Wind power in the United Kingdom
The UK is one of the best locations for wind power in the world, and is considered to be the best in Europe. Wind power delivers a growing fraction of the energy in the United Kingdom and at the beginning of January 2014, wind power in the United Kingdom consisted of 5,276 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of over 10 gigawatts: 6,831 megawatts of onshore capacity and 3,653 megawatts of offshore capacity. The United Kingdom is ranked as the world's sixth largest producer of wind power, having overtaken France and Italy in 2012.
2.7 GW of new wind power capacity was brought online during 2013, a 35% increase of the total UK installed capacity. The offshore wind industry continued to develop in 2013 with what was once the largest wind farm in the world, the London Array, becoming operational with over 630 MW of generating capability coming on stream.
December 2013 was a record breaking month for UK wind power. A total of 2,841,080 MWh of electricity was generated in the month – supplying 10% of the UK's electricity demand. The week starting 16 December, wind generated a record 783,886 MWh – providing 13% of Britain's total electricity needs that week. And on 21 December, a record daily amount of electricity was produced with 132,812 MWh generated, representing 17% of the nation’s total electricity demand on that day. On 19 October 2014, wind power supplied just under 20% of the UK's electrical energy that day. Additionally, as a result of 8 of 15 nuclear power stations being offline for maintenance or repair wind produced more energy than nuclear did that day.
In 2013, 27.4 TW·h of energy was generated by wind power, which contributed 8.7% of the UK's electricity requirement.
Through the Renewables Obligation, British electricity suppliers are now required by law to provide a proportion of their sales from renewable sources such as wind power or pay a penalty fee. The supplier then receives a Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) for each MW·h of electricity they have purchased. Within the United Kingdom, wind power is the largest source of renewable electricity, and the second largest source of renewable energy after biomass.
In 2014, Siemens plans to build facilities for offshore wind turbines in Paull, England, as Britain’s wind power rapidly expands. The new plant is expected to begin producing turbine rotor blades in 2016. The plant and the associated service center, in Green Port Hull nearby, will employ about 1,000 workers. The facilities will serve the UK market, where the electricity that major power producers generate from wind grew by about 38 percent in 2013, representing about 6 percent of total electricity, according to government figures. There are also plans to increase Britain’s wind-generating capacity at least threefold by 2020, to 14 gigawatts.
On 16 October 2014, TAG Energy Solutions  announced the mothballing and semi closure of its Haverton Hill construction base near Billingham with between 70 and 100 staff redundancies after failing to secure any subsequent work following the order for 16 steel foundations for the Humber Estuary in East Yorkshire, despite being just 10 miles upriver from the regions largest offshore windfarm at Redcar.
- 1 History
- 2 Offshore wind farms
- 3 Onshore wind farms
- 4 Economics
- 5 Variability and related issues
- 6 Public opinion
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The world's first electricity generating wind turbine was a battery charging machine installed in July 1887 by Scottish academic James Blyth to light his holiday home in Marykirk, Scotland. It was in 1951 that the first utility grid-connected wind turbine to operate in the United Kingdom was built by John Brown & Company in the Orkney Islands. In the 1970s, industrial scale wind generation was first proposed as an electricity source for the United Kingdom; the higher working potential of offshore wind was recognised with a capital cost per kilowatt estimated at £150 to £250.
In 2007 the United Kingdom Government agreed to an overall European Union target of generating 20% of the EU’s energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. Each EU member state was given its own allocated target: for the United Kingdom it is 15%. This was formalised in January 2009 with the passage of the EU Renewables Directive. As renewable heat and renewable fuel production in the United Kingdom are at extremely low bases, RenewableUK estimates that this will require 35–40% of the United Kingdom's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by that date, to be met largely by 33–35 gigawatts (GW) of installed wind capacity.
In December 2007, the Government announced plans for an expansion of wind energy in the United Kingdom, by conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment of up to 25 GW worth of wind farm offshore sites in preparation for a new round of development. These proposed sites are in addition to the 8 GW worth of sites already awarded in the 2 earlier rounds of site allocations, Round 1 in 2001 and Round 2 in 2003. Taken together it is estimated that this would result in the construction of over 7,000 offshore wind turbines.
723 MW of new wind power capacity was brought online during 2011, a 40% decrease on 2010. Only one offshore wind farm, phase 1 of the Walney Wind Farm, was completed in 2011 with a capacity of 183 MW. This compares with a total 653 MW built offshore in 2010. Onshore installations were very similar to the previous year with 540 MW completed: the largest to come on stream was the 120 MW Arecleoch Wind Farm in South Ayrshire. A highlight of 2011 was on 28 December when wind power set a record contribution to the United Kingdom's demand for electricity of 12.2%.
As of September 2012, 87 (4,907 MW) wind farm schemes are currently under construction, while another 277 (5,796 MW) projects have planning consent and 358 (over 10 GW) are in planning awaiting approval.
In the year July 2012 to June 2013, offshore wind farms with a capacity of 1,463 MW were installed, for the first time growing faster than onshore wind which grew by 1,258 MW.
On 1 August 2013 Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg opened the Lincs Offshore Wind Farm. On commissioning the total capacity of wind power crossed 10GW of installed capacity for the first time.
