|Founded||November 4, 1834
Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts
|Mission statement||"Building Better Men"|
|Motto||Δικαια Υποθηκη ("Justice, Our Foundation")|
|Publication||The Delta Upsilon Quarterly|
|Chapters||76 active chapters (2012)
155 chapters since founding
80,000 living alumni collegiate
|Headquarters||8705 Founders Road,
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
|Homepage||Delta Upsilon fraternity website|
Delta Upsilon (ΔΥ) is the seventh oldest extant, all-male, college Greek-letter organization in North America. Founded on November 4, 1834, at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, it is popularly and informally known as "Delta U" or "DU" and its members sometimes called "DUs." Though historically set at New England liberal arts colleges, as of 2012 it had 76 chapters across the United States and Canada.
In 2013, Business Insider named Delta Upsilon one of the "17 Fraternities with Top Wall Street Alumni." Notable members include president of the United States James A. Garfield, president of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, Canadian prime minister Lester B. Pearson, Linus Pauling, Joseph P. Kennedy, Lou Holtz, Michael D. Eisner, Tommy Franks, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Charles Evan Hughes, Peter Ueberroth, and others. Five members of the fraternity have received the Nobel Prize.
- 1 History
- 2 Symbols
- 3 Organization
- 4 Notable members
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Founding and early history
Delta Upsilon considers its founding to be 1834, when thirty freshman, sophomore, and junior students at Williams College met in the Freshman Recitation Room at the West College building to form what was then called "the Social Fraternity." The move was in response to the establishment of Kappa Alpha and Sigma Phi at the college and, unlike those fraternities, the Social Fraternity was avowedly anti-secret. Its founding came at the tail-end of the anti-Masonic hysteria that had recently swept the United States, though the idea that it was part of the popular backlash to Freemasonry has generally been rejected (a mysterious fire in 1841 destroyed the records of the first meeting of the Social Fraternity, erasing much of the organization's early history).
Growth of the Social Fraternity (whose members were informally called the "Oudens") was exponential. By 1838 two-thirds of all students at Williams belonged to the society which engaged in militant agitation against the other two fraternities. One particularly violent incident occurred in 1839 when Oudens assaulted the Kappa Alpha house, driving its occupants to the top of Consumption Hill. More refined conflict took the form of pamphlets and debate. An 1855 debate proposed by Kappa Alpha against the Oudens was called-off after the Social Fraternity appointed James Garfield, an Ouden well-known for his rhetorical skills, to represent them.
In November of 1847 Williams' Social Fraternity met with similar societies that had recently been formed at Union College, Hamilton College, and Amherst College and formed the "Anti-Secret Confederation." A second meeting of the Anti-Secret Confederation (A.S.C.) in 1852 saw fraternities from Wesleyan University, Case Western Reserve University, Colby College, and the University of Vermont join.
The March 1864 convention of the A.S.C. saw the organization formally change its name to Delta Upsilon, standardize insignia and ritual throughout all its member chapters, and establish a centralized administrative structure.
In 1879, Delta Upsilon formally disavowed its policy of anti-secrecy, instead adopting a program of what it described as "non-secrecy." According to Delta Upsilon, the reason for this change was because it had been absolutely victorious in its battle against secrecy, "the character of the secret societies so altered, that hostility toward them decreased."
This explanation has been more skeptically received by some, with one period observer caustically noting that Delta Upsilon "reveals very little more of what it does than the latter [secret fraternities]."  Others commented that chapter meetings were closed to all but initiated members and the fraternity was now practicing selective pledging and initiation, in contrast to its earliest days at Williams. Therefore, it was proffered, the description of the fraternity as a "private" society rather than a "non-secret" one might be more accurate. The Harvard Crimson, meanwhile, poetically attributed the official change of position as due to "the sheer exhaustion of those that heretofore have maintained a vigorous tilt at the windmill for exercise's sake, on finding that the windmill stands the attack much better than they."
Writing in 2013, Benjamin Wurgraft of the New School for Social Research commented that Delta Upsilon's changes made it "nothing more than another fraternity - a rival for pledges rather than a force for unity."
