Dimasa language

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Dimasa
Native to India
Region Assam, Nagaland
Native speakers
110,000  (2001 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 dis
Glottolog dima1251[2]

The Dimasa language is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Dimasa people in the state of Assam and Nagaland in North East India, The Dimasa language is known to Dimasas as "Grao-Dima". The Dimasa Language is similar to languages of Twipras (Tripuri) or Kokborok.

The Dimasa language is one of the oldest languages spoken in North East India, particularly in Assam. The word Dimasa etymologically translates to "Son of the big river" (Di- Water, ma- suffix for great, sa-sons), the river being the mighty Brahmaputra. The Dimasa word "Di" for water forms the root word for many of the major rivers of Assam and North East India, such as Dikrang, which means green river, Dikhow, which means fetched water, Diyung, which means huge river, and many others. The mighty river Brahmaputra is known as Dilao (long river) among the Dimasas even now. Many of the important towns and cities in Assam and Nagaland received their names from Dimasa words such as Diphu, Dimapur (a capital of the Dimasa Kingdom), Dispur, Hojai, Khaspur, etc. In fact, the Dimasa language is one of the last languages of North East India to retain its original vocabulary without being compromised by foreign languages.

Writing system[edit]

While the Dimasa language has no official writing system,[3] Bengali script is normally used.[4]

Grammar[edit]

Pronoun(Munglsai)[edit]

I-Ang
for me-Anthane/Ane
Only me-Angsening/angshing
Its me-Angse/Angning
me too-Angbo

Mine-Ani
only mine-Anesening/aneshing
its mine-Anining/Anise
mine too-Anibo

You-Ning
for you-Ninthane/nine
only you-Ningshing
its you-Ningse/Ningning
you too-Ningbo

You all - Nishi
For You all- Nishine
Only you all - Nishishing
its You all - Nishise/ nishining
You all too - Nishibo

  • NISHI is mainly used while addressing the Elderly people

Yours-Nini
Only Yours-Ninishing
its yours-Ninise/Ninining
yours too-Ninibo

We-Jing
for us-Jinthane/Jine
only we-Jingshing
its us-Jingning/Jingse
we too- Jingbo

ours-Jini
only ours-Jinishing
Its ours-Jinise/Jinining
ours too-Jinibo

He/She-Bo/bu
for him/her-Bunthane/Bone
only he/she-Bushing/Boshing
its his/her-Boning/Bose
He/she too-Bubo/bobo


Him/Hers-Buni/boni
Only him/hers-bonishing/bunishing
its him/hers-Bonining/Bonise
his/hers too-Bonibo/Bunibo

They/them-Bunshi/Bonshi/Bushi
Its them-Bunshise/Bonshise/Bushise
for them-Bonshithane/Bonshine/Bushine
only they-Bonshising/Bushishing/Bushisening
They too-Bonshibo/Bushibo

Theirs-Bunshini/Bonshini/Bushini
its Theirs-Bunshinining/Bonshinise/Bushinise
only theirs-Bonshinishing/Bushinishing/Bushinisening
theirs too-Bonshinibo/Bushibo

Useful Words[edit]

This-Ibo/Ebo
That-Houbu
Here-Eraha/Era
There-Uraha/Ura/ora

Today-Dini
Yesterday-Miyaha
Tomorrow-Dakhna
Day after Tomorrow- Dakhna soni/Soni
Day before yesterday - Miyah Agashi/ Agashi
Any past day - Okhali

Day- Sain
Night - Hor/Sari
Morning - Phorong
Evening- Sainbli
Dawn- Naiju

Questioning(Shingthai)[edit]

What- Nadi /Shinadi, Hinadi.
Where-Baraha/Brah
Why-Nabani, Shumuni
Who-Sere
Whose-Sereni
when-Bakhali
How-Bedehe /Bedeh
which-Bilaba/Shumu/humu

Interrogative sentences[edit]