In 2014, Siemens, the German power and industrial giant, plans to build a $264 million facility for making offshore wind turbines in Paull, England, as Britain’s wind power capacity rapidly expands. Siemens chose the Hull area on the east coast of England because it is close to other large offshore projects planned in coming years. The new plant is expected to begin producing turbine rotor blades in 2016. The plant and the associated service center, in Green Port Hull nearby, will employ about 1,000 workers. The facilities will serve the UK market, where the electricity that major power producers generate from wind grew by about 38 percent in 2013, representing about 6 percent of total electricity, according to government figures. There are also plans to increase Britain’s off-shore wind-generating capacity at least threefold by 2020, to 14 gigawatts.
|Installed Capacity (MW)||2,974||4,051||5,204||6,540||8,871||10,976|
|% of electricity use||1.50||2.01||2.28||3.81||5.52||7.39|
Offshore wind farms
The United Kingdom became the world leader of offshore wind power generation in October 2008 when it overtook Denmark. It also has the largest offshore wind farm in the world, the 175-turbine London Array wind farm, located off the Kent coast. Currently it has 1,858 MW of operational nameplate capacity, with a further 2,359 MW in construction. The United Kingdom has been estimated to have over a third of Europe's total offshore wind resource, which is equivalent to three times the electricity needs of the nation at current rates of electricity consumption. (In 2010 peak winter demand was 59.3 GW, in summer it drops to about 45 GW). One estimate calculates that wind turbines in one third of United Kingdom waters shallower than 25 metres (82 ft) would, on average, generate 40 GW; turbines in one third of the waters between 25 metres (82 ft) and 50 metres (164 ft) depth would on average generate a further 80 GW, i.e. 120 GW in total). An estimate of the theoretical maximum potential of the United Kingdom's offshore wind resource in all waters to 700 metres (2,300 ft) depth gives the average power as 2200 GW.
The first developments in United Kingdom offshore wind power came about through the now discontinued Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), leading to two wind farms, Blyth Offshore and Gunfleet sands. The NFFO was introduced as part of the Electricity Act 1989 and obliged United Kingdom electricity supply companies to secure specified amounts of electricity from non-fossil sources, which provided the initial spur for the commercial development of renewable energy in the United Kingdom.
In 1998 the British Wind Energy Association (now RenewableUK) began discussions with the government to draw up formal procedures for negotiating with the Crown Estate, the owner of almost all the United Kingdom coastline out to distance of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km), to build offshore wind farms. The result was a set of guidelines published in 1999, to build "development" farms designed to give developers a chance to gain technical and environmental experience. The projects were limited to 10 square kilometres in size and with a maximum of 30 turbines. Locations were chosen by potential developers and a large number of applications were submitted. Seventeen of the applications were granted permission to proceed in April 2001, in what has become known as Round 1 of United Kingdom offshore wind development.
The first of the Round 1 projects was North Hoyle Wind Farm, completed in December 2003. The final project, Teesside, was completed in August 2013. Twelve Round 1 farms in total are in operation providing a maximum power generating capacity of 1.2 GW. Five sites were withdrawn, including the Shell Flat site off the coast of Lancashire.
Lessons learnt from Round 1, particularly the difficulty in getting planning consent for offshore wind farms, together with the increasing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions, prompted the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to develop a strategic framework for the offshore wind industry. This identified three restricted areas for larger scale development, Liverpool Bay, the Thames Estuary and the area beyond the Wash, called the Greater Wash, in the North Sea. Development was prevented in an exclusion zone between 8 and 13 km offshore to reduce visual impact and avoid shallow feeding grounds for sea birds. The new areas were tendered to prospective developers in a competitive bid process known as Round 2. The results were announced in December 2003 with 15 projects awarded with a combined power generating capacity of 7.2 GW. By far the largest of these is the 1.2 GW Triton Knoll. As before a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) would be needed along with an application for planning consent.
The first of the Round 2 projects was Gunfleet Sands II, completed in April 2010 and six others are now operational including the London Array, the largest wind farm in the world. Four other Round 2 sites are currently under construction.
Round 1 and 2 Extensions
In May 2010 the Crown Estate gave approval for seven Round 1 and 2 sites to be extended creating an additional 2 GW of offshore wind capacity. Each wind farm extension will require a complete new planning application including an Environmental Impact Assessment and full consultation. The sites are:
- Burbo Bank and Walney: Dong Wind UK.
- Kentish Flats and Thanet: Vattenfall.
- Greater Gabbard: SSE Renewables and RWE Npower Renewables.
- Race Bank: Centrica Renewable Energy.
- Dudgeon: Warwick Energy.
Following on from the Offshore wind SEA announced by the Government in December 2007, the Crown Estate launched a third round of site allocations in June 2008. Round 3 is envisaged on a much bigger scale than either of its predecessors – combined, Rounds 1 and 2 allocated 8 GW of sites, while Round 3 alone could identify up to 25 GW.
The Crown Estate proposed 9 offshore zones, within which a number of individual wind farms would be situated. It ran a competitive tender process to award leases to consortia of potential developers. The bidding closed in March 2009 with over 40 applications from companies and consortia and multiple tenders for each zone. On 8 January 2010 the successful bidders were announced.
Following the allocation of zones, individual planning applications still have to be sought by developers. These are unlikely to be completed before 2012 and as such the first Round 3 projects are not expected to begin generating electricity before 2015.
Round 3 consortia
During the bidding process, there was considerable speculation over which companies had bid for the zones. The Crown Estate did not make the list public and most of the consortia also remained silent. The successful bidders for each zone were eventually announced as follows:
|Zone||Zone name||Wind farm site names||Potential
|1||Moray Firth||Eastern Development Area||1.3||Moray Offshore Renewables Ltd||formed from EDP Renováveis and SeaEnergy Renewables Ltd (SERL)|
|2||Firth of Forth||Alpha/Bravo||3.5||Seagreen Wind Energy Ltd||partnership between SSE Renewables and Fluor Ltd. SSE withdrawing support beyond the consent process.|
|3||Dogger Bank||Crekye A/B & Teesside A/B/C/D||7.2||Forewind Ltd||a consortium made up of SSE Renewables, RWE npower, Statkraft and Statoil.
