Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm

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Gunfleet Sands 1 & 2
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm - geograph.org.uk - 2091181.jpg
The farm from a passing ship, 30 September 2010
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm is located in Essex
Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm
Location of Gunfleet Sands 1 & 2
Country England, United Kingdom
Location Northern Thames Estuary 7 km off Clacton-on-Sea, Essex
Coordinates 51°44′22″N 1°10′28″E / 51.73944°N 1.17444°E / 51.73944; 1.17444Coordinates: 51°44′22″N 1°10′28″E / 51.73944°N 1.17444°E / 51.73944; 1.17444
Construction began 2009
Commission date 2010
Owner(s) DONG Energy (51%)
Wind farm
Type Offshore
Power generation
Units operational 48
Make and model Siemens Wind Power SWT-3.6-107
Nameplate capacity 172MW
Capacity factor ~30-35%
Website
Gunfleet Sands (Dong Energy)

Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm is a 172 MW wind farm 7 km off the Clacton-on-Sea coast in the Northern Thames Estuary.

The 108MW Gunfleet Sands 1 wind farm gained planning consent in 2003/4; in 2006 Dong Energy acquired the project and submitted an application for a second 64MW windfarm Gunfleet Sands 2 adjacent to the first, which received consent in 2008. Construction of both wind farms using Siemens Wind Power SWT-3.6-107 took place between 2008 and 2010.

In 2010 planning began on a demonstration project Gunfleet Sands 3, used to test Siemens' 6MW wind turbine model; two 6MW turbines were installed in 2013.

Gunfleet Sands 1 & 2[edit]

Gunfleet Sands 1 & 2 are located 7 km south east of Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, UK; in water at depths of 2 to 15 m (6 ft 7 in to 49 ft 3 in) (spring tidal range ~4.6m); Gunfleet 1 consists of 30 turbines in a 5x6 array, whilst Gunfleet 2 consists of a 9x2 array of turbines directly adjacent to the southeast; the installed capacities are 108 and 64MW respectively. The average wind speed is 8.8 m/s (29 ft/s) @60m elevation.[1]

The offshore turbines connect to an offshore substation at 33kV, which steps up the tranmission voltage to 132kV; the export cable makes landfall at Holland Haven (nr. Holland-on-Sea), and connects to the National Grid at the existing Cooks Green substation via underground cables.[2][3]

Development[edit]

Development of an offshore wind farm site near Clacton-on-Sea began in 1996 under Windmaster Developments;[4] Windmaster was acquired by Enron in 2000, and passed to General Electric (GE Wind Energy) in 2002.[5] A Round 1 concession for the development was awarded in 2001, and planning consents obtained in 2003/4.[1][6][7]

In June 2006 a consent application and environmental statement was submitted to the Department of Trade and Industry for permission to build and operate an extension (Gunfleet Sands 2) to the originally consented project, including up to 22 further turbines with an additional capacity of 64MW.[8] In Dec. 2006 Dong Energy acquired the 100MW "Gunfleet 1" project from GE.[9]

A contract for 30 Siemens Wind Power 3.6MW turbines was signed in April 2007.[10]

Planning application for Gunfleet Sands 2 was submitted to the Department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform in June 2007,[11] and permission was received in 2008.[1]

Construction[edit]

Turbines visible from Clacton-on-Sea beyond Clacton Pier

Construction began in 2008, with initial work including onshore infrastructure and cable installation.[11] A formal groundbreaking ceremony was held in April 2008.[12] The first turbine was installed in April 2009.[13]

MT Højgaard was contracted to instal the monopile foundations; work started in Oct. 2008;[14] Sif supplied the monopiles and transition pieces,[15] and Smulders supplied the wind turbine foundations,[16]

The cabling was supplied by Prysmian,[17][18] Bladt Industries constructed the offshore monopile substation superstructure,[18][19] with electrical equipment supplied by Areva T&D and ABB Group.[18]