What is your name?-Nini Bumu nadi/shumu/humu?
Where do live?- Ning braha Dongdu?
why you live there?-Ning nabani oraha Dongba?
Whose book is this?- Ebo sereni laishi?
who is there?-Sere oraha dong?
When did you come?-Ning bakhali Phaiba ?
Are you Dimasa- Ning Dimasa?
Which one is yours- Bilaba nini? or shumuyaba nini? How are you doing? - Ning Bedeh/Bedehe Jadu?
I am fine - Ang Hamhining Dong

Noun(Mung)[edit]

Non living things:
House - Noh
Things - Jinis
Water- Di
River - Dikhong
Air-Bar
Storm- Baryung
Small Stream- Disha
Pond- Kharnai
Big river - Diyung
Fire - Wai
Door - Derga
Gate -Daoglap
Kitchen - Shongkho
Bedroom- Thuthan, Thukho
Any Sacred Shrine - Madaikho
Land/soil- Ha
Sand-Hajeng
Hills/Mountain- Hajik,Hasao,Hading,Haflau,Harang
Peak- Fojlong Plain land- Haflai
Road-Lama
Sky- Nokhashao
Star-Satrai
Rain-Hadi
Paddy field- Hadi
Money - Rang
Wealth-Rang-ri
Coins - Botho
Market- Hathai
Heaven- Dambra
Stone- Longthai
Region/ state/ Colony- Haphai, Raji, Hathani
Village-Nohlai
Footwear- Yaphadap
Clothes- Ri
Chest wrapper- Rijamphain
Wrapper from Waist to ankle- Rigu
Short dhuti - Risha
Chain- Jing-jri
Earring- Khamaothai
Bracelet-Khadu
Comb-Khojong
Oil- Thao
Salt-Shem
Mirror- Derphnai
Bed - Basang
Lamp - Thaophari

Body parts:
Blood- Bithi/Thi
Brain- Bikhlim
Face- Mukhang
Head- Bokhro/ Khro
Hair- Khanai
Forehead- Bathain
Eyes- Muthai
Tears-Mudi
Eyebrow- Mugur
Eyelid- Mushrang
Nose- Bugung/Gung
Mouth- Bukhu/khu
Lips - Khujer
Teeth/Tooth- Hathai
Tongue-Shlai
Cheeks - Bakhaolai/Khaolai
Ears- Bakhamao/ Khamao
Hands- Yao
Right Hand- Yaoda
Left Hand- Yaoshi
Palm-Yaopha
Finger- Yaoshi
Nails - Yeskur
Chest - Khajap
Heart - Bakha/Kha
Stomach - Boho / ho
Legs- Iga/Ega
Knees - Yesku
Foot - Yapha
Waist - Jengkhong
Shoulder - Phakhrong
Back - Shima
Neck - Godo
Throat -Gorna
Buttock - Khithong
Anus- Khiphu.

Kinship(Hainthi)
Father- Abai
Your Father- Napha(used by elders)
His/Her Father- Bupha
Mother- Amai
Your mother- Nama(used by elders)
His/Her mother-Buma
elder Sister- Bubi
Your elder sister - (Nini+Abi)=Nibi
His/her elder sis- (buni +Abi)=Bubi
Elder Brother- Ahda
Your elder bro -(nini+ada) = Nada
His/her elder brother- (Buni+ada)= bada
Younger sister - Ajang/ Behndao
Younger brother- Ajang/ Daphlung
Your younger bro/sis- (Nini+ajang)=Najang
His/her younger bro/sis- (buni+Ajang)=bajang
Son (offsring)- Basha ( Father addresses his son as Apha)
Daughter- Bishik
Grandmother- Adai
your Grandma- (Nini+adai)=Nadai
His/her Grandma - (buni+ adai)= Badai Grandfather - Aju
Your Grandpa- (Nini+aju)=Nuju
His/her grandpa - (buni+Aju)=Buju
Husband- Bashai
Wife-Bihi
Married Couple- shaigin
Grandson/Granddaughter - Bushuthai
Paternal uncle(younger to your father) - Adi
wife of Adi- Amadi
Paternal uncle (elder to Your father)- aBoda / boda
wife of Boda- Ayung
Maternal aunty( younger to your mother)-Amao
husband of amao- Amaosha
Maternal uncle- Ade
Paternal aunty- Ade
Brother-in-law- Agim
Sister-in-law- Baoji