SSE withdrawing support beyond the consent process.
|4||Hornsea||Heron/Njord/Breesea/Optimus & SPC5/6/7/8||4||SMart Wind Ltd||joint venture between Mainstream Renewable Power and Siemens Project Ventures|
|5||East Anglia||East Anglia ONE/THREE/FOUR||7.2||East Anglia Offshore Wind Limited||joint venture between ScottishPower Renewables and Vattenfall AB|
|6||Southern Array||Rampion||0.6||E.ON Climate & Renewables / UK Southern Array Ltd||located south of Hastings in the English Channel|
|7||West of Isle of Wight||Navitus Bay||0.9||Eneco Round 3 Development Ltd||partnership between Eneco and EDF; located to the west of the Isle of Wight|
|8||Atlantic Array||Channel Energy Ltd (RWE Innogy)||Withdrawn in November 2013 as "project uneconomic at current time" |
|9||Irish Sea||Celtic Array||Celtic Array Limited||Withdrawn in July 2014 due to "challenging ground conditions that make the project economically unviable".|
In addition to the 25 GW scoped under the Round 3 SEA, the Scottish Government and the Crown Estate also called for bids on potential sites within Scottish territorial waters. These were originally considered as too deep to provide viable sites, but 17 companies submitted tenders and the Crown Estate initially signed exclusivity agreements with 9 companies for 6 GW worth of sites. Following publication of the Scottish Government's sectoral marine plan for offshore wind energy in Scottish territorial waters in March 2010, six sites were given approval subject to securing detailed consent. Subsequently 4 sites have been granted agreements for lease.
The complete list of sites including power updates and developer name changes:-
|Beatrice||750||SSE Renewables plc||SSE owns 75%, Repsol owns 25%. Application approved by Marine Scotland in March 2014|
|Inch Cape||1000||Repsol Nuevas Energias SA
|Repsol owns 51%, EDPR owns 49%. Application approved by Marine Scotland in October 2014|
|Neart Na Gaoithe||450||Mainstream Renewable Power Ltd||Application approved by Marine Scotland in October 2014|
|Islay||SSE Renewables||No further investment from SSE into the project for the foreseeable future.|
|Solway Firth||E.ON Climate & Renewables UK Developments||Dormant – Unsuitable for development|
|Wigtown Bay||DONG Wind (UK)||Dormant – Unsuitable for development|
|Kintyre||Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd||Cancelled due to proximity to local communities and Campbeltown Airport|
|Forth Array||Fred. Olsen Renewables Ltd||Cancelled. Fred. Olsen pulled out to concentrate on its onshore developments|
|Bell Rock||Airtricity Holdings (UK) Ltd
|Cancelled due to radar services in the area|
|Argyll Array||Scottish Power Renewables||Cancelled due to ground conditions and presence of basking sharks|
List of operational and proposed offshore wind farms
|Power (MW)||No. Turbines||Notes||Round|
|Blyth Offshore||December 2000||4||2||Evaluation project.||NFFO|
|North Hoyle||December 2003||60||30||United Kingdom's first major offshore wind farm.||1|
|Scroby Sands||December 2004||60||30||1|
|Kentish Flats||December 2005||90||30||1|
|Barrow Offshore Wind||May 2006||90||30||1|
|Burbo Bank||October 2007||90||25||1|
|Beatrice||August 2007||10||2||Deep water evaluation project.||Eval|
|Lynn and Inner Dowsing||October 2008||194||54||1|
|Rhyl Flats||December 2009||90||25||Officially inaugurated 2 December 2009||1|
|Gunfleet Sands||April 2010||173||48||Officially inaugurated 15 June 2010||1–2|
|Robin Rigg||April 2010||180||60||1|
|Ormonde||February 2012||150||30||Commissioned 22 February 2012.||1|
|Greater Gabbard||August 2012||504||140||Commissioned 7 August 2012.||2|
|Sheringham Shoal||September 2012||317||88||Commissioned 27 September 2012||2|
|London Array||April 2013 ||630||175||Commissioned 6 April 2013. World's largest offshore wind farm. Phase 2 (370MW) scrapped.||2|
|Lincs||July 2013||270||75||Commissioned 5 July 2013 ||2|
|Teesside||August 2013||62||27||Final Round 1 project completed||1|
|Fife Energy Park (Methil)||2014||7||1||7MW turbine evaluation project. Installation complete March 2014||Eval|
|West of Duddon Sands||October 2014||389||108||Officially opened 30 October 2014.||2|
|Gwynt y Môr||End of 2014||576||160||Construction started January 2012. Half of the turbines operational September 2014.||2|
|Westermost Rough||First half of 2015||210||35||Offshore construction started beginning of 2014. First use of 6MW turbine.||2|
|Humber Gateway||June 2015||219||73||First monopole installed September 2013||2|
|Dudgeon||End of 2017||402||78||Consent granted July 2012 Application for Variation in July 2013 to increase area and reduce capacity. Eligible for UK Government CfD||2|
|Race Bank||2017||580||up to 91||Consent granted July 2012||2|
|Kentish Flats Extension||August 2016||50||15||Consent granted February 2013||2 Ext|
|Triton Knoll||2021||900||up to 288||Consent granted July 2013 ||2|
|Beatrice||2021||750||142–277||Consent granted March 2014. Eligible for government CfD.||STW|
|Moray Firth||2020||1116||186||Consent granted March 2014.||3|
|East Anglia ONE||2019||1200||240||Consent granted June 2014.||3|
