms of County Tipperary
Coat of arms
Location of County Tipperary
Country Ireland
Province Munster
Dáil Éireann Tipperary North
Tipperary South
EU Parliament South
Area
 • Total 4,303 km2 (1,661 sq mi)
Area rank 6th
Population (2011) 158,652
 • Rank 11th
Car plates T

County Tipperary (Irish: Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland. For Irish local government, it is divided into two counties, North Tipperary and South Tipperary. The Local Government Reform Act 2014 will reunite the two counties into one, with effect from the 2014 local elections. It is located in province of Munster. The North, whose county council is based in Nenagh, is in the Mid-West Region; while the South, whose county council is based in Clonmel, in the South-East Region. The county is named after the town of Tipperary, and was established in the early thirteenth century, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The population of the entire county was 158,754 at the 2011 census.[1]

Geography and political subdivisions[edit]

The Galtee Mountains seen from the Glen of Aherlow.

Tipperary is the sixth largest of the 32 counties by area and the 11th largest by population.[2] It is the third largest of Munster’s 6 counties by size and the third largest by population. The region is part of the central plain of Ireland, but the diversified terrain contains several mountain ranges: the Knockmealdown, the Galtee, the Arra Hills and the Silvermine Mountains. The southern portion of the county is drained by the River Suir; the northern by tributaries of the Shannon which widens into Lough Derg. No part of the county touches the coast. The centre is known as 'the Golden Vale', a rich pastoral stretch of land in the Suir basin which extends into counties Limerick and Cork.

Baronies[edit]

There are six historic baronies in North Tipperary: Eliogarty, Ikerrin, Ormond Upper, Ormond Lower, Owney and Arra and Kilnamanagh Upper, with a further six lying in South Tipperary: Clanwilliam, Kilnamanagh Lower, Iffa and Offa East, Iffa and Offa West, Middle Third, and Slievardagh.

Civil parishes and townlands[edit]

Parishes were delineated after the Down Survey as an intermediate subdivision, with multiple townlands per parish and multiple parishes per barony. The civil parishes had some use in local taxation and were included on the nineteenth century maps of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland.[3] For poor law purposes, District Electoral Divisions replaced the civil parishes in the mid-nineteenth century. There are 199 civil parishes in the county.[4] Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland; there are 3159 townlands in the county.[5]

Towns and villages[edit]

Cahir on the banks of the Suir
Landscape in the Knockmealdowns

History[edit]

Tipperary was a county by 1210, when the sheriffdom of Munster shired after the Norman invasion of Ireland was split into separate shires of Tipperary and Limerick.[12] In 1328, Tipperary was granted to the Earls of Ormond as a county palatine or liberty.[12] The grant excluded churchlands, including the archiepiscopal seat of Cashel, which formed the separate county of Cross Tipperary.[12] Though the Earls gained jurisdiction over the churchlands in 1662, "Tipperary and Cross Tipperary" were not definitively united until the County Palatine of Tipperary Act 1715, when the 2nd Duke of Ormond was attainted for supporting the Jacobite rising of 1715.[13][14]

The county was divided once again in 1838.[15] The county town of Clonmel, where the grand jury held its twice-yearly assizes, is at the southern limit of the county, and roads leading north were poor, making the journey inconvenient for jurors resident there.[15] A petition to move the county town to a more central location was opposed by the MP for Clonmel, so instead the county was split into two "ridings"; the grand jury of the South Riding continued to meet in Clonmel, while that of the North Riding met in Nenagh.[15] When the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 established county councils to replace the grand jury for civil functions, the ridings became separate "administrative counties" with separate county councils.[15] Their names were changed from "Tipperary North/South Riding" to "North/South Tipperary" by the Local Government Act 2001, which redesignated all "administrative counties" as simply "counties".[16] The Local Government Reform Act 2014 will amalgamate the two counties and restore a single county of Tipperary.[17]

Notable people[edit]

Local government and politics[edit]

The county has no administrative function, however the Local Government Bill 2013 proposes to reunite both Tipperary counties into one, with effect from the 2014 local elections. The area of the county is within the remit of North Tipperary County Council and South Tipperary County Council. They rank equally as first level Local administrative units (LAU) within two neighbouring NUTS 3 regions for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland. Both local authorities are responsible for certain local services such as sanitation, planning and development, libraries, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing. The county is part of the South constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of two constituencies: Tipperary North and Tipperary South. Together they return 6 deputies (TDs) to the Dáil.

Culture[edit]

Hurling team in Semple Stadium, Thurles - Home of Tipperary GAA.