Friends - Lugu ( friends address another friend as - Nao, Namai, Adung)
Human - Shubung/Marshi
Boy-Miyah
Girl-Masainjik
Female- Jik
Male-Jla

Animals/ Birds(Mih):
Dog- Shisha
Female Dog- Shima
Monkey(male)- Magusha
She monkey - Magujik
Pig- Hono
Goat-Burun
Lamb- Melma
Snake- Jubu
Bird- Dao
Hen-Daoma
Cock- Daola
Peacock - Daodeiro
Tiger -Mishi
Leopard- Mishi satrai
Wild cat -Muru
Lion- Raigon
Horse- Gorai
Deer- Mishai
Beer- Mushu burma
Cow- Mushu
Elephant - Miyung
Cat-Alu
Fish- Na
Rat-Mojo
Mosquito- Thamphi
Housefly- Thamphima
Bees- Bere
Dry Fish - Nagraing
Another kind of dry fish- Naphlam
Prawns - Nathu
Snail - Shugathai
Crab- Khangkhrai

Plants and tree Nector / Plant - Buphang
Tree- Bongphang
Flower- Khim
Potato - Thathai
Tomato - Didibao
onion - Shamphrang
Garlic - Shamphrang gufu
Brinjal - Phanthao
Chilli - Morshai
Grass - Sham
Roots - Yader
Leaf- Balai
Mango - Thaiju
Lemon - Thaisha
Gooseberry - Hamlaithai
Tamarind- Thenthri
Banana - Thailik
Bamboo shoot -Miya / Wagili
Fermented Beans- Ingjang

Gender(Sin)[edit]

f-female= m-male
Male-Female= Jla(m)-Jik(f)
Son-Daughter= Basa(m)- Bisik(f)
Husband-Wife=Bihi(f)-Bashai(m)
Boy-Girl=Miya(m)-Masainjik(f)
Dimasaman-Dimasawomen = Dimasa(m)-Dimajik(f)
Marriedman-married woman= Hainga(m)-Haingajik(f)
teenageboy-Teenagegirl= Naga(m)- Mathla(f)
Widow-Widower= Banjik(f)-Bandola(m)
Bachelor-Spinster= Nagagrasa(m)-MalaGrajik(f)
Cow-ox= Mushu(m)- Mushuma(f)
Dog-Bitch= Shila(m)-Shima(f) (Dog in general is Shisha) Nah-fihs

Verbs(Dangya Bono)[edit]

come-phai
Go-Thang
Eat-Ji
Sit-Kham
Read/Study-Phuri
see/Watch-Nai
Stay-Dong
Bring-Labu
Say- Sainthi/Thi/Thzi
sit-Kham
stand up/wake-Baija/Shong
Hold/Catch-Rem/Rim
Walk-Him/Hem
cry-Gra
Fly-Bir
Buy-Brai
sell-Phain
wear-gain
cut-Dain
sleep-Thu
Sing-Rajap
play-Mlao
pluck-Phi
pull-Shig/Shik
Pick up- Khon

Sentences with the above verbs[edit]

Ning Na BRAI-You Buy Fish.
ball REM-Catch the ball.
Bon DAIN-Cut the Wood.
angkhe THI/SAINTHI-Tell me.