At the turn of the century the fraternity's growth plateaued due, in part, to opposition from a group of chapters to what was seen as the lessening of the fraternity's standards through colonization. In 1898, Delta Upsilon joined the recent trend of fraternity expansion into Canada by chartering a chapter at McGill University in Montreal. However, most expansion in this period came in the form of the annexation of established local fraternities. Zeta Chi at Baker University was one local which unsuccessfully petitioned for annexation by Delta Upsilon. In 1909, Charles Evans Hughes led the incorporation of the fraternity.
By 1920 the fraternity had grown to 44 chapters. Gen. John Arthur Clark, the celebrated former commander of the Seaforth Highlanders and a Member of Parliament from Vancouver, was elevated to “international president,” the fraternity’s penultimate office, in 1944, holding it for three consecutive terms. Clark became the first Canadian to hold the Delta Upsilon presidency.
In the 1950s, former Delta Upsilon international president Horace G. Nichol served as president of the North American Interfraternity Conference (NIC). He was recognized for his work leading the NIC with the NIC Gold Medal in 1959.
By 1986 Delta Upsilon had 88 active chapters. During the 1990s chapters at Rutgers University, Cornell University, Oklahoma State University, the University of Nebraska and Union College were closed or placed on probation after it was revealed pledges at those houses had been branded, paddled, and forced to eat garbage, among other things.
In 2008 a fire gutted the Delta Upsilon house at the University of Michigan. At the time of the construction-related incident, the 105 year-old Tudor revival mansion was the oldest Greek-letter house on campus still occupied by the fraternity that built it and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. A four-year, $6 million salvage and remodeling effort was ultimately able to restore it. The year after the Michigan fire, the University of Virginia chapter of Delta Upsilon broke ground on the first new fraternity house on that campus in 50 years. After selling their existing house back to its original owner and one-time campus rival, Beta Theta Pi, the fraternity purchased and razed a 1970s-era apartment building, constructing a large neoclassical structure in its place as the new chapter house.
On March 28, 2009, Delta Upsilon established its 152nd chapter, and the second of the 21st century, at Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri. The initiation was significant as it was the first time in more than a century that Delta Upsilon established a chapter at a school where no previous fraternities and sororities existed.
Discord and disunity
The fraternity has periodically faced disruption among its chapters. Of a number of cases of disunity, those of the Massachusetts schools of Williams College, Harvard University and MIT, and of the University of Vermont have perhaps been the most serious.
In 1854 the University of Vermont chapter, which was named Delta Psi, severed its connections with the Anti-Secret Confederation. The cause of separation is lost to history with Delta Upsilon's own records recording that the exit of Delta Psi is "from causes unknown to us." A Delta Psi historian later claimed the withdrawal was due to the expenses the fraternity was incurring sending delegates to the meetings of the Anti-Secret Confederation. It's also been speculated that Delta Psi felt local pressure in maintaining the A.S.C.'s militant stance against secret ritual; after separating from the A.S.C. it began to undertake secret work. (Delta Upsilon has maintained that it does not consider members of Delta Psi during the period it was affiliated with the A.S.C. to also be members of Delta Upsilon, the separation being so total that the "action removed all its members from membership in the Delta Upsilon fraternity.")
In the 150 years since Delta Psi and Delta Upsilon separated, the latter fraternity avoided attempts to colonize the University of Vermont. In 2014, ten years after the collapse of Delta Psi, Delta Upsilon entered the Burlington campus for the first time since its split with Delta Psi, chartering a colony.
At the 1862 convention, the fraternity's mother chapter, Williams, declared the purposes of the fraternity had been corrupted and, over the objections of the other chapters, withdrew from what was then called the Anti-Secret Confederation. Two years later it dissolved itself. A chapter would eventually be restored. However, Williams being the first chapter and, therefore, self-chartering, this would come in the form of a new chapter and not the revival of the original. It was permanently erased when Williams College banned all fraternities in 1962.
