Mizo language

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Mizo
Lushai
Native to India, Bangladesh, Burma
Region Mizoram, Tripura, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tahan, Nagaland
Ethnicity Mizo people
Native speakers
690,000  (2001)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Mizoram (India)
Language codes
ISO 639-2 lus
ISO 639-3 lus
{{{mapalt}}}

The Mizo language, or Mizo ṭawng, is spoken natively by the Mizo people in the Mizoram state of India, Chin State in Burma, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. The language is also known as Lushai, a colonial term, as the Lushei people were the first to have external exposure. Though still common, Lushai (or Lusei, or Lushei) is considered incorrect by the Mizo themselves.[2] Much poetic language is derived from Pawi, Paite, and Hmar, and most known ancient poems considered to be in the Mizo language are actually in Pawi.[3]

History[edit]

The Mizo language belongs to the Kukish branch of the Tibeto-Burman family of languages. The numerous clans of the Mizo had respective dialects, amongst which the Lushei (Lusei, by Mizo themselves) dialect was most common, and which subsequently became the Mizo language and the lingua franca of the Kuki peoples due to its extensive and exclusive use by the Christian missionaries.

Writing system[edit]

Christian missionaries[4] started developing an alphabet for the language by adapting the Hunterian system of transliteration. The 25 letters used for writing in Mizo language are:

Letter a aw b ch d e f g ng h i j k
Name About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen
Letter l m n o p r s t u v z
Name About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen About this sound listen

A circumflex ^ was later added to the vowels to indicate long vowels, viz., â, ê, î, ô, û, which were insufficient to fully express Mizo tone. Recently,[when?] a leading newspaper in Mizoram, Vanglaini, the magazine Kristian Ṭhalai, and other publishers began using á, à, ä, é, è, ë, í, ì, ï, ó, ò, ú, ù, ü to indicate the long intonations and tones. However, this does not differentiate the different intonations that short tones can have.[5][6]

Relation with other languages[edit]

Mizo language is similar or related to other languages of the Tibeto-Burman family[7] and Austro-Asiatic languages.[8] The Kukish languages (which native Mizo speakers call Zohnahthlâk ṭawngho/Mizo ṭawngho) have a substantial amount of words in common,[9] and Hmar and Mizo language are especially similar; they are close to being mutually intelligible at the spoken level, and they are mostly mutually intelligible at the poetic level.

Mizo and Sino-Tibetan languages[edit]

The following table illustrates the similarity between Mizo ṭawng and some other members of the Sino-Tibetan family.[10] The words given are cognates, whose origins could be traced back to the proto-language Proto-Sino-Tibetan (given in the first column of the table).

Proto-Sino-Tibetan Mizo language Standard Chinese character (Pīnyīn) Early Middle Chinese Old Chinese Written Tibetan Written Burmese Bodo Trung English meaning
*tujH tui 水(shuǐ) - - - - - - Water
*sĭj(H) (? / ś-) thi 死 (sǐ) si' sjid shi-ba se - ɕi die
*ghāH khà 苦 (kǔ) kʰɔ' khag kha khâ kha (salty) Bitter
*sĭŋ thing - sin sjin shing sac - - wood/tree
*miǝ̆ŋ hming 名 (míng) mjiajŋ mjing ming - muŋ - name
*paH pa 爸 (bà) - - - - - - father
*rŭk (pa-)ruk 六 (liù) luwk ljəkw drug khrok - khlu six
*ŋāH (pa-)nga 五 (wǔ) ŋɔ' ngag lnga ŋ̩â ba pəŋ-ŋà five
*nă- nang 汝 (rǔ) - - - - nəŋ thou (you)
*nĭj ni 日 (rì) - - - - - day/sun
*druaŋ chhung (inside) 中(zhōng) (middle) ṭüŋ ṭǜŋ truŋ truŋs gźuŋ ǝtwaŋh - a3-tuŋ1 (middle)
*tī̆kʷ tâwk (enough, sufficient) 淑 (shú, shū, chù) - - sdug (pretty, nice) thǝuk (be worth, have certain value; be lucky) - - -
*[ph]ra ṭha - - - - - - - good
*chēŋ (be blue, green) hring (green) 青 (qīng) (green) chieŋ shēŋ - - -
*ch[ē]t sât 切 (qiē, qiè) chiet shīt zed ćhać - - to cut
References for the above table:[11][12]