Tense(Bubili Bono)[edit]

Present Tense(Daglai bubili):

1.Present indefinite tense(Daglai Lailo Bubili Bono)
use of suffix "re" on verb makes it present idefinite.
e.g.-I do works - Ang Khusi Dangre
Cow eats Grass- Mushu Shamkhe jire
Ram Studies at home -Ram noha laishi phuri re

2.Present Continuous tense(Daglai Bubili jasai bono):
Use of suffix "saidu" or "du"(in short) on verbs, makes verb present continuous
e.g.-I am going to home -Ang Noha Thangsaidu/Thangdu.
Rahul is reading a book- Rahul Laishi Phuridu/Phurisaidu.
Baby is crying- Nana Grasaidu/Gradu.

3.Present Perfect tense(Daglai Bubili pura bono):
use of suffix "kha" on verbs, make it Present perfect tense
E.g.-I have bought a Fish- Ang Nah Braikha.
I have told him/her- Ang Bokhe Sainthikha/Thikha.
Have you taken food?- Ning Makham Jikha?
Have you cut the wood? - Ning Bon Dainkha?

Past Tense ( Minisi Bubili bono)
1.Simple Past Tense(Minisi Lailo Bubili)
use suffix "Ba" on verbs, makes it simple bast tense.
e.g.-They went - Bosi Thangba
Children studied - Ancharao Phuriba
Boys played - Nagarao Mlaoba.

2.Past Continuous(Minisi Jasai Bubili Bono)
E.g.-Student were studying - Phuriancharao phuri dongba
I was Fishing- Ang Nah Remhi Dongba
Marry was sleeping - Marry thuhi dongba

Future Tense(Dabai Bubili Bono)
Use of Suffix "ma" on verbs, makes it Simple future tense.
1.Future indefinite tense(Dabai lailo bubili bono)
E.g.-Children will go to school - Ancharao Schoolha thangma.
who will feed grass to the Cow?- sere mushune Shamkhe Jirima?
I will go soon - Ang Sanga Thangma

2.Future Continuous Tense(Dabai Jasai Bubili Bono)
e.g.-We will be working- Jing Khusi Danghi Dongma
not everyone will be living - Khripde Thanghi Dongya
Who will be eating food? - sere makham jihi dongma?

Affirmative and Negative (Jajaothai and Jajaoyathai)[edit]


we can use suffix "Ya" on verb, to make the sentence negative.
e.g.-they are not going home - Bosi/Bonsi Noha thangya.
Children will not stay outside - Ancharao baijiha Dongya.

we can use only suffix "niya" on noun or adjective, to make the sentence negative.
That child is not big - Bo ancha gede niya.
Poor but not mad - Dukhisa thikhabo Gibir niya.
well is not deep -Dikhor guthu niya

Adjective(Mungmin)[edit]

Colours
Red- Gajao
White - Guphu
Black - Gishim
Light Green - Gakhrang gili
Green - Gakhrang
Dark Green - Gakhrang-Gisim
yellow - Gurmu
Ligt yellow - Gurmu gili
Orange - Gurmu wai
Maroon - Jaoshim=(Gajao-red + Gishim-Black)
Blue - Gishimthapla
Ash colour - Thapla

Tastes: Sweet - Gidi
bitter - Gakha
Salty - Gabrab
Tangy- Mikhri

Clean- Ragaoshi
Pure- Gthar
Impure- Gushu
Dirty - Gomor/Rege
beautiful- Mazang
Odour- Maram
Scented - Midim
Light weight - Rejeng

Sentences: your clothes is whitish - nini rih Phubi ( Guphu +bi)
Mango is sweet in taste - Thaiju Dibi ( Gidi +bi)
Your Face is beautiful - Nini mukhang Mazangbi ( Mazang+bi)

Number(shain-rikhi)[edit]

I-Ang = We -Jing
you- Ning = You all- Nishi

Suffix "rao" is used after humans/people (except animals)
Ancha(child)-Ancharao(children)
Amai(mother) - Amairao(mothers)
Kharao(elder)- Kharaorao(Elders)
Nana(baby)- Nanarao(Babies)