|Rampion||2018/9||700||100–175||Consent granted July 2014.||3|
|Burbo Bank Extension||256||32||Consent granted September 2014. Eligible for government CfD. Use of 8MW turbine planned.||2 Ext|
|Neart Na Gaoithe||End of 2016||450||75||Consent granted October 2014.||STW|
|Inch Cape||2019||1000||up to 213||Consent granted October 2014.||STW|
|Firth of Forth||Q4 2019||1050||up to 75 per site||Consent granted October 2014 for phase 1 (Alpha & Bravo – 525MW each)||3|
|Walney Extension||End of 2019 ||660||up to 207||Consent granted November 2014. Eligible for government CfD.||2 Ext|
|Hornsea||2020||1200||75 – 166 per site||Planning application submitted July 2013 for phase 1 (Heron Wind & Njord – 600MW each). Eligible for government CfD.||3|
|Dogger Bank||4800||120 – 200 per site||Planning application submitted March 2014 for phase 1 (Creyke A/B & Teesside A/B – 1200MW each)||3|
|Navitus Bay||970||40 – 64 per site||Planning application submitted April 2014 for phase 1 (Park 1/2/3 – 323MW each).||3|
|Galloper||340||94||Project approved but declared dormant October 2014. Timescales too tight to meet ROC deadline.||2 Ext|
Onshore wind farms
The first commercial wind farm was built in 1991 at Delabole in Cornwall; it consisted of 10 turbines each with a capacity to generate a maximum of 400 kW. Following this, the early 1990s saw a small but steady growth with half a dozen farms becoming operational each year; the larger wind farms tended to be built on the hills of Wales, examples being Rhyd-y-Groes, Llandinam, Bryn Titli and Carno. Smaller farms were also appearing on the hills and moors of Northern Ireland and England. The end of 1995 saw the first commercial wind farm in Scotland go into operation at Hagshaw Hill. The late 1990s saw sustained growth as the industry matured. In 2000 the first turbines capable of generating more than 1 MW were installed and the pace of growth started to accelerate as the larger power companies like Scottish Power and Scottish and Southern became increasingly involved in order to meet legal requirements to generate a certain amount of electricity using renewable means (see Renewables obligations below). Wind turbine development continued rapidly and by the mid-2000s 2 MW+ turbines were the norm. In 2007, the German wind turbine producer Enercon installed the first 6 MW model ("E-126"); The nameplate capacity was changed from 6 MW to 7 MW after technical revisions were performed in 2009, and to 7.5 MW in 2010.
Growth continued with bigger farms and larger, more efficient turbines sitting on taller and taller masts. Scotland's sparsely populated, hilly and windy countryside became a popular area for developers and the United Kingdom's first 100 MW+ farm went operational in 2006 at Hadyard Hill in South Ayrshire. 2006 also saw the first use of the 3 MW turbine. In 2008 the largest onshore wind farm in England was completed on Scout Moor and the repowering of the Slieve Rushen Wind Farm created the largest farm in Northern Ireland. In 2009 the largest wind farm in the United Kingdom went live at Whitelee on Eaglesham Moor in Scotland. This is a 539 MW wind farm consisting of 215 turbines. Approval has been granted to build several more 100 MW+ wind farms on hills in Scotland and will feature 3.6 MW turbines.
As of September 2013, there were 458 operational onshore wind farms in the United Kingdom with a total of 6565 MW of nameplate capacity. A further 1564 MW of capacity is currently being constructed, while another 4.8 GW of schemes have planning consent.
In 2009, United Kingdom onshore wind farms generated 7,564 GW·h of electricity; this represents a 2% contribution to the total United Kingdom electricity generation (378.5 TW·h).
Large onshore wind farms are usually directly connected to the National Grid, but smaller wind farms are connected to a regional distribution network, termed "embedded generation". In 2009 nearly half of wind generation capacity was embedded generation, but this is expected to reduce in future years as larger wind farms are built.
Gaining planning permission for onshore wind farms continues to prove difficult, with many schemes stalled in the planning system, and a high rate of refusal. The RenewableUK (formerly BWEA) figures show that there are approximately 7,000 MW worth of onshore schemes waiting for planning permission. On average, a wind farm planning application takes 2 years to be considered by a local authority, with an approval rate of 40%. This compares extremely unfavourably with other types of major applications, such as housing, retail outlets and roads, 70% of which are decided within the 13–16-week statutory deadline; for wind farms the rate is just 6%. Approximately half of all wind farm planning applications, over 4 GW worth of schemes, have objections from airports and traffic control on account of their impact on radar. In 2008 NATS en Route, the BWEA, the Ministry of Defence and other government departments signed a Memorandum of Understanding seeking to establish a mechanism for resolving objections and funding for more technical research.