Mizo and Burmese[edit]

The following few words suggest that Mizo and the Burmese are of the same family: kun ("to bend"), kam ("bank of a river"), kha ("bitter"), sam ("hair"), mei ("fire"), that ("to kill"), ni ("sun") hnih ("two") li ("four") nga ("five")

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Mizo language has eight tones and intonations for each of the vowels a, aw, e, i and u, four of which are reduced tones and the other four long tones. The vowel o has only three tones, all of them of the reduced type; it has almost exactly the same sound as the diphthong /oʊ/ found in American English. However, the vowels can be represented as follows:[13]

Front Central Back
Close i [i], [ɨ], [] u [u], [ʊ], [ʊː]
Mid e [e], [ɛ], [ɛː] aw [o], [ɔ], [ɔː]
Open a [ʌ], [a], [ɑ], [ɑː], [ä]

The vowel o has almost exactly the same sound as the diphthong // in American English.

Diphthongs[edit]

Starting with a Starting with e Starting with i Starting with u
ai (/aɪ̯/, /ɑːi/ or /ai/) ei (/eɪ̯/, /ɛi/ or /ɛɪ̯/) ia (/ɪə̯/ /ɪa/, /ja/ or /ɪa̭/) ua (/u̯a/ or /ua̭/)
au (/aʊ̯/, /ɑːʊ̯/) eu (/ɛu/, /eʊ/ or /eʊ̯/) iu (/ɪʊ̯/ or /iw/) ui (/ɥi/ or /ʔwi/)

Triphthongs[edit]

Mizo ṭawng has the following triphthongs:

  • iai, as in iai, piai
  • iau as in riau ruau, tiau tuau etc.
  • uai, as in uai, zuai, tuai, vuai
  • uau, as in riau ruau, tiau tuau, suau suau

Consonants[edit]

Labial Dental Alveolar Dorsal Glottal
Central Lateral Velar
Occlusive Voiceless p [p] t [t] k [k] ʔ [ʔ][14]
aspirated ph [pʰ] th [tʰ] kh [kʰ]
Voiced b [b] d [d]
Affricate Voiceless ch [t͡s]
aspirated chh [t͡sʰ], [ʰ]
Lateral tl [t͡l]
aspirated lateral thl [t͡lʰ]
Flap ṭ [t͡r]
aspirated flap ṭh [t͡rʰ]
Fricative voiceless f [f] s [s] h [h]
voiced v [v] z [z] l [l]
Nasal Simple m [m] n [n] ŋ (written ng)[ŋ]
aspirated hm [ʰm] hn [ʰn] hŋ (written ngh) [ʰŋ]
Liquid Simple r [r] l l
aspirated hr [ʰr] hl [ʰl]
Glottal[14] rʔ (written rhas in perh) [rʔ] lʔ (written lhas in belh) [lʔ]
References for the above table:[13][15]

Tone[edit]

Mizo is a tonal language, in which differences in pitch and pitch contour can change the meanings of words. Tone systems have developed independently in many of the daughter languages largely through simplifications in the set of possible syllable-final and syllable-initial consonants. Typically, a distinction between voiceless and voiced initial consonants is replaced by a distinction between high and low tone, while falling and rising tones developed from syllable-final h and glottal stop, which themselves often reflect earlier consonants.