Tipperary is sometimes referred to as the "Premier County", a description attributed[citation needed] to Thomas Davis, Editor of The Nation newspaper in the 1840s as a tribute to the nationalistic feeling in Tipperary and said[citation needed] that "where Tipperary leads, Ireland follows". Tipperary was the subject of the famous song "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" written by Jack Judge, whose grandparents came from the county. It was popular with regiments of the British army during World War I. The song "Slievenamon", which is traditionally associated with the county, was written by Charles Kickham from Mullinahone, and is commonly sung at sporting fixtures involving the county.[18]

Irish language[edit]

There are 979 Irish speakers in County Tipperary attending the five Gaelscoileanna (Irish language primary schools) and two Gaelcholáistí (Irish language secondary schools).[19]

Economy[edit]

Magners, Tipperary's most famous export

The area around Clonmel is the economic hub of the county: to the west of the town the manufacturers Bulmers (brewers) and Merck & Co. (pharmaceuticals). There is much fertile land, especially in the region known as the Golden Vale, one of the richest agricultural areas in Ireland. Dairy farming and cattle raising are the principal occupations.[citation needed] Other industries are slate quarrying and the manufacture of meal and flour.

Tipperary is famous for its horse breeding industry and is the home of Coolmore Stud, the largest thoroughbred breeding operation in the world.[citation needed]

Tourism plays a significant role in County Tipperary - Lough Derg, Thurles, Rock of Cashel, Ormonde Castle, Ahenny High Crosses, Cahir Castle, Bru Boru Heritage Centre and Tipperary Crystal are some of the primary tourist destinations in the county.

Transport[edit]

Road transport dominates in County Tipperary. The M7 motorway crosses the north of the county through Roscrea and Nenagh and the M8 motorway bisects the county from north of Two-Mile Borris to the County Limerick border. Both routes are amongst some of the busiest roads on the island. The Limerick to Waterford N24 crosses the southern half of Tipperary, travelling through Tipperary Town, Bansha, north of Cahir and around Clonmel and Carrick-on-Suir. Tipperary also has a number or railway stations situated on the Dublin to Cork, Dublin to Limerick and Limerick to Waterford rail lines.

Sports[edit]

County Tipperary has a strong sporting history and is home to the Gaelic Games of Hurling, Gaelic football, Camogie and Handball. It nurtures the ancient game of hurling and since the 19th century its teams have regularly been champions of Ireland. Horse racing takes place at Tipperary Racecourse, Thurles Racecourse and Clonmel Racecourse.

Places of interest[edit]

Ardfinnan Castle, Ardfinnan.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CSO Census 2011.
  2. ^ Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186–191. 
  3. ^ "Interactive map (civil parish boundaries viewable in Historic layer)". Mapviewer. Ordnance Survey of Ireland. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  4. ^ "Placenames Database of Ireland - Tipperary civil parishes". Logainm.ie. 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  5. ^ "Placenames Database of Ireland - Tipperary townlands". Logainm.ie. 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  6. ^ For 1653 and 1659 figures from Civil Survey Census of those years, Paper of Mr Hardinge to Royal Irish Academy March 14, 1865.
  7. ^ "Census for post 1821 figures.". Cso.ie. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  8. ^ histpop.org
  9. ^ "NISRA - Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency". Nisranew.nisra.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  10. ^ Lee, JJ (1981). "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses". In Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A. Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 
  11. ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November 1984). "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700-1850". The Economic History Review 37 (4): 473–488. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x. 
  12. ^ a b c Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). "The Counties of Ireland". Illustrations of Irish history and topography: mainly of the seventeenth century. Longmans, Green. pp. 108–142. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  13. ^ Deputy keeper of the public records in Ireland (1873-04-26). "Appendix 3: Extract from Report of the Assistant Deputy Keeper on the Records of the Court of Record of the County Palatine of Tipperary". Fifth Report. Command papers. C.760. HMSO. pp. 32–37. Retrieved 2011-08-14. 
  14. ^ Ireland (1794). "2 George I c.8". Statutes Passed in the Parliaments Held in Ireland. III: 1715–1733. Printed by George Grierson, printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. pp. 5–11. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c d Murphy, Donal A. (1994). The two Tipperarys: the national and local politics, devolution and self-determination, of the unique 1838 division into two ridings, and the aftermath. Relay. ISBN 9780946327133. 
  16. ^ "Local Government Act, 2001 sec.10(4)(a)". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  17. ^ Minister for Environment, Community and Local Government (15 October 2013). "sec.10(2) Boundaries of amalgamated local government areas" (PDF). Local Government Bill 2013 (As initiated). Dublin: Stationery Office. ISBN 978-1-4468-0502-2. Retrieved 17 October 2013. 
  18. ^ "Sliabh na mban - Slievenamon". Irishpage.com. Retrieved 2012-09-14. 
  19. ^ "Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn sa Ghalltacht 2010-2011" (in Irish). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 52°40′N 7°50′W / 52.667°N 7.833°W / 52.667; -7.833