When the fraternity incorporated in 1909 it adopted a new constitution. Harvard immediately set-forth its views that the new constitution had been illegitimately enacted and had overly vested control in the professional leadership, undermining the ability of the chapters to democratically express themselves. Though a number of other chapters initially signaled support for the Harvard position, a proposed amendment to the new document failed. In 1915 the Harvard chapter stopped paying dues to the fraternity. A further shot across the bow of the international fraternity came when Harvard requested headquarters stop sending copies of the Delta Upsilon Quarterly because they "littered up the house." Open revolt came when the international fraternity tried to impose discipline on Harvard. Harvard responded by declaring it didn't recognize the authority of DU headquarters as Delta Upsilon had ceased to exist in 1909. Delta Upsilon sued its rebellious chapter whose leaders included toy heir F.A.O. Schwartz, Jr. Following the courtroom triumph of the DU headquarters, it expelled the rebellious members and initiated a hand-picked pledge class to continue the chapter. Its victory was short-lived, though, as the recreated chapter itself voted to disaffiliate from Delta Upsilon. The secessionist group legally reconstituted itself as "the D.U. Club," taking the chapter roll book with them, and existed as a successful finals club for many decades on the Harvard campus. In 1995 the D.U. Club's alumni board voted to merge with the Fly Club.
After several decades of patient waiting for the D.U. Club to pass, Delta Upsilon chartered yet another chapter at Harvard. The new chapter was installed in 1999, four years after the D.U. Club had merged with the Fly Club. It unraveled faster than its predecessors, however. In 2005 the six year-old Delta Upsilon chapter voted to disaffiliate from the fraternity. It has continued under the name "Oak Club" and currently claims more than 100 alumni who, it says, embody "many of the original DU principles." 
The year 2014 saw the closure of one of the fraternity's longest enduring chapters, the 120 year-old Technology chapter at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Though the shuttering of the Technology chapter was for what fraternity officials would only describe as inappropriate behavior, The Tech reported an investigation by Delta Upsilon had allegedly uncovered a prohibited "secret ritual" that had been performed by the chapter for the preceding 70 years. Officers of the Technology chapter, which one account described had a "growing distance from [the] international fraternity," rejected the charges, though acknowledged they had effectively stopped participating in the fraternity's programs. Undergraduates protested for restoration of their chapter. Delta Upsilon headquarters rejected the protest, noting that they had "been working in coordination with university staff" but had been unable to reach a solution by which the chapter could continue at MIT (MIT administrators later disputed that they had ever had more than one communication with Delta Upsilon headquarters and said the decision to suspend its MIT chapter was the fraternity's alone).
Under the terms of the chapter's closure as set-out by fraternity leadership, it can be reconstituted if local alumni demonstrate goodwill by paying $150,000 to the Delta Upsilon Educational Foundation, a separately incorporated organization which finances seminars and retreats for the fraternity's leadership.
"Four Founding Principles"
The Fraternity's Four Founding Principles originated in the Preamble to the early Constitution of the Anti-Secret Confederation. They remained unchanged until the 1891 Convention undertook a complete revision of the Constitution, article-by-article. In the new revision, the old Preamble was completely stricken and the following text was added to Article 1, Section 2: "The objects of this Fraternity shall include the promotion of friendship, the exertion of moral influence, the diffusion of liberal culture, and the advancement of equity in college affairs. It shall be non-secret." This version remained with minor changes until around 1923, when the first printed example of the current version was published in that year's edition of the Manual of Delta Upsilon.
The "Four Founding Principles" are currently: the Advancement of Justice, the Promotion of Friendship, the Development of Character, and the Diffusion of Liberal Culture.
The current Delta Upsilon badge was submitted to the fraternity’s 1858 convention by a “badge committee,” chaired by Edward Gardner. It features the Greek letter Delta superimposed on a Upsilon. The arms of the Upsilon each have a word of the Fraternity motto engraved on them in Greek letters, the left arm Δικαια, the right arm Υποθηκη.
Coat of arms
It is blazoned as Or, a balanced scale proper on a chief Azure, seven mullets of the first, four, and three. The crest is a monogram of the Greek letter Delta surcharged upon the letter Upsilon bearing the motto in Greek letters between two scrolls, the dexter charged with the number "1834," the sinister charged with the number "1909". The supporters are the heraldic banners of the arms of the Undergraduate Convention (Or, an oak tree proper on a mount in base Vert, on a chief Azure annulets (in fesse) co-joined) and the arms of the Assembly of Trustees (Azure, a chevron between five coronets, Or two, one and two). 
The colors of the Fraternity were approved as "Old Gold and Sapphire Blue" by the 1881 Convention. In 1866, the Convention first adopted "Chrome and Blue" as the official colors. These were altered to simply "Gold and Blue" in 1879, before taking on their current form in 1881.
