|110,000 (2001 census)|
The Dimasa language is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Dimasa people in the state of Assam and Nagaland in North East India, The Dimasa language is known to Dimasas as "Grao-Dima". The Dimasa Language is similar to languages of Twipras (Tripuri) or Kokborok.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Writing system
- 3 Grammar
- 3.1 Pronoun(Munglsai)
- 3.2 Useful Words
- 3.3 Questioning(Shingthai)
- 3.4 Noun(Mung)
- 3.5 Gender(Sin)
- 3.6 Verbs(Dangya Bono)
- 3.7 Tense(Bubili Bono)
- 3.8 Affirmative and Negative (Jajaothai and Jajaoyathai)
- 3.9 Adjective(Mungmin)
- 3.10 Number(shain-rikhi)
- 3.11 Counting(shainren)
- 4 See also
- 5 References
The Dimasa language is one of the oldest languages spoken in North East India, particularly in Assam. The word Dimasa etymologically translates to "Son of the big river" (Di- Water, ma- suffix for great, sa-sons), the river being the mighty Brahmaputra. The Dimasa word "Di" for water forms the root word for many of the major rivers of Assam and North East India, such as Dikrang, which means green river, Dikhow, which means fetched water, Diyung, which means huge river, and many others. The mighty river Brahmaputra is known as Dilao (long river) among the Dimasas even now. Many of the important towns and cities in Assam and Nagaland received their names from Dimasa words such as Diphu, Dimapur (a capital of the Dimasa Kingdom), Dispur, Hojai, Khaspur, etc. In fact, the Dimasa language is one of the last languages of North East India to retain its original vocabulary without being compromised by foreign languages.
Dimasa is written using the Latin script, which and has been introduced in the lower primary-education system in Dima Hasao District. The main guiding force behind it being the Dimasa Lairidim Hosom, a literary apex body of the Dimasa community. The Bengali script is used in Cachar, where the Dimasas live alongside Bengali people.
You all - Nishi
For You all- Nishine
Only you all - Nishishing
its You all - Nishise/ nishining
You all too - Nishibo
- NISHI is mainly used while addressing the Elderly people
we too- Jingbo
Day after Tomorrow- Dakhna soni/Soni
Day before yesterday - Miyah Agashi/ Agashi
Any past day - Okhali
Night - Hor/Sari
Morning - Phorong
What- Nadi /Shinadi, Hinadi.
What is your name?-Nini Bumu nadi/shumu/humu?
Where do live?- Ning braha Dongdu?
why you live there?-Ning nabani oraha Dongba?
Whose book is this?- Ebo sereni laishi?
who is there?-Sere oraha dong?
When did you come?-Ning bakhali Phaiba ?
Are you Dimasa- Ning Dimasa?
Which one is yours- Bilaba nini? or shumuyaba nini? How are you doing? - Ning Bedeh/Bedehe Jadu?
I am fine - Ang Hamhining Dong
Non living things:
House - Noh
Things - Jinis
River - Dikhong
Small Stream- Disha
Big river - Diyung
Fire - Wai
Door - Derga
Kitchen - Shongkho
Bedroom- Thuthan, Thukho
Any Sacred Shrine - Madaikho
Peak- Fojlong Plain land- Haflai
Paddy field- Hadi
Money - Rang
Coins - Botho
Region/ state/ Colony- Haphai, Raji, Hathani
Chest wrapper- Rijamphain
Wrapper from Waist to ankle- Rigu
Short dhuti - Risha
Bed - Basang
Lamp - Thaophari
Head- Bokhro/ Khro
Lips - Khujer
Cheeks - Bakhaolai/Khaolai
Ears- Bakhamao/ Khamao
Right Hand- Yaoda
Left Hand- Yaoshi
Nails - Yeskur
Chest - Khajap
Heart - Bakha/Kha
Stomach - Boho / ho
Knees - Yesku
Foot - Yapha
Waist - Jengkhong
Shoulder - Phakhrong
Back - Shima
Neck - Godo
Buttock - Khithong
Your Father- Napha(used by elders)
His/Her Father- Bupha
Your mother- Nama(used by elders)
elder Sister- Bubi
Your elder sister - (Nini+Abi)=Nibi
His/her elder sis- (buni +Abi)=Bubi
Elder Brother- Ahda
Your elder bro -(nini+ada) = Nada
His/her elder brother- (Buni+ada)= bada
Younger sister - Ajang/ Behndao
Younger brother- Ajang/ Daphlung
Your younger bro/sis- (Nini+ajang)=Najang
His/her younger bro/sis- (buni+Ajang)=bajang
Son (offsring)- Basha ( Father addresses his son as Apha)
your Grandma- (Nini+adai)=Nadai
His/her Grandma - (buni+ adai)= Badai Grandfather - Aju
Your Grandpa- (Nini+aju)=Nuju
His/her grandpa - (buni+Aju)=Buju
Married Couple- shaigin
Grandson/Granddaughter - Bushuthai
Paternal uncle(younger to your father) - Adi
wife of Adi- Amadi
Paternal uncle (elder to Your father)- aBoda / boda
wife of Boda- Ayung
Maternal aunty( younger to your mother)-Amao
husband of amao- Amaosha
Maternal uncle- Ade
Paternal aunty- Ade
Friends - Lugu ( friends address another friend as - Nao, Namai, Adung)
Human - Shubung/Marshi
Female Dog- Shima
She monkey - Magujik
Peacock - Daodeiro
Leopard- Mishi satrai
Wild cat -Muru
Beer- Mushu burma
Elephant - Miyung
Dry Fish - Nagraing
Another kind of dry fish- Naphlam
Prawns - Nathu
Snail - Shugathai
Plants and tree Nector / Plant - Buphang
Potato - Thathai
Tomato - Didibao
onion - Shamphrang
Garlic - Shamphrang gufu
Brinjal - Phanthao
Chilli - Morshai
Grass - Sham
Roots - Yader
Mango - Thaiju
Lemon - Thaisha
Gooseberry - Hamlaithai
Banana - Thailik
Bamboo shoot -Miya / Wagili
Fermented Beans- Ingjang
Son-Daughter= Basa(m)- Bisik(f)
Dimasaman-Dimasawomen = Dimasa(m)-Dimajik(f)
Marriedman-married woman= Hainga(m)-Haingajik(f)
teenageboy-Teenagegirl= Naga(m)- Mathla(f)
Cow-ox= Mushu(m)- Mushuma(f)
Dog-Bitch= Shila(m)-Shima(f) (Dog in general is Shisha) Nah-fihs
Pick up- Khon
Sentences with the above verbs
Ning Na BRAI-You Buy Fish.
