Gutka

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Gutka street vendor, India

Gutka or Gutkha (Hindi: गुटखा, Gujarati: ગુટખા, Punjabi: ਗੁਟਖਾ, Urdu: گٹکھا) is a preparation of crushed areca nut (also called betel nut), tobacco, catechu, paraffin, slaked lime and sweet or savory flavorings.[1] It is manufactured in India and exported to a few other countries. A mild stimulant, it is sold across India in small, individual-sized packets that cost between 2 and 10 rupees per packet. Gutka is consumed by placing a pinch of it between the gum and cheek and gently sucking and chewing.[2] It is considered responsible for oral cancer and other severe negative health effects.[1]

Characteristics[edit]

Gutka is a powdery, granular, light brownish to white substance. Within moments of chewing mixing with saliva, the gutkha begins to dissolve and turn deep red in color. It may impart upon its user a "buzz" somewhat more intense than that of tobacco chewing, snuffing and smoking.[citation needed]

Effects[edit]

Highly addictive and a known carcinogen, gutkha is the subject of much controversy in India. Many states have sought to curb its immense popularity by taxing sales of gutkha heavily or by banning it outright.[3]

Excessive gutkha use can eventually lead to loss of appetite, promote unusual sleep patterns, and loss of concentration along with other tobacco-related problems.[citation needed] A gutkha user can easily be identified by prominently stained teeth ranging from dirty yellowish-orange to reddish-black. The stains are difficult to remove by normal brushing and usually need the attention of a dentist[citation needed]. After gutkha is consumed, it is generally spat onto a wall or at the ground, causing an unsightly red stain that is quite resistant to the elements. Some building owners have taken to combating this unpleasantness by painting murals of idols on their walls, with the idea that gutkha chewers would not spit on an idol.[4]

Usage[edit]

It is used by millions of adults and children. Some packaging does not mention tobacco as an ingredient, some are chocolate-flavored, and some are marketed as breath fresheners.[5]

Gutkha use can begin at a very young age. Due to its often flavorful taste, easy availability and cheapness, it is popular with poor children, who can exhibit precancerous lesions at a very early age as a result. Symptoms of cancer often appear by high school or college age. Social custom does not permit children in India to smoke cigarettes, so gutkha use, being all but invisible to others, is the method of choice. Gutkha is also used by many as an alternative to cigarettes and is claimed to curb the need to smoke, but eventually becomes another habit tough to quit. Gutkha also causes swallowing problems during night time sleeping leading to dry throat and restless sleep. This may eventually lead to throat cancer in users.[citation needed]

In 2008, about 5 million children under 15 were addicted to gutkha. A survey in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh found precursors of mouth cancers in 16% of the children.[6] [7][8] According to the 2009-2010 survey by Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 53.5% of Indians use tobacco products. Tobacco and gutka chewing makes up the majority of those figures with 48.07% of Indians using them, while bidi and cigarette smokers make up 8.4% and 5.9% of the population respectively. The percentage of male and female tobacco and gutka chewers is 66.2% and 40% respectively.[9]

Ban[edit]

India[edit]

Tobacco banned states and UTs of India as on May 2013

Many states of India have banned the sale, manufacture, distribution and storage of gutka and all its variants. As of May 2013, gutka is banned in 24 states and 3 union territories.[10] Gutka is banned under the provision to ban any food product containing harmful adulterants in the centrally enacted Food Safety and Regulation (Prohibition) Act 2011. The Act allows these products to be banned for a year and it can be extended every year before it lapses, resulting in a pseudo permanent ban. The ban is enforced by the state public health ministry, the state Food and Drug Administration and the local police.[11] Enforcement of the law is generally lax and many shops still sell gutka, although it may not be displayed.[12][13][14][15][16] Enforcemnent is stricter in some regions like Mumbai and Delhi, but illegal sale of gutka still occurs.[17]

Offenders can be fined INR200 (US$3.30) according to the Control of Tobacco Products Act (COTPA). The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), under which the ban has been regulated, said offenders can face six months to three years in jail.[18] The law has provisions of imposing fines up to INR25000 on selling of products that are injurious to health.[19]