List of the largest operational and proposed onshore wind farms
|Wind farm||County||Country||Turbine model||Power (MW)
|No. Turbines||Total capacity
|Notes and references|
|Crystal Rig||Scottish Borders||Scotland||Nordex N80/ Siemens SWT-2.3||2.5/2.3||25/60||200.5||May 2004||Extended May 2007 (1a) & September 2010 (2 & 2a)|
|Cefn Croes||Ceredigion||Wales||GE 1.5 se||1.5||39||58.5||June 2005||Largest onshore wind farm in Wales|
|Black Law||South Lanarkshire||Scotland||Siemens SWT-2.3||2.3||54||124||September 2005||Extended September 2006 (Phase 2)|
|Hadyard Hill||South Ayrshire||Scotland||Bonus B2300||2.5||52||120||March 2006|
|Farr||Highland||Scotland||Bonus B2300||2.3||40||92||May 2006|
|Slieve Rushen||Co Fermanagh||Northern Ireland||Vestas V90||3||18||54||April 2008||Largest onshore farm in Northern Ireland|
|Scout Moor||Lancashire||England||Nordex N80||2.5||26||65||September 2008|
|Whitelee||East Renfrewshire||Scotland||Siemens SWT-2.3||2.3||140||322||November 2008||Largest operational onshore wind farm in the United Kingdom|
|Arecleoch||South Ayrshire||Scotland||Gamesa G87||2||60||120||June 2011||Construction began October 2008, completed on June 2011|
|Griffin||Perth & Kinross||Scotland||Siemens SWT-2.3||2.3||68||156.4||February 2012||Construction began August 2010, completed on February 2012|
|Clyde||South Lanarkshire||Scotland||Siemens SWT-2.3||2.3||152||350||September 2012||Construction began January 2010, completed on September 2012|
|Fallago Rig||Scottish Borders||Scotland||Vestas V90||3||48||144||April 2013||Construction finished April 2013|
|East Renfrewshire||Scotland||Alstom ECO 100/ECO 74||3/1.6||69/6||217||April 2013||Construction finished April 2013|
|Keadby Wind Farm||Lincolnshire||England||Vestas V90||2||34||68||July 2014||First power produced September 2013, Englands largest onshore wind farm, Completed July 2014 |
|Harestanes||Dumfries & Galloway||Scotland||3||71||213|||
|Muaitheabhal||Western Isles||Scotland||3.6||33||118||Construction began October 2012|
|Shetland Islands||Scotland||3.6||103||370.8||Consent granted April 2012 with reduced number of turbines. Construction scheduled to start in 2013|
|Pen y Cymoedd||Neath Port Talbot & Rhondda Cynon Taf||Wales||3||76||228||Consent granted May 2012|
|Dorenell||Moray||Scotland||3||59||177||Consent granted June 2012|
|Dumfries & Galloway||Scotland||3||96||288||Consent granted February 2013|
|Strathy South||Highland||Scotland||2.3||77||177||Planning application submitted June 2007|
|Carnedd Wen||Powys||Wales||2.5||50||150||Planning application submitted January 2009|
|East Ayrshire||Scotland||3||39||117||Planning application submitted October 2011|
|Stronelairg||Scotland||3.6||83||300||Planning application submitted June 2012|
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (April 2013)|
Through the Renewables Obligation, British electricity suppliers are now required by law to provide a proportion of their sales from renewable sources such as wind power or pay a penalty fee. The supplier then receives a Renewables Obligation Certificate (ROC) for each MW·h of electricity they have purchased. The Energy Act 2008 introduced banded ROCs for different technologies from April 2009. Onshore wind receives 1 ROC per MW·h, however following the Renewables Obligation Banding Review in 2009 offshore wind now receives 2 ROCs to reflect its higher costs of generation. Wind energy receives approximately 40% of the total revenue generated by the RO. The ROCs are the principal form of support for United Kingdom wind power, providing over half of the revenue from wind generation.
A 2004 study by the Royal Academy of Engineering using "simplification and approximation" found that wind power cost 5.4 pence per kW·h for onshore installations and 7.2 pence per kW·h for offshore, compared to 2.2p/kW·h for gas and 2.3p/kW·h for nuclear. By 2011 onshore wind costs at 8.3p/kW·h had fallen below new nuclear at 9.6p/kW·h, though it had been recognised that offshore wind costs at 16.9p/kW·h were significantly higher than early estimates mainly due to higher build and finance costs, according to a study by the engineering consultancy Mott MacDonald. Wind farms are made profitable by subsidies through Renewable Obligation Certificates which provide over half of wind farm revenue. The total annual cost of the Renewables Obligation topped £1 billion in 2009 and is expected to reach £5 billion by 2020, of which about 40% is for wind power. This cost is added to end-user electricity bills. Sir David King has warned that this could increase UK levels of fuel poverty.
Small wind systems under 50 kW previously received 2 ROCs, but are now eligible for support under the Feed In Tariff.
A British Wind Energy Association report gives an average generation cost of onshore wind power of around 3.2 pence (between US 5 and 6 cents) per kW·h (2005). Similar comparative results with natural gas were obtained in a governmental study in the UK in 2011. The presence of wind energy, even when subsidised, can reduce costs for consumers (€5 billion/yr in Germany) by reducing the marginal price, by minimising the use of expensive peaking power plants.
Wind-generated power is a variable resource, and the amount of electricity produced at any given point in time by a given plant will depend on wind speeds, air density, and turbine characteristics (among other factors). If wind speed is too low (less than about 2.5 m/s) then the wind turbines will not be able to make electricity, and if it is too high (more than about 25 m/s) the turbines will have to be shut down to avoid damage. If this happens during a winter cold snap, when winds are calm over large regions and electrical demand reaches its highest levels of the year, other power sources must have the capacity of meeting that entire demand. Three reports on the wind variability in the United Kingdom issued in 2009, generally agree that variability of the wind does not make the grid unmanageable; and the additional costs, which are modest, can be quantified. For wind power market penetration of up to 20% studies in the UK show a cost of £3-5/MWh. In the United Kingdom, demand for electricity is higher in winter than in summer, and so are wind speeds.