The eight tones and intonations that the vowel a (and the vowels aw, e, i, u, and this constitutes all the tones in the Mizo language) can have can be shown by the letter sequence p-a-n-g, as follows:[16]

  • long high tone: páng as in páng (which has the same intonation as sáng in the sentence Thingküng sáng tak kan huanah a ding).
  • long low tone: pàng as in Tui a kawt pàng pâng mai (which has the same intonation as vàng in the word vànglaini).
  • peaking tone: pâng as in Tui a kawt pàng pâng mai (which has the same intonation as thlûk in I hla phuah thlûk chu a va mawi ve).
  • dipping tone: päng as in Tuibur a hmuam päng mai (which has the same intonation as säm in Kan huan ka säm vêl mai mai).
  • short rising tone: pǎng as in naupǎng (which has the same intonation as thǎng in Kan huanah thǎng ka kam).
  • short falling tone: pȧng as in I va inkhuih pȧng ve? (which has the same intonation as pȧn in I lam ka rawn pȧn)
  • short mid tone: pang as in A dik lo nghâl pang (which has the same tone as man in Sazu ka man)
  • short low tone: pạng as in I pạng a sá a nih kha (which has the same tone as chạl in I chạlah thosí a fù).

Sample sentences[edit]

The following table illustrates the pronunciations of various consonants, vowels and diphthongs found in Mizo language:

Sentence Pronunciation
Zạwhtë ka hmù zɒʔ.teː kʌ ʰmuː
Thlàpǔi a ëng tlʰaː.pwi ʔʌ ʔɛːŋ
Tlángah kǎn láwn tlaː.ŋʌʔ kʌn loːn
Phengphehlep chi hrang paruk ṭhu chungin ka en pʰeːŋ.pʰɛ.lʰɛp tsi ʰraŋ pʌ.rʊk trʰʊ tsʊ.ŋin kʌ ɛn
Ṭahbelh chu chhunah kan hruai ve lo vang. trʌʔ.bɛlʔ tsʊ tʃuː.nʌʔ kʌn ʰrwai veː loʊ vʌŋ(or lɔ.vʌŋ)
I va berh ve! ʔɪ vʌ berʔ ve:
Khàuphár thạwvẹn vè êm êm rịngawt mai che u hian. kʰauː.pʰaːr tʰɔ.vɛn veː ʔɛːm ʔɛːm ri.ŋɔt mai/mʌj tsɛ ʔʊ hjaːn
Nghakuai kan chiah ʰŋa.kua̯ːi kan tsjaʔ
I zuan kai ngam ka ring. ʔi zua̯ːn kaːi ŋam ka riŋ
Hläu miah lovin. ʰlaṷ mjʌʔ lɔ.vin
Kuai tliak kwai tljaːk
I tán liau liau i taːn ljaʊ ljaʊ
I uar a ni lo maw? ʔɪ ʔʊar ʔʌ nɪ loʊ ˈmɔː
Sakei sʌ.ˈkeɪ
Paih darh suh pʌɪʔ dʌrʔ sʊʔ
References and further reading for this section.[17][18][19][20]

Grammar[edit]

Mizo contains many analyzable polysyllables, which are polysyllabic units in which the individual syllables have meaning by themselves. In a true monosyllabic language, polysyllables are mostly confined to compound words, such as "lighthouse". The first syllables of compounds tend over time to be de-stressed, and may eventually be reduced to prefixed consonants. The word nuntheihna ("survival") is composed of nung ("to live"), theih ("possible") and na (a nominalizing suffix); likewise, theihna means "possibility". Virtually all polysyllabic morphemes in Mizo can be shown to originate in this way. For example, the disyllabic form bakhwan ("butterfly"), which occurs in one dialect of the Trung (or Dulung) language of Yunnan, is actually a reduced form of the compound blak kwar, found in a closely related dialect. It is reported over 18 of the dialects share about 850 words with the same meaning. For example, ban ("arm"), ke ("leg"), thla ("wing", "month"), lu ("head") and kut ("hand").

Word order[edit]

Mizo declarative word order is Object-subject-verb (OSV). For example:

Lehkhabu ka ziak
book I write
  • Lehkhabu ka ziak (I write/am writing a book)

However, even if one says Ka ziak lehkhabu, its meaning is not changed, nor does it become incorrect; the word order becomes Subject-verb-object. But this form is used only in particular situations.

Verbs[edit]

Conjugation[edit]

The verbs (called thiltih in Mizo)[21] are not conjugated as in languages such as English and French by changing the desinence of words, but the tense (in a sentence) is clarified by the aspect and the addition of some particles, such as[22]

etc.

Modification of verbs[edit]

Mizo verbs are often used in the Gerund, and most verbs change desinence in the Gerund; this modification is called tihdanglamna. This modified form is also the past participle. Some verbs which undergo modification are tabulated below:

Mizo verb Tihdanglam (modified form) English meaning
ziak ziah ziak - to write
ziah - writing (g.), written
tât tah tât - to whet (such as a knife)
tah - whetting (g.), whetted
mâk mà - to divorce (said of a man divorcing his wife)
mâk - divorcing (g.), divorced

However, even if the spelling of a verb is not changed, its tone is sometimes changed. For example the verbs tum (to aim), hum (to protect) etc. change tones; the tone is lowered in the modified form. There is a third class of verbs - that of verbs which neither change tone nor are inflected (modified). Examples include hneh (to conquer), hnek (to strike with one's fist).

Modification of words is not restricted to verbs; adjectives, adverbs etc. are also modified.

Nouns[edit]

Construction[edit]

There is no gender for nouns, and there are no articles. There are some specefic suffixes for forming nouns from verbs and adjectives, the most common of which are -na and -zia. The suffix -na is used for forming nouns from both verbs and adjectives, whereas -zia is used specifically for nominalising adjectives. For example,

  • tlù (v. to fall) - tlûkna (n. fall)
  • hmu (v. to see) - hmuhna (n. sight, seeing, vision)
  • süal (adj. evil) - sualna (n. sin)/sualzia (n. evilness)

Declension of nouns[edit]

Mizo nouns undergo declension into cases. The main cases can be classified as follows:[23]

Case Desinence Tone (in pronunciation) Examples
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
no change -
-
-
1. tui
2. nula
3. hmangaihna
Ergative suffix -in for non-proper nouns, 'n for proper nouns short low pitch for -in 1. tuiin
2. nulain
3. hmangaihnain
Instrumental short high pitch on -in
Locative suffix -ah 1. tuiah
2. nulaah
3. hmangaihnaah

Pluralisation[edit]

Nouns are pluralized by suffixing -te, -ho, -teho or -hote, for example:

Noun Plurals Meaning
mipa mipate
mipaho
mipa - man
mipate/mipaho - men
naupang naupangte
naupangho
naupang - child
naupangte/-ho - children

Pronouns[edit]

Forms[edit]

All Mizo pronouns occur in two forms, namely in free form and clitic form:[23]

Free form Clitic form
kei(I) ka (I)
keimah (I)[24]
keini (we) kan (we)
keimahni (we)[24]
nang(you, singular) i (you, singular)
nangmah (you)[24]
nangni (you, plural) in (you, plural)
nangmahni (you, plural)[24]
ani (he, she, it) a (he, she, it)
amah (he, she, it)[24]
anni (they) an (they)
anmahni (they)[24]

The free form is mostly used for emphasis, and has to be used in conjunction with either the clitic form or an appropriate pronominal particle, as shown in the following examples:

  1. Kei (=I free form) ka (=I clitic form)lo tel ve kher a ngai em?. This is a somewhat emphatic way of saying Ka lo tel ve kher a ngai em?
  2. Nangni (=you pl., free form) in (you pl., clitic form) zo tawh em? This is a somewhat emphatic way of saying Nangni in zo tawh em?
  3. Ani (he/she) a (s/he) kal ve chuan a ṭha lo vang.

The clitic form is also used as a genitive form of the pronoun.

Declension[edit]

Mizo pronouns, like Mizo nouns, are declined into cases as follows:

Pronoun (Nominative case) Genitive case Accusative case Ergative case
clitic form
ka ka mi, min keimahin=keima'n
kan kan min keimahni-in=keimahnin
i i che nangmahin=nangma'n
in in che u nangmahni-in=nangmahnin
a a amah amahin=ama'n
an an anmahni anmahni-in=anmahni'n
free form
kei keima keimah, keimah min keimahin=keima'n
keimah keima keimah, keimah min keimahin=keima'n
keini keini keini, keini min keini-in=keini'n
keimahni keimahni keimahni, keimahni min keimahni-in=keimahni'n
anni anni anni anni'n
anmahni anmahni anmahni anmahni-in=anmahni'n

Adjectives[edit]

Mizo adjectives (Mizo: hrilhfiahna) follow the nouns they describe, as follows:

1. naupang fel a good child
child good
2. lehkhabu chhiartlâk a readable book
book readable
3. hmasawnna chhenfâkawm sustainable development
development sustainable

Negation[edit]

For declarative sentences, negation is achieved by adding the particle lo (not) at the end of a sentence. For example

Sentence Negation
Lala a lo kal
Lala is coming/Lala came
Lala a lo kal lo
Lala did not come
Pathumin paruk a sem thei
Three divides six
Pathumin paruk a sem thei lo
Three does not divide six

Also, for words such as engmah (nothing), tumah (nobody) etc., unlike English we have to add the negation particle lo; for example

1. Tumah
nobody
ka
I
hmu
see
lo
not
2. Engmah
nothing
ka
I
rawn keng
bring
lo
not

Thus we have to use double negation for such cases.

Unique parts of speech in Mizo ṭawng[edit]

All kinds of Parts of Speech like noun, pronoun, verbs, etc. can be found in Mizo language with some additional unique kinds - post-positions and double adverbs.

Sample texts in Mizo ṭawng[edit]

The following is a sample text in Mizo of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:[25]

Mizo ṭawng English
Mi zawng zawng hi zalèna piang kan ni a, zahawmna leh dikna chanvoah intluk tlâng vek kan ni. Chhia leh ṭha hriatna fîm neia siam kan nih avangin kan mihring puite chungah inunauna thinlung kan pu tlat tur a ni. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Some Mizo words and phrases[edit]

Mizo ṭawng English
Ka läwm e Thank you
I dam em? How are you?
Tui Water
Châw Food
Sanghâ Fish
Arsâ Chicken
Khúa Village/town/city
Day/the sun
Thlà Moon/month
Kum Year/age
Ṭhà mâw? (informal) How do you do?
Vàn Sky
Boruak Air
Thlawh(theih)na Aeroplane
Ṭumhmun Airport
Zin to travel
Lei Earth
Thlà(pui) the moon
Zakhamna Assurance
Meat
Engtin?/Engtiangin? How?
Mangṭha Good night
Dár engzât nge? What time is it now?
Thingpui Tea
Khaw'nge i kal dáwn? Where are you going?
Dam takin [(u) le] Goodbye/Go in peace
Engtikah? When?
Khawiah? Where?
Eng(nge)? What?
Amaherawhchu However

Counting numbers[edit]

Mizo ṭawng English
(Pa)khat One
(Pa)hnih Two
(Pa)thum Three
(Pa)li Four
(Pa)ngá Five
(Pa)ruk Six
(Pa)sarih Seven
(Pa)riat Eight
(Pa)kua Nine
Sàwm Ten
Sàwmpakhat Eleven
Sàwmpakua Nineteen
Sawmhnih Twenty
Sawmthum Thirty
Sawmküa Ninety
Hundred
Zangá Five hundred
Säng(khat) One thousand
Sïng(khat) Ten thousand
Nûai(khat) Hundred thousand/One lakh in Indian English
Maktadûai Million
Vaibelchhia Ten million
Vaibelchhetak Hundred million
Tlûklehdingäwn Billion


Mizo literature[edit]

Books[edit]

The Mizo language has a thriving literature with Mizo departments in Mizoram University and Manipur University . The governing body is the Mizo Academy of Letters, which awards the annual literary prize MAL Book of the Year since 1989. The books awarded so far and their authors are tabulated below along with the years:[26]

Year Book Author Comments on the book
1989 Ka Lungkham B. Lalthangliana
1990 Hmangaihzuali C. Laizawna Novel
1991 Zoram Khawvel-I L. Keivom Contemporary Mizo history
1992 Ṭhangthar Taitesena Romawia
1993 Mizo Literature B. Lalthangliana
1994 Kum za Kristian Zofate hmabâk Bangalore Mizo Christian Fellowship
1995 Ram leh i tan chauh H. Lallungmuana
1996 Bible leh Science P.C. Biaksiama Creationism
1997 Pasalṭha Khuangchera Laltluangliana Khiangte Drama
1998 Anita C. Laizawna Novel
1999 Tlawm ve lo Lalnu Ropuiliani Lalsangzuali Sailo Mizo history
2000 Chawngmawii leh Hrangchhuana R. Rozika Novel
2001 Ka khualzin kawng Robuanga
2002 Runlum Nuthai L.Z. Sailo Eulogy
2003 Kan Bible hi Zairema Theology
2004 Zorinpari H. Lalngurliana Novel
2005 Damlai thlipui Lalhriata Novel
2006 Pasalṭhate ni hnuhnung C. Lalnunchanga Historical adventure novel
2007 Zofate zinkawngah R. Zamawia Factual description and idealization of Mizo uprising
2008 Chun chawi loh Lalhriata Novel
2009 Rintei zùnléng Lalrammawia Ngente Novel
2010 Beiseina Mittui Samson Thanruma Novel
2011 Zodinpuii (posthumously awarded) Lalchhantluanga Novel
2012 Sihlipui Romuanpuii Zadeng Novel

This award is only for books originally written in Mizo and not for translations, and it has been awarded every year since 1989. The award has been given to books on history and religion, but most of the winners are novels. Each year, the academy examines about a hundred books (in 2011, 149 books were examined),[27] out of which it selects the top 20, and then first shortlistling it further to top 10, and then to top 5, then top 3, finally chooses the winner.

The academy also awards lifetime achievement in Mizo literature.

Some of the most well-known Mizo writers include James Dokhuma, Ṭhuamtea Khawlhring, C. Laizawna, C. Lalnunchanga, Vanneihtluanga etc.

Newspaper[edit]

The Mizoram Press Information Bureau lists some twenty Mizo daily newspapers just in Aizawl city, as of March 2013.[28] The following list gives some of the most well-known newspapers published in Mizo language.

Name of newspaper Publication frequency Editor Place
Vanglaini chanchinbu,[29] Daily K. Sapdanga Aizawl
Chhawrpial Daily C.Lalzamlova Aizawl
Harhna Daily C.Vulluaia Aizawl
Khawpui Aw Daily Zaithankhuma Aizawl
Thu Thar Daily A.Rodingliana Aizawl
Zoram Tlangau Daily L.Pachuau Aizawl
Lengzem chanchinbu Monthly Vanneihtluanga Aizawl
Zoram Thlirtu Daily Lalrinmawia Sailo Aizawl
Hruaitu Arsi Daily Zosangliana Aizawl
Romei Daily Robert Lalchhuana Aizawl
Zorin Daily Lalkunga Aizawl
Zalen Daily Vanlalrema Vantawl Aizawl
Chhinlung Daily Vanhnuna Lunglei
Hnamdamna Daily Chawngchhuma Lunglei
Lenrual Daily Lalhlupuia Champhai
Chhawkhlei Daily Lalhmingliana Champhai
Rihlipui Daily DK Lalhruaitluanga Champhai
Pasaltha Daily Lalhmingmawia Pachuau Champhai
Dumde Daily F. Lalbiakmawia (Fam) Champhai
Chhim Aw Daily Baitha Saiha
Laisuih Daily C.Lalhminghlua Serchhip
Lenkawl Daily Remmawia Kawlni Serchhip
Ramlai Arsi Daily Lalremruata Ralte Serchhip
Turnipui Daily S.Lalhmachhuana Kolasib
Zawlbuk Aw Daily Hranghmingthanga Thenzawl

Most of them are daily newspapers.