State Date of Ban Remarks
Andaman and Nicobar 1 November 2012 [20]
Andhra Pradesh 9 January 2013 [21]
Arunachal Pradesh [22]
Assam March 2013 [23][24]
Bihar 30 May 2012[25] The law was upheld by the Patna High Court.[26]
Chandigarh [27]
Chhattisgarh 24 July 2012 [28]
Delhi 11 September 2012 On 12 October 2012, the Delhi High Court refused to lift ban in response to a plea by a city-based gutka manufacturer.[29][30][31][32]
Goa 2 October 2005 [33]
Gujarat 11 September 2012[34][35] 100% export-oriented units are exempt from the ban.[36]
Himachal Pradesh 13 July 2012 [37]
Haryana 15 August 2012 [38]
Jharkhand 24 July 2012 [39][40]
Kerala 25 May 2012[41] On 2 August 2012, Kerala High Court declined to stay the ban.[42]
Karnataka 31 May 2013 [43]
Madhya Pradesh 1 April 2012[44] The law was upheld by the Madhya Pradesh High Court.[45]
Maharashtra 20 July 2012[46] Previous bans on gutka on 1 August 2002 and again in 2008 were overturned by the Supreme Court on the grounds of unfair trade practice.[47][48] The most recent ban was upheld by the Bombay High Court on 15 September 2012.[49]
Manipur [22]
Mizoram 2012 [50][51][52][53]
Nagaland [27]
Odisha 1 January 2013 [54][55][56]
Punjab 26 August 2012 [57]
Rajasthan 18 July 2012 [58][59]
Sikkim 17 September 2012 [60]
Tamil Nadu 8 May 2013 [61]
Uttar Pradesh 1 April 2013 [62]
Uttarakhand 1 January 2013 [63]
West Bengal 1 May 2013 [64][65]

Research firm Edelweiss estimates the gutka ban will cause the industry INR15-20 billion in losses.[66]

Advertising[edit]

Unlike alcohol and tobacco products, there is no ban on advertisement of gutka. Often tobacco companies advertise paan masala as gutka in order to skirt the ban on advertising tobacco products. Surrogate advertisements use images of a gutka packet instead of a pan masala.[67]

According to the Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restriction on Sales) Regulations, 2011 of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, misleading advertisement of such products invites a fine of INR1,000000.[68]

Pakistan[edit]

Gutka is banned in some regions of Pakistan.[69]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gutkha
  2. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/smokeless/betel_quid/
  3. ^ "MP becomes 1st state to ban Gutka products containing tobacco". Hindustan Times. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  4. ^ Bhattasali, Amitabha (2011-11-23). "Scheme to save Calcutta's Howrah Bridge from spit". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  5. ^ "India: Cancer epidemic on the way". BBC. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  6. ^ "Kids getting addicted to tobacco". The Times of India. 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  7. ^ Waldman, Amy (2002-08-13). "Sweet But Deadly addiction is seizing the young in India". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  8. ^ "Harmful effects of chewing tobacco: Gutkha". Cigarette-store.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  9. ^ "Use of tobacco products to invite deterrent tax: Modi". Hindustan Times. 2012-10-31. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  10. ^ "Cancer centres urge PM to ban gutka across India". DNA India. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  11. ^ "Govt to file caveat in HC today on gutka, paan masala ban". The Times of India. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  12. ^ "Why the gutka ban in Maharashtra won’t work". 13 July 2012. 
  13. ^ Praveen, M. P. (16 June 2012). "Sale of pan masala thriving". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  14. ^ "What ban? Gutka still sells". The Times Of India. 18 June 2012. 
  15. ^ "Gutka ban not satisfactory, admits minister". The Times of India. 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  16. ^ "Gutka continues to rustle undercover despite ban". The Times of India. 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  17. ^ "Indians want their fix of gutkha & pan masala despite ban". Business Standard. 2012-09-16. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  18. ^ Masand, Pratibha (2012-07-13). "Ban implementation may take few weeks". The Times of India. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  19. ^ "Himachal bans sale of Gutka, Pan Masala, Masheri & Khaini". Hill Post. 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  20. ^ "Administration imposes complete ban on ‘gutka’". Andaman Sheekha. 2012-11-01. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  21. ^ "Andhra Pradesh orders ban on manufacture, sale of gutka". Deccan Chronicