Eurotunnel Class 9
|Eurotunnel Class 9|
Eurotunnel 9015 (2009)
|Builder||ASEA Brown Boveri
Brush Traction (assembly)
Qualter Hall (locomotive and bogie superstructure)
|Rebuilder||Brush Traction / Bombardier Transportation|
|Gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Wheel diameter||1,250 mm (49.2 in)|
|Length||22 m (72 ft 2 in)|
|Width||2.96 m (9 ft 9 in)|
|Height||4.2 m (13 ft 9 in)|
|Locomotive weight||132 tonnes (130 long tons; 146 short tons)|
|Electric system(s)||25 kV AC|
|Top speed||160 km/h (99 mph)|
|Power output||5.6 or 7 MW (7,510 or 9,400 hp)|
|Tractive effort||max. 400 kN (90,000 lbf)
continuous 310 kN (70,000 lbf) @ 65 km/h (18 m/s)
|Locomotive brake||electro-pneumatic air, regenerative brake|
The Eurotunnel Class 9 or Class 9000 are six-axle high-power Bo'Bo'Bo' single-ended electric locomotive built by the Euroshuttle Locomotive Consortium (ESCL) of Brush Traction and ABB. The class was designed for and is used exclusively to haul the Le Shuttle road vehicle services through the Channel Tunnel.
Background and design
Tendering for the locomotive procurement began in 1989. The specification included; a top speed of 160 km/h (99 mph); a terminal-to-terminal travel time of 33 minutes pulling a 2,100-tonne (2,067-long-ton; 2,315-short-ton) train); an axle load limit of 22.5 tonnes (22.1 long tons; 24.8 short tons); an operating temperature range between −10 °C (14 °F) and 45 °C (113 °F); a loading gauge within the UIC 505-1 standard; a minimum curve radius of 100 m (328 ft); be able to start a shuttle train on a 1 in 160 (0.625 %) gradient with one locomotive bogie inoperative (at 0.13 m/s2 (0.43 ft/s2)), and a single locomotive should be able to start the train on the same gradient if the other locomotive failed. The operating concession agreement between Transmanche Link/Eurotunnel and the British and French governments required that there be a locomotive on either end of the train, allowing splitting and reversing of the train.
The design specifications implied a minimum power of 5.6 MW (7,500 hp), and also meant that a four-axle design would not be guaranteed to be able to supply sufficient tractive effort. The French railway lobby was suggesting using three four-axle Bo'Bo' locomotives (such as the SNCF BB 26000). ESCL proposed a six-axle Bo'Bo'Bo' locomotive derived from the narrow-gauge Class 30 EF locomotives supplied by Brush Traction to the New Zealand Railways Corporation and won the contract with an initial order of 40 in July 1989.
The main traction electrical system consists of;[note 1] two pantographs (duplicated for redundancy) collecting a 25 kV AC supply which feeds the main transformer, with separate output windings rectified to a DC link (one per bogie) using four quadrant converters. The direct current drives a three-phase inverter, which powers two asynchronous three-phase induction motors. There are two additional output windings on the transformer for the locomotive's auxiliaries and to supply power to the train vehicles.
The bogies were a fabricated steel design, with coil spring primary suspension. The traction motors and gearboxes (one per axle) were mounted to the bogie frame and connected to the wheels by a flexibly coupled quill drive. Traction links were connected to the bogie frame at a height of 200 mm (7.87 in) above rail. The locomotive superstructure is supported on coil springs on a central swing bolster, and the centre bogie allows 200 mm (7.87 in) of lateral movement to negotiate small-radius curves. Yaw dampers are also fitted.
The locomotive superstructure is a stressed-skin monocoque design.
The driver's cab and exterior design of the locomotives was undertaken by DCA Design, Warwick, UK. Side windows in the locomotive cab are omitted to prevent 'segment flicker' caused by fast running in the tunnel, a potential distraction and cause of driver drowsiness. The driving position was air conditioned and pressurised, and incorporated in-cab TVM 430 signalling. The driving cab also incorporates train manager's facilities, including safety systems such as CCTV, alarms and communication links. There is a second driving position for shunting at the rear of the locomotive.[note 2]
Testing, operations, and subclasses
The initial order for 40 units was reduced to 38, numbered 9001 to 9038. The first locomotive was completed in 1992, and two units were tested at the Velim test track in Czechoslovakia. The formal opening took place on 6 May 1994 with Queen Elizabeth II and François Mitterrand travelling on a shuttle through the tunnel.
In 1996 a fire occurred in the tunnel that damaged locomotives 9030 and 9006, 9030 beyond repair. In 1997 Eurotunnel ordered five more locomotives, and in 1998 nine more. One of the second batch was numbered 9040, the others 9101 to 9113.
In 2000 seven more were ordered numbered 97xx, with an increased power of 7 MW (9,400 hp); deliveries ended in 2003,. After 2000 20 units were upgraded from 5.6 to 7 MW (7,510 to 9,400 hp) to match the increasing length of truck shuttles, replacing main transformer, traction converters and motors.
|9001-9038||1992–1994||5.6 MW (7,500 hp)||9030 withdrawn due to fire damage|
|9040||1998||Built to replace fire-damaged locomotive 9030|
|9101-9113||1998–2001||Dedicated to freight shuttles|
|9701-9707||2001–2002||7 MW (9,400 hp)|
|9801-||Rebuilt 2004-2012||Rebuilt from 5.6 MW (7,500 hp) machines|
After introduction the locomotives were named after opera singers. In 1997 four units were named Jungfraujoch, Lötschberg, Gotthard and Furkatunnel, after Swiss rail tunnels.
- B. Driver (1995) , p.9-12
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- "Shuttle Locomotive - 7 MW". www.brushtraction.com. Brush Traction. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
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- B. Driver (1996) , p.72
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- "Rolling Stock". www.eurotunnelgroup.com. Eurotunnel Group. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
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- B. Driver (1995). "The Shuttle trains - design and development". In Institution of Civil Engineers (Great Britain). The Channel Tunnel: Part4 : Transport systems. Thomas Telford.,
- B. Driver (1996). "Shuttles". In Charles Penny. Channel Tunnel transport system: proceedings of the conference organized by the Institution of Civil Engineers and held in London on 4–5 October 1994. Thomas Telford. pp. 57–75.
- Roger Ford (1995). "12. Locomotives". In Colin J. Kirkland. Engineering the Channel Tunnel. Taylor & Francis. pp. 175–190.
- L. Julien; Y. Machefert-Tassin (1994), "Les locomotives électriques des navettes", Revue générale des chemins de fer (in French) (HC Editions) (2): 41–69, ISSN 0035-3183
- R. Treacy (1994), ""Le Shuttle": la locomotive de l'Eurotunnel", Revue ABB (in French) (Asea Brown Boveri) (4): 4–15, ISSN 1013-3127
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eurotunnel Class 9.|
- Gabriel Moisa (July–December 2002). "Le Shuttle, the locomotive from Eurotunnel". Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies (1): 61–68. ISSN 1583-1078.[unreliable source?]