The current version of the Fraternity Flag was established in 1911 and consists of three vertical bars, blue, gold, and blue. The gold section is charged with the fraternity's badge. A flag of a solid gold field charged with a visual representation of the pledge pin is used by colonies.
The fraternity's by-laws formerly prescribed a puggaree to band a boater hat that is black silk with the middle third occupied by alternating stripes of gold, blue, and gold. The hat band was initially only sold through the head office, however, in 1922 Delta Upsilon began licensing a small number of hatter shops, primarily in Manhattan and New England, to produce and sell the puggaree for $1 if the customer first displayed their badge to the clerk as a mark of identification.
The Fraternity's motto is "Dikaia Upotheke" in Ancient Greek - "Δικαια Υποθηκη" - which means "Justice, Our Foundation." The motto was adopted in 1858. Until this time, the motto of the Williams Chapter, "Ouden Adelon," meaning "Nothing Secret," was used. 
The design of the ribbon is identical to that of the interior stripes of the hat band, but is 36-inches in length with open ends, designed to be crossed and fastened by the badge.
The seal of the fraternity, which is in the custody of the international headquarters in Indianapolis, is affixed to chapter charters and membership certificates. It is described in the fraternity's constitution as the shield of the coat of arms set in a circular band on which is inscribed "Delta Upsilon Fraternity 1834-1909."
The fraternity hymn is Hail, Delta Upsilon. Though set in four stanzas, only the first is typically used.
|“||Hail, Delta Upsilon! Brotherhood glorious!
Justice thy cornerstone, true manhood thy goal!
O’er all thine enemies, forever victorious,
Hail, Delta Upsilon, eternal soul!
The Delta Upsilon Ode is also used for special occasions. The Jacobite song Down Among the Dead Men is traditionally used as a toasting song at formal dinners. A more extensive volume of fraternity songs is indexed in the fraternity's songbook Songs My Brothers Taught Me.
Delta Upsilon is currently organized into 76 active chapters, of which 6 are in Canada and the remainder in the United States. The United States chapters are divided into five provinces, each overseen by a governor appointed by the international president. The Canadian chapters are grouped into what the fraternity calls "the Canadian conference." Chapters are named after the school at which they are sited, with the exception of the now-defunct City University of New York chapter which was called the Manhattan chapter.
The Undergraduate Convention and the Assembly of Trustees meet annually. They form the bicameral legislature of the fraternity and make, repeal, and adopt fraternity law. An indirectly elected board oversees the operations of the fraternity between meetings of the two chambers and hires an executive-director who manages the full-time secretariat which, according to the fraternity, currently employees 21 persons.
The Butler Memorial Headquarters Building is located in Indianapolis, Indiana. Completed in 1971, it is located on a road with eight other fraternity and sorority headquarters. The building was financed with a bequest from Lester E. Cox, a University of Pennsylvania chapter alumnus who left half his estate to the fraternity. It is named in honor of Wilford A. Butler, who served as the fraternity's executive director from 1963 to 1987.
In the headquarters building is a display of all TIME Magazine covers on which Delta Upsilon members have appeared. According to the fraternity, the reproduction of early covers of the magazine was authorized by TIME editor-in-chief Hedley Donovan, a member of Delta Upsilon's University of Minnesota chapter.
The Delta Upsilon Quarterly began publication in 1882 as the fraternity's official magazine. The Cornerstone: Delta Upsilon's Guide to College and Beyond is the fraternity's membership manual. It includes not only information on the history and principles of the fraternity, but also guidelines on dress, speech, manners, and formal etiquette.
Unlike many fraternities, Delta Upsilon does not have a designated charitable partner. A survey of 25 fraternities undertaken by Newsweek in 2012 found that Delta Upsilon gives a relatively small amount of money to 501(c)3 organizations. Most of the fraternity's alumni donations are used to finance its Delta Upsilon Educational Foundation, which funds seminars and retreats for the fraternity's leadership, what the fraternity refers to as "scholarships." In 2013 the Delta Upsilon Educational Foundation reported expenses of about $1 million, of which about $400,000 was spent on programs, $330,000 on staff salaries, $240,000 on "other expenses" and $30,000 on telemarketing and direct mail solicitations.