Construction of the wind farm was delayed, in part due to cable laying company Oceanteam going into administration in May 2009, as well as the breakdown of liftboat KS Titan 2.[20]

Electrical generation from the partially complete wind farm began in Aug. 2009.[21] The wind farm was fully operational by March 2010; the wind farm was formally opened on 15 June 2010 by Anders Eldrup (Dong Energy) and UK Energy minister Charles Hendry. Cost of the development was 4 billion Danish Kroner.[22] Large scale development of wind farms in the UK was made possible by generous subsidies - in 2010 wind farms were receiving 1.20 Danish Kroner per kWh, compared to approximately 0.50 Kroner (Horns Rev 2) in Denmark.[23]

An operations and service center was built in Brightlingsea on the site of a former boatyard.[24][25][26]

Operational history[edit]

The wind farm produced between 450 and 520 GWh between 2010 and 2012, with a capacity factor or 31-35% (2011/12).[27]

The electrical transmission assets of the wind farm were divested in July 2011 to TC Gunfleet Sands OFTO Limited in response to changes in governmental legislation.[28] In Sep. 2011 Marubeni Corporation acquired a 49.9% shareholding of the project for £200 million.[29] In 2013 Marubeni divested part of its stake to the Development Bank of Japan.[30]

During the St Jude storm of October 2013, wind speeds of 65 metres per second (150 mph) were measured at the wind farm.[31]

Gunfleet Sands 3[edit]

Gunfleet Sands 3
Official name Gunfleet Sands demonstration project
Coordinates 51°42′11″N 1°11′28″E / 51.703°N 1.191°E / 51.703; 1.191
Power generation
Units operational 2
Make and model Siemens Wind Power SWT-6.0-120

A planning application for the Gunfleet Sands 3 - Demonstration Project (GFS 3) was submitted in 2010. The project consisted of an approximately 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) wind farm 8.5 km southeast of Clacton-on-Sea, and adjacent southeast of the Gunfleet 1 & 2 wind farms. The site was intended to be provide the facility to test new wind farm equipment in preparation of the Round 3 wind farm letting process. 2 wind turbine installations were proposed.[32]

The development required a separate export cable and grid connection to the Gunfleet 1&2 farms; a planning application for the onshore electrical facilities and cabling was submitted in Nov. 2011.[33] Inter array and export cables (33kV) were supplied by JDR Cables.[34]

The monopile foundations and transition pieces were supplied by Bladt Industries and installed by Ballast Nedam in 2012.[35][36] Two Siemens 6MW turbines were installed in January 2013 by A2SEA.[37]