While the output from a single turbine can vary greatly and rapidly as local wind speeds vary, as more turbines are connected over larger and larger areas the average power output becomes less variable. Studies by Graham Sinden (2009) suggest that, in practice, the variations in thousands of wind turbines, spread out over several different sites and wind regimes, are smoothed, rather than intermittent. As the distance between sites increases, the correlation between wind speeds measured at those sites, decreases.
A Scottish government spokesman has said electricity generated by renewables accounted for 27% of Scotland's electricity use. On the night of 5–6 April 2011, the wind in Scotland was high, it was raining heavily, which also created more hydroelectricity than normal. The grid became overloaded preventing transmission of the electrical power to England, as a result the electrical wind power generation was cut. Wind farms operators were paid compensation known as "constraint payments" as a result (a total of approximately £900,000) by the National Grid, estimated at twenty times the value of electricity that would have been generated. A spokesman for the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC), described the occurrence as unusual, and noted it demonstrated a need for greater energy storage capacity and better electrical power distribution infrastructure. The payment of 'constraint payments' to wind energy suppliers is one source of criticism of the use wind power, and its implementation; in 2011 it was estimated that nearly £10 million in constraint payments would be received, representing ten times the value of the potential lost electricity generation.
There is some dispute over the necessary amount of reserve or backup required to support the large-scale use of wind energy due to the variable nature of its supply. In a 2008 submission to the House of Lords Economic Affairs Committee, E.ON UK argued that it is necessary to have up to 80–90% backup. Other studies give a requirement of 15% to 22% of installed intermittent capacity. National Grid which has responsibility for balancing the grid reported in June 2009 that the electricity distribution grid could cope with on-off wind energy without spending a lot on backup, but only by rationing electricity at peak times using a so-called "smart grid", developing increased energy storage technology and increasing interconnection with the rest of Europe. In June 2011 several energy companies including Centrica told the government that 17 gas-fired plants costing £10 billion would be needed by 2020 to act as back-up generation for wind. However as they would be standing idle for much of the time they would require "capacity payments" to make the investment economic, on top of the subsidies already paid for wind.
A 2003 survey of residents living around Scotland's 10 existing wind farms found high levels of community acceptance and strong support for wind power, with much support from those who lived closest to the wind farms. The results of this survey support those of an earlier Scottish Executive survey 'Public attitudes to the Environment in Scotland 2002', which found that the Scottish public would prefer the majority of their electricity to come from renewables, and which rated wind power as the cleanest source of renewable energy. A survey conducted in 2005 showed that 74% of people in Scotland agree that wind farms are necessary to meet current and future energy needs. When people were asked the same question in a Scottish renewables study conducted in 2010, 78% agreed. The increase is significant as there were twice as many wind farms in 2010 as there were in 2005. The 2010 survey also showed that 52% disagreed with the statement that wind farms are "ugly and a blot on the landscape". 59% agreed that wind farms were necessary and that how they looked was unimportant. Scotland is planning to obtain 100% of electricity from renewable sources by 2020.
- Lists of offshore wind farms by country
- Lists of offshore wind farms by water area
- Lists of wind farms by country
- List of power stations in Scotland#Wind power
- List of wind turbine manufacturers
Related United Kingdom pages
- Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom
- Energy policy of the United Kingdom
- Renewable energy in the United Kingdom
- Green electricity in the United Kingdom
- Renewable energy in Scotland
- Wind power in Scotland
Developers and operators
- Baywind Energy Co-operative
- DONG Energy
- Good Energy
- REG WindPower
- RWE npower
- Westmill Wind Farm Co-operative
- Environmental impact of wind power
- Friends of the Earth
- Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources
- Renewable Electricity and the Grid
- Renewable energy in the European Union
- United Kingdom National Renewable Energy Action Plan
- UK Renewable Energy Roadmap Crown copyright, July 2011
- . RenewableUK – UK Wind Energy Database (UKWED)
- The Windpower.net statistics per country
- BBC News website article – London Array opens
- Renewable UK press release
- DECC Energy trends statistics section 6: renewables
- Renewables Obligation. Ofgem.gov.uk.
- "Renewable sources of energy: chapter 6", Digest of United Kingdom energy statistics (DUKES), Department of Energy & Climate Change, pp. 159–162
- Stanley Reedmarch (March 25, 2014). "Siemens to Invest $264 Million in British Wind Turbine Project". New York Times.
- 100 jobs lost as wind farm factory is mothballed
- Price, Trevor J. (2004). "Blyth, James (1839–1906)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/100957. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Anon. "Costa Head Experimental Wind Turbine". Orkney Sustainable Energy Website. Orkney Sustainable Energy Ltd. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
- Peter Musgrove (9 December 1976), "Windmills change direction", New Scientist 72 (1030), pp. 596–7, ISSN 0262-4079
- McKenna, John. (8 April 2009) New Civil Engineer – Wind power: Chancellor urged to use budget to aid ailing developers. Nce.co.uk.
- Paul Eccleston (4 October 2007). "Britain's massive offshore wind power potential". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- RenewableUK news article – Wind farms hit high of more than 12% of UK electricity demand. Bwea.com (6 January 2012).
- RenewableUK Wind Energy statistics. Bwea.com.
- "Record-Breaking Year for UK Offshore Wind" Offshorewind.biz, 6 November 2013. Accessed: 6 November 2013.
- Department Of Energy and Climate Change
- Historical electricity data: 1920 to 2011
- DECC Energy Trends March 2014
- Jha, Alok (21 October 2008). "UK overtakes Denmark as world's biggest offshore wind generator". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-11-12.