Suffix "Buthu" is after animals, living(except for Humans) and Non-Living
Mishep(Buffalo)- Mishep buthu/ Mishipthu(buffaloes)
Laishi ( Book) - Laishi Buthu / Lashithu (Books)
noh( House)- Noh buthu(Houses)

Counting(shainren)[edit]

0.Esi
1.se
2.Gni
3.Gtham
4.Biri/Bri
5.Bowa/Bongwa
6.Do
7.Sni
8.Jai
9.sgu
10.Ji
11.Ji-se
12.ji-gni
13.Ji-gtham
14.Ji-Bri
15.Ji-Bowa
16.Ji-do
17.Ji-sni
18.Ji-jai
19.Ji-sgu
20.Khon(bisa-si)
21.Khon-se/Bisasi-se
22.Khon-gni/bisasi/gni
23.Khon-gtham/Bisasi-gtham
24.Khon-bri/Bisasi-bri
25.Khon-bowa/Bisabri-boa
26.Khon-do/Bisabri-do
27.Khon-sni/Bisabri-sni
28.Khon-jai/Bisabri-jai
29/Khon-sgu/Bisabri-sugu
30.Thim-ji(thothimji)
31.Thimji-se
32.Thimji-gni
33.Thimji-gtham
34.Thimji-bri
35.Thimji-bowa
36.Thimji-do
37.Thimji-sni
38.Thimji-jai
39.Thimji-sgu
40.Bisa-gni
41.Bisagni-se
42.Bisagni-gini
43.Bisagni-gtham
44.Bisagni-bri
45.Bisagni-boa
46.Bisagni-do
47.Bisagni-sni
48.Bisagni-jai
49.Bisagni-sgu
50.Dan
51.Dan-se
52.Dan-gni
53.Dan-tham
54.Dan-bri
55.Dan-bowa
56.Dan-do
57.Dan-sni
58.Dan-jai
59.Dan-sgu
60.Danji
61.Danji-se
62.Danji-gini
63.Danji-gtham
64.Danji-bri
65.Danji-bowa
66.Danji-do
67.Danji-sni
68.danji-jai
69.Danji-sgu
70.Bisa-tham-ji
71.Bisathamji-se
72.Bisathamji-gni
73.Bisathamji-gtham
74.Bisathamji-bri
75.Bisathamji-boaa
76.Bisathamji-do
77.Bisathamji-sni
78.Bisathamji-jai
79.Bisathamji-sgu
80.Bisabiri
81.Bisabri-se
82.Bisabri-gni
83.bisabri-gtham
84.bisabri-bri
85.bisabri-bowa
86.Bisabri-do
87.bisabri-sni
88.bisabri-jai
89.Bisabiri-sgu
90.bisabriji
91.bisbriji-se
92.bisabriji-gini
93.bisbriji-tham
94bisabriji-bri
95bisabriji-bowa
96.bisabriji-do
97.bisabriji-sni
98.Bisabriji-jai
99.Bisabriji-sgu
100.Rajasi
101.Rajsi-se
200.Raja-gni
201.Raja-gni-se
300.Rajatham
400.Rajabri
500.Raja-bowa
600.Rajado
700.Raja-sni
800.Rajajai
900.Raja sgu
1000.Rijing-si
1001.Rijingsi-se
2000.Rijing-gni
3000.Rijing-tham
4000.Rijing-bri
5000.Rijing bowa
6000.Rijingdo
7000.Rijing-sni
8000.Rijing jai
9000.Rijing sgu
10000.Rijing-ji
100000(lakh).Lakhse
10000000(crore).Khautise

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dimasa at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Dimasa". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ http://online.assam.gov.in/tribes_of_assam#Dimasa Kachari
  4. ^ http://www.omniglot.com/writing/langalph.htm