The fraternity's membership roster includes United States President James A. Garfield (Williams 1856), Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court Charles Evans Hughes (Colgate and Brown 1881), United States Senator-Vermont Justin S. Morrill (Middlebury 1860), former Commander in Chief of the US Central Command Tommy Franks (Texas 1963), author Stephen Crane (Lafayette and Syracuse 1894), author Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (Cornell 1944), former Chairman and CEO of Walt Disney Co. Michael D. Eisner (Denison 1964), and Nobel Prize recipients Charles Dawes (Marietta 1884), Christian B. Anfinsen (Swarthmore 1937), and Edward C. Prescott (Swarthmore 1962).
Notable Canadian DUs include Prime Minister and Nobel Prize recipient Lester B. Pearson (Toronto 1919), actor Alan Thicke (Western Ontario 1967), Alberta premier E. Peter Lougheed (Alberta 1959), Ontario premier John P. Robarts (Western Ontario 1939), and Minister of Foreign Affairs David Emerson (Alberta 1964).
The current President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos (Kansas 1973), was initiated into Delta Upsilon as an undergraduate student at the University of Kansas and credits the fraternity in helping form his political ideals.
Delta Upsilon member Linus Pauling (Oregon State 1922) is a member of a small group of individuals who have been awarded more than one Nobel Prize. Two Delta Upsilon fraternity members, Alfred P. Sloan (Technology 1895) and Charles F. Kettering (Ohio State 1904), joined together in 1945 to found the Sloan-Kettering Institute, which is now part of the world's oldest and largest private cancer research facility, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
In popular culture
- In 1932, one of the final performances of Coon-Sanders Original Nighthawk Orchestra was at a party organized by the Washington and Lee University chapter of Delta Upsilon.
- The 1963 Hugo Award-nominated novel Cat's Cradle opens with narrator Jonah recalling he had read in the Delta Upsilon Quarterly that main character Newton Hoenikker had recently pledged to the Cornell University chapter of Delta Upsilon (it is later learned that Hoenikker has been de-pledged for poor grades).
- On the afternoon of April 18, 1969, Students for a Democratic Society and the Afro American Students (AAS) organization seized control of Willard Straight Hall at Cornell University in an event that was to "prompt decades of social, cultural and political change." At three o'clock the following morning, 25 members of the Cornell chapter of Delta Upsilon (which had a reputation as the "jock fraternity") attempted to storm the building. A sentry alerted the occupiers to the DU presence, losing them the element of surprise; after a series of fisticuffs the DU members withdrew. SDS partisans, fearing Delta Upsilon was preparing to return with members of other fraternities, armed themselves with rifles and other small arms. Associated Press photographer Steve Parr's picture of the eventual surrender of the heavily-armed occupiers won the Pulitzer Prize.
- The 1978 film Animal House was based, in part, on producer Ivan Reitman's experiences as a member of the McMaster University chapter of Delta Upsilon.
- In 2006 Playboy staged a photo shoot at the University of Wisconsin Delta Upsilon chapter. The photo, which ran in the May 2006 issue of the magazine, featured 23 Delta Upsilon members posing with 19 naked females in an article naming Wisconsin the nation's "#1 party school."
- "College Rankings 2012: Top Fraternities". Newsweek. 6 August 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Undergraduate Chapter". wiudu.com. Delta Upsilon Western Illinois University Chapter. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Delta Upsilon". gvsu.edu. Grand Valley State University. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Delta Upsilon North Dakota chapter". und.edu. University of North Dakota. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Anson, Jack (1991). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities. Bairds Manual Foundation. ISBN 0963715909.
- La Roche, Julie (13 February 2013). "17 Fraternities With Top Wall Street Alumni". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Baird, William (1905). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (6th Edition). Alcolm. p. 165-168. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Rothschild, Scott (24 September 2012). "Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos recalls years at KU, discusses importance of diplomacy". Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence, KS). Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Spring, Leverett (1917). A History of Williams College. Houghton Mifflin. p. 286-287.
- Miller, Thomas (1934). Delta Upsilon One Hundred Years 1834-1934. Delta Upsilon.
- Robson, John (1968). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (18th Edition). George Banta Company. p. 281.
- Edwards, Victoria. "Memorial Number: 24075-047". forces.gc.ca. National Defence Canada Directorate of History and Heritage. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "From Troubled Times, New Strengths". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon fraternity. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- The Cornerstone: Delta Upsilon's Guide to College and Beyond. Delta Upsilon International Fraternity. 1991.
- Stevens, Albert (1907). The Cyclopædia of Fraternities. E.B. Treat and Co. p. 331.
- Porter, J.A. (February 1889). "College Fraternities". The Century Magazine.
- "Secret Societies in Colleges". Harvard Crimson. 6 February 1884. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Wurgraft, Benjamin (2013). Jews at Williams: Inclusion, Exclusion, and Class at a New England Liberal Arts College. Williams College. p. 68. ISBN 1611684358.
- Petition of the Zeta Chi Fraternity of Baker University to the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. Zeta Chi. 1926.
- "Heads Fraternity". Lethbridge Herald. 4 October 1943.
- "John Arthur Clark 1886-1976". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. Spring 1976.
- "Previous Recipients". ncindy.org. North American Interfraternit Conference. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Campus Life: Rutgers; Two Fraternities Are Suspended For Violations". New York Times. 17 March 1991. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Killackey, Jill (13 December 1990). "Ban for "Despicable' Hazing Stands". Daily Oklahoman (Norman, OK). Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Union Suspends Students". Daily Gazette. 27 May 1995. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Friedman, Jordan (20 September 2011). "Strahine Shares Hazing Experiences". Emory Wheel. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Steve, Pepple (30 May 2008). "Fire destroys historic University of Michigan frat house". Ann Arbor News. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Freed, Ben (30 May 2008). "Fraternity moves back to historic house 4 years after fire". Ann Arbor News. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Deal with a Colorful Past Leads to a Homecoming and U.Va.'s First New Fraternity House in 50 Years". UVA Today. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "Webster Chapter Installed". DU Quarterly (Delta Upsilon Fraternity). 2009. p. 7. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- Thomas, John (2005). University of Vermont. Arcadia. p. 30. ISBN 0738537772.
- Chase, William (1884). The Delta Upsilon Quinquennial Catalogue. Delta Upsilon. p. 320.
- Olsen, Sarah (30 September 2014). "New Fraternity to Join UVM". The Vermont Cynic (Burlington, VT). Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "D. U. MEMBERS IN COURT ON DISPUTE OVER CLUBHOUSE". Harvard Crimson. 18 March 1924. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
- "An Accident Waiting to Happen?". Harvard Magazine. March 1998. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Granade, Matthew (6 June 1996). "Fly and D.U. Final Clubs Decide to Merge Assets, Alumni Membership". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "History". theoakclub.org. The Oak Club. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Delta Upsilon International Fraternity Suspends Technology Chapter". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon International Fraternity. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Bent, Drew (2 December 2014). "Behind the suspension of MIT Delta Upsilon". The Tech.
- "DUEL Experience". duef.deltau.org. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Butterfield, Emily (1934). College Fraternity Heraldry. Banta Co.
- "Delta Upsilon". uspto.gov. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Trademark Electronic Search System. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "It's as Easy to Buy Your Fraternity Hat Band as it is to Buy Your Hats". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. 1 April 1922.
- "The Hamilton Convention". Delta Upsilon Quarterly. 1 December 1905.
- "TIME Magazine Wall". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "History of the Quarterly". deltau.org. Delta Upsilon. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "DUEF Form 990". guidestar.org. IRS. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Delta Upsilon Fraternity, Certificate of Membership". oregonstate.edu. Oregon State University Libraries - Linus Pauling Collection. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Edmiston, Fred (2003). The Coon-Sanders Nighthawks: "The Band That Made Radio Famous". McFarland. p. 250.
- Vonnegut, Kurt (1963). Cat's Cradle. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 038533348X.
- Lowery, George (16 April 2009). "A campus takeover that symbolized an era of change". Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Perlstein, Rick (2010). Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America. Scribner. p. 377.
- Downs, Donald. "CORNELL ’69 AND WHAT IT DID". mindingthecampus.com. Center for the American University. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- Jones, Janna (6 December 2013). "NAU Film Series: College has never been funnier". Arizona Daily Sun. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Pelzek, Erica (9 April 2006). "Playboy pics feature UW". The Daily Cardinal (Madison, WI). Retrieved 17 December 2014.