- Renewable UK UKWED Offshore wind farms. Bwea.com.
- Oswald, James; Raine, Mike; Ashraf-Ball, Hezlin (June 2008). "Will British weather provide reliable electricity?" (PDF). Energy Policy 36: 2312–2325. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.04.033.
- National Grid Table of Indicative Triad Demand Information showing 7 January 2010 peak. Bmreports.com.
- MacKay, David. Sustainable Energy – without the hot air. pp. 60–62. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- "Two Terawatts average power output: the UK offshore wind resource". Retrieved 2010-08-02.
- RenewableUK – Offshore Wind Introduction. Bwea.com.
- REPP report into Non-Fossil Fuel subsidies in the UK. Repp.org (30 June 1998).
- The Crown Estate map of Operational Offshore energy – Round 1 wind farms in red
- The Crown Estate List of Operational Offshore wind farms Round 1 and 2
- The Crown Estate map of Operational Offshore energy – Round 2 wind farms in pink
- The Crown Estate R1 & R2 extensions announcement[dead link]
- Map of R1 & R2 wind farm extensions, The Crown Estate[dead link]
- Round 3 developers, The Crown Estate. Thecrownestate.co.uk.
- Map of R3 Zones, The Crown Estate
- RWE website press release
- Centrica Celtic Array Project website
- – Scottish Government Blue Seas – Green Energy Report. Scotland.gov.uk (18 March 2011).
- Table of Scottish Offshore Zones, The Crown Estate. Thecrownestate.co.uk.
- SSE review of offshore wind webpage
- BBC News report-SSE ditches plans for Kintyre offshore wind farm. Bbc.co.uk (1 March 2011).
- Fred.Olsen Forth Array News. Fortharray.com.
- SSE Project website. Sse.com.
- argyll array website news article
- – UKWED Offshore wind farms. Bwea.com.
- Beatrice Wind Farm Official Website. Beatricewind.co.uk.
- RWE Innogy Rhyl Flats Project website
- Dong Energy Gunfleet Sands Project website
- Walney opens for business RE News Europe, 9 February 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- businessGreen news website. Businessgreen.com.
- Offshore Wind News. Offshorewind.biz (7 September 2012).
- Sheringham Shoal. Scira.co.uk.
- 4C Offshore database – London Array. 4coffshore.com (18 December 2006).
- E.ON UK Press release. eon-uk.com Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- 4C Offshore database – London Array. 4coffshore.com.
- Gaurdian News article
- . offshorewind.biz.
- The Courier – Blades turn at Methil Retrieved 27 October 2014
- Scottish Power Press office website
- 4C Offshore database – Gwynt y Môr. 4coffshore.com.
- Public meetings on Gwynt y Mor wind farm – North Wales Weekly News Retrieved 12 December 2011
- RWE Innogy's Gwynt y Môr project press release
- Dong Energy – Westermost Rough Timescale Accessed 9 February 2012
- Dong Energy Westermost Rough project website
- Dong energy Westermost Rough project summary
- 4C Offshore database – Humber Gateway. 4coffshore.com.
- E.ON Humber Gateway Project website.
- Dudgeon Wind Farm Project website – Timetable
- BWEA. BWEA.
- Dudgeon Wind Farm Project website – Consenting Documents
- BBC News
- 4C Dong energy Race Bank project summary.
- Offshore Wind News website. Offshorewind.biz (6 July 2012).
- 4C Offshore database – Kentish Flats Extension. 4coffshore.com.
- 4C Offshore database – Triton Knoll. 4coffshore.com.
- 4C Offshore database – Beatrice. Sse.com.
- SSE Beatrice Project Website
- Moray Offshore Renewables Project timeline
- Moray Offshore Renewables Project website latest news
- East Anglia ONE Project news
- UK government gives green light to offshore windfarm
- Eon Rampion Project newsletter
- National Infrastructure Planning consent decision webpage
- National Infrastructure Planning consent decision webpage
- Neart na Gaoithe windfarm Project website news article
- – Scottish Government news website
- Inch Cape Wind Farm Scoping Report
- Seagreen Project NTS
- Dong Energy Walney Extension Project programme website
- National Infrastructure Planning consent decision webpage
- SMart Wind wind farm project website
- Forewind News website
- Navitus bay wind farm project website
- Galloper windfarm project website
- Delabole Village website. Delabole.com.
- SSE Hadyard Hill website. Scottish-southern.co.uk.
- article on opening of Scout Moor wind farm. BBC News (25 September 2008).
- Turley Associates Slieve Rushen Project website
- Whitelee wind farm website. Whiteleewindfarm.co.uk.
- Department of Energy and Climate Change (2010), Digest of United Kingdom energy statistics (DUKES) 2010, Stationery Office, ISBN 978-0-11-515526-0, retrieved 7 June 2011
- "Embedded and Renewable Generation". 2009 Seven Year Statement. National Grid. 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- BWEA News – Decision makers must heed Stern warning on climate change. Bwea.com (2 March 2007).
- Harvey, Fiona (27 February 2012). "Has the wind revolution stalled in the UK?". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media Limited). Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Renewables-map website. Renewables-map.co.uk.
- according to Renewable UK website. Bwea.com.
- Siemens news article. Siemens.co.uk.
- RenewableUK – UKWED Operational wind farms. Bwea.com.
- Clyde Project website
- Fallago Rig Project website milestone document. (PDF).
- . RenewableUK.com.
- Renewable UK
- . re news (17 July 2014).