ball REM-Catch the ball.
Bon DAIN-Cut the Wood.
angkhe THI/SAINTHI-Tell me.
Present Tense(Daglai bubili):
1.Present indefinite tense(Daglai Lailo Bubili Bono)
use of suffix "re" on verb makes it present idefinite.
e.g.-I do works - Ang Khusi Dangre
Cow eats Grass- Mushu Shamkhe jire
Ram Studies at home -Ram noha laishi phuri re
2.Present Continuous tense(Daglai Bubili jasai bono):
Use of suffix "saidu" or "du"(in short) on verbs, makes verb present continuous
e.g.-I am going to home -Ang Noha Thangsaidu/Thangdu.
Rahul is reading a book- Rahul Laishi Phuridu/Phurisaidu.
Baby is crying- Nana Grasaidu/Gradu.
3.Present Perfect tense(Daglai Bubili pura bono):
use of suffix "kha" on verbs, make it Present perfect tense
E.g.-I have bought a Fish- Ang Nah Braikha.
I have told him/her- Ang Bokhe Sainthikha/Thikha.
Have you taken food?- Ning Makham Jikha?
Have you cut the wood? - Ning Bon Dainkha?
Past Tense ( Minisi Bubili bono)
1.Simple Past Tense(Minisi Lailo Bubili)
use suffix "Ba" on verbs, makes it simple bast tense.
e.g.-They went - Bosi Thangba
Children studied - Ancharao Phuriba
Boys played - Nagarao Mlaoba.
2.Past Continuous(Minisi Jasai Bubili Bono)
E.g.-Student were studying - Phuriancharao phuri dongba
I was Fishing- Ang Nah Remhi Dongba
Marry was sleeping - Marry thuhi dongba
Future Tense(Dabai Bubili Bono)
Use of Suffix "ma" on verbs, makes it Simple future tense.
1.Future indefinite tense(Dabai lailo bubili bono)
E.g.-Children will go to school - Ancharao Schoolha thangma.
who will feed grass to the Cow?- sere mushune Shamkhe Jirima?
I will go soon - Ang Sanga Thangma
2.Future Continuous Tense(Dabai Jasai Bubili Bono)
e.g.-We will be working- Jing Khusi Danghi Dongma
not everyone will be living - Khripde Thanghi Dongya
Who will be eating food? - sere makham jihi dongma?
Affirmative and Negative (Jajaothai and Jajaoyathai)
we can use suffix "Ya" on verb, to make the sentence negative.
e.g.-they are not going home - Bosi/Bonsi Noha thangya.
Children will not stay outside - Ancharao baijiha Dongya.
we can use only suffix "niya" on noun or adjective, to make the sentence negative.
That child is not big - Bo ancha gede niya.
Poor but not mad - Dukhisa thikhabo Gibir niya.
well is not deep -Dikhor guthu niya
White - Guphu
Black - Gishim
Light Green - Gakhrang gili
Green - Gakhrang
Dark Green - Gakhrang-Gisim
yellow - Gurmu
Ligt yellow - Gurmu gili
Orange - Gurmu wai
Maroon - Jaoshim=(Gajao-red + Gishim-Black)
Blue - Gishimthapla
Ash colour - Thapla
Tastes: Sweet - Gidi
bitter - Gakha
Salty - Gabrab
Dirty - Gomor/Rege
Scented - Midim
Light weight - Rejeng
Sentences: your clothes is whitish - nini rih Phubi ( Guphu +bi)
Mango is sweet in taste - Thaiju Dibi ( Gidi +bi)
Your Face is beautiful - Nini mukhang Mazangbi ( Mazang+bi)
I-Ang = We -Jing
you- Ning = You all- Nishi
Suffix "rao" is used after humans/people (except animals)
Amai(mother) - Amairao(mothers)
Suffix "Buthu" is after animals, living(except for Humans) and Non-Living
Mishep(Buffalo)- Mishep buthu/ Mishipthu(buffaloes)
Laishi ( Book) - Laishi Buthu / Lashithu (Books)
noh( House)- Noh buthu(Houses)
- Dimasa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Dimasa". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- http://online.assam.gov.in/tribes_of_assam#Dimasa Kachari