The site began generating power in April 2013.[38] Damage to one of the turbines blade tips necessitated blade replacement in mid 2013.[39] The facility was official opened 12 Sep. 2013 by UK Energy Minister Greg Barker.[40][41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Hjelmsted 2008, p. 6.
  2. ^ About Gunfleet Sands (Dong) Offshore substation
  3. ^ Sources:
  4. ^ Schoon, Nicholas (12 February 1997), "Giant turbines star in end of the pier show at Clacton", www.independent.co.uk 
  5. ^ "Wind Energy Power Plants in the UK - offshore", The Power Plants Around the World Photo Gallery (www.industcards.com), Gunfleet Sands, retrieved April 2014 
  6. ^ "Essex sand bank is site for wind farm", eadt.co.uk, 23 October 2003 
  7. ^ The Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Order 2004 (Statutory Instrument) (933), 2004 
  8. ^ Gunfleet Sands 2 – Project Briefing Note Number 1, Dong Energy, 18 June 2006 
  9. ^ "DONG Energy expands its UK offshore wind portfolio", www.dongenergy.com, 18 Dec 2006 
  10. ^ "DONG Energy signs contract for delivery of wind turbines for Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm", www.dongenergy.com, 19 April 2007 
  11. ^ a b Gunfleet Sands – Project Briefing Note Number 2, Dong Energy, 11 Feb 2008 
  12. ^ Gunfleet Sands – Project Briefing Note Number 3, Dong Energy, 30 April 2008 
  13. ^ "First Round 2-turbine installed at DONG Energy’s Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm project", www.dongenergy.co.uk, 1 April 2009 
  14. ^ "Gunfleet Sands - a challenging location", mth.com, 25 May 2010 
  15. ^ "Sif - References, Offshore wind", ww.sif-group.com 
  16. ^ "Gunfleet Sands Project", www.smulders-foundations.com 
  17. ^ "Prysmian secures strategic cable contracts worth a total 35 Million Euro for major Offshore Wind Power Plants", investoren.prysmian.com (Press release), 14 Nov 2007 
  18. ^ a b c Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm (LORC) Substations, Inter-Array & Export Cables
  19. ^ "Gunfleet Sands Offshore", www.stateofgreen.com 
  20. ^ Dwan, James. "Gunfleet Sands wind farm firm goes under". 
  21. ^ "First power from the first Round 2 offshore wind farm — DONG Energy’s Gunfleet Sands project", www.dongenergy.co.uk, 20 Aug 2009 
  22. ^ Holm, Erik (15 June 2010), "Briterne runder 1 GW vindkraft", ing.dk (in danish) 
  23. ^ Holm, Erik (16 June 2010), "Massiv udbygning skal gøre Storbritannien førende inden for havvind", ing.dk (in danish) 
  24. ^ Brading, Wendy (17 January 2009), "Brightlingsea: Wind farm construction bringing money into town", www.essexcountystandard.co.uk 
  25. ^ About Gunfleet Sands (Dong) Operation and maintenance
  26. ^ (08/01225/FUL) Demolition of existing boat building yard and outbuildings and erection of new three storey office accommodation ..., Tendring District Council, 29 Aug 2009 
  27. ^ Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm (LORC) Production & Performance
  28. ^ "Terms in place for the divestment of the transmission assets af the Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farm", www.dongenergy.com, 19 July 2011 
  29. ^ "Marubeni Corporation to become co-owner of Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farm", www.dongenergy.com (Press release) 
  30. ^ "Marubeni Corporation to Divest Part of Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm Shares", www.marubeni.com, 27 Dec 2013 
  31. ^ Holm, Erik; Wittrup, Sanne (29 October 2013), "Tre havvindparker koblede ud under stormen", ing.dk (in danish) 
  32. ^ Gunfleet Sands 3 - Enviromental statement (Non-tech.) (Dec. 2010) pp.2,3
  33. ^ (1/01311/FUL) Installation of cables in conjunction with the Gunfleet Sands Wind Farm from landfall at Martello Bay coach and car park to the Veolia Water site at the Waterglade Retail Park and the erection of a substation at the Veolia Water Site, Tendring District Council, 1 Nov 2011 
  34. ^ "Gunfleet Sands", jdrglobal.com 
  35. ^ "Bladt ships Gunfleet feet", renews.biz, 30 Aug 2012 
  36. ^ Gunfleet Sands 3 Offshore Wind Farm, Ballast Nedam Offshore 
  37. ^ "Siemens giants go up at Gunfleet", renews.biz, 30 Jan 2013 
  38. ^ "Siemens 6MW Offshore Wind Turbines Produce First Power at Gunfleet Sands (UK)", www.offshorewind.biz, 18 April 2013 
  39. ^ "Blade swap complete at Gunfleet 3", renews.biz, 14 Aug 2013 
  40. ^ Next generation of offshore turbines tested at gunfleet sands, Department of Energy & Climate Change, 12 Sep 2013 
  41. ^ "Dong Opens Gunfleet Sands Demo Site", www.breakbulk.com, 13 Sep 2013 

Sources[edit]

Gunfleet 1 & 2
Gunfleet 3

External links[edit]

"Gunfleet Sands Offshore Wind Farm 7km off Clacton On Sea Essex", www.youtube.com (BBC)