Statistics[edit]

There are around 700,000 speakers of Mizo language: 674,756 speakers in India (2001 census); 1,041 speakers in Bangladesh (1981 census); 12,500 speakers in Burma (1983 census).

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Distribution of the 100 non-scheduled languages
  2. ^ Lalthangliana, B., 'Mizo tihin ṭawng a nei lo' tih kha, see also Matisoff, 'Language names' section
  3. ^ ibid.
  4. ^ Lalthangliana, B.: 2001, History and Culture of Mizo in India, Burma and Bangladesh, Aizawl. "Baptist Missionary Conference, 1892", p. 745
  5. ^ The Mizo Wiktionary uses the additional symbols , ǎ, ȧ, and likewise for the other vowels aw, e, i and u, to differentiate these
  6. ^ See the guide here
  7. ^ Mc Kinnon, John and Wanat Bruksasri (Editors): The Higlangders of Thailand, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1983, p. 65.
  8. ^ Luce, Prof. G.H.: 1969, Journal of Burma Research Society, Vol. XLII, p. 25.
  9. ^ Lalthangliana, B., 'Mizo tihin ṭawng a nei lo' tih kha, or [1]
  10. ^ STEDT database.See also
  11. ^ starling.rinet.ru
  12. ^ STEDT Database
  13. ^ a b Weidert, Alfons, Component Analysis of Lushai Phonology, Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic Science, Series IV - Current Issues in Linguistic Theory, volume 2, Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V., 1975.
  14. ^ a b These glottals appear only in final position.
  15. ^ See also the article in French. This table is translated from the french version given there.
  16. ^ Zoppen Club, Mizo ṭawng thumal thar
  17. ^ Sarmah, Priyankoo & Caroline Wiltshire, An acoustic study of Mizo tones and morpho-tonology.
  18. ^ Govind, D., Priyankoo Sarmah, S.R. Mahadeva Prasanna, Role of pitch slope and duration in synthesized Mizo tones.
  19. ^ Khoi Lam Thang, A phonological reconstruction of Proto-chin.
  20. ^ Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Workshop on Tone and Intonation: Theory, Typology and Computation.
  21. ^ SCERT, Mizo Grammar, class XI & XII textbook (2002-).
  22. ^ SCERT, Mizo Grammar and Composition, 2002.
  23. ^ a b Chhangte, Lalnunthangi, The Grammar of Simple Clauses in Mizo
  24. ^ a b c d e f This form is also used as the accusative
  25. ^ UDHR in Mizo (Unicode Website) or OHCHR Website
  26. ^ vanglaini.org
  27. ^ Vanglaini, April 24, 2012
  28. ^ See the website
  29. ^ "Vanglaini - Mizo Daily Since 1978". vanglaini.org. Retrieved 30 June 2010. 

Others:

  1. The Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor, 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc.
  2. K. S. Singh: 1995, People of India-Mizoram, Volume XXXIII, Anthropological Survey of India, Calcutta.
  3. Grierson, G. A. (Ed.) (1904b). Tibeto-Burman Family: Specimens of the Kuki-Chin and Burma Groups, Volume III Part III of Linguistic Survey of India. Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta.
  4. Grierson, G. A: 1995, Languages of North-Eastern India, Gian Publishing House, New Delhi.
  5. Lunghnema, V., Mizo chanchin (B.C. 300 aṭanga 1929 A.D.), 1993.
  6. Zoramdinthara, Dr., Mizo Fiction: Emergence and Development. Ruby Press & Co.(New Delhi). 2013. ISBN 978-93-82395-16-4

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