- ScottishPower Harestanes Project website. Scottishpowerrenewables.com.
- Scottish Government Planning Applications – Muaitheabhal. Scotland.gov.uk (27 January 2012).
- Viking Energy Project website. Vikingenergy.co.uk (27 July 2012).
- "£365m wind farm between Neath and Aberdare backed". BBC News (8 May 2012).
- Dornell Project website. Dorenellwindfarm.co.uk.
- Renewable UK. Kilgalliochwindfarm.com.
- SSE Strathy South Project website. Sse.com.
- (German) RWE npower Carnedd Wen Project website. Rwe.com (13 March 2012).
- East Ayshire Council planning application. (PDF).
- Scottish Power Stronelairg Project website. Sse.com.
- "Government Response to the 2009 Consultation on the Renewables Obligation" (PDF). Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). December 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Annual Report 2008-09. (PDF).
- Commentary. (PDF).
- "Costs of low-carbon generation technologies", Mott MacDonald (Committee on Climate Change), May 2011, retrieved 11 June 2011
- Hutson, Graham; Siret, Mal. "The Times – UK News, World News and Opinion". The Times (London).
- Leach, Ben; Gray, Richard (23 January 2010). "Wind farm subsidies top £1 billion a year". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Poverty fears over wind power". BBC News. 4 September 2008.
- "Feed-in Tariffs: Government’s Response to the Summer 2009 Consultation" (PDF). Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). February 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "BWEA report on onshore wind costs". Archived from the original on 11 March 2012.
- Committee on Climate Change (May 2011) Costs of low-carbon generation technologies.[dead link]
- "The Merit-Order Effect: A Detailed Analyis of the Price Effect of Renewable Electricity Generation on Spot Market Prices in Germany" (PDF). Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- Graham Sinden (1 December 2005). "Characteristics of the UK wind resource: Long-term patterns and relationship to electricity demand". Energy Policy (Elsevier) 35 (1). doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.10.003. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Mason, Rowena (11 January 2010). "Wind farms produced 'practically no electricity' during Britain's cold snap". Daily Telegraph (London).
- Wind Energy Variability and Intermittency in the UK. Claverton-energy.com (28 August 2009).
- http://www.ukerc.ac.uk/Downloads/PDF/06/0604Intermittency/0604IntermittencyReport.pdf UKERC: The Costs and Impacts of Intermittency: An assessment of the evidence on the costs and impacts of intermittent generation on the British electricity network
- David Dixon, Nuclear Engineer (9 August 2006). "Wind Generation's Performance during the July 2006 California Heat Storm". US DOE, Oakland Operations.
- Graham Sinden (1 December 2005). "Characteristics of the UK wind resource: Long-term patterns and relationship to electricity demand". Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment.
- "Variability of Wind Power and other Renewables: Management Options and Strategies" (PDF). IEA. 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-15.
- Diesendorf, Mark (2007), Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, p. 119,
[Graham Sinden] analysed over 30 years of hourly wind speed data from 66 sites spread out over the United Kingdom. He found that the correlation coefficient of wind power fell from 0.6 at 200 km to 0.25 at 600 km separation (a perfect correlation would have a coefficient equal to 1.0.) There were no hours in the data set where wind speed was below the cut-in wind speed of a modern wind turbine throughout the United Kingdom, and low wind speed events affecting more than 90 per cent of the United Kingdom had an average recurrent rate of only one hour per year.
- "Transmission Constraint Agreement", nationalgrid.com
- "Scots windfarms paid cash to stop producing energy". BBC News. 1 May 2011.
- Ward, Victoria (1 May 2011). "Wind farms paid £900,000 to switch off for one night". The Telegraph (London).
- "Wind farms paid £900,000 to turn off", The Scotsman, 1 May 2011
- James Kirkup (27 December 2011), "£10m cost of turning off wind farms", The Daily Telegraph
- Edward Malnick; Robert Mendick (17 September 2011), "Wind farm paid £1.2 million to produce no electricity", The Daily Telegraph
- "Requirement for thermal generation to back-up wind capacity". Economic Affairs Committee. House of Lords. June 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Harrabin, Roger (24 June 2009). "UK expands wind power potential". BBC News.
- National Grid report says it can handle variable wind power | Policy. Energy Efficiency News (22 June 2009).
- Energy giants want billions for back-up to windfarms. Evening Standard (26 June 2011).
- "Wind Energy and the Environment" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "A Summary of Opinion Surveys on Wind Power" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "Public attitudes to wind farms". Eon-uk.com. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "The Social Acceptance of Wind Energy". European Commission.
- Public Attitudes to Windfarms
- "Wind farms make good neighbours". Archived from the original on 15 February 2012.
- "'Rise in Scots wind farm support'". 19 October 2010.
- "An investigation into the potential barriers facing the development of offshore wind energy in Scotland". 7 March 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wind power in the United Kingdom.|
- 4C Offshore's Wind Farm Map and Database containing all UK offshore wind farms.
- COWRIE Collaborative offshore wind research into the environment
- UK wind farm performance 2002–2009 *Dead link*
- The Renewable Energy Centre Wind Power in the UK.
- yes 2 wind UK wind farm supporters organisation
- Windfarm Action Group UK wind farm critics organisation
- A Sea Change: The Wind Farm Revolution
- Grants for wind power/turbines
- The Crown Estate Invests in 25 GW of Offshore Wind Power
- UK plans big wind power expansion
- UK Group Plans to Cut the Costs of Offshore Wind
- LORC Offshore Renewables Map for UK
- Electricity generation in the UK by type. Near live Java chart, 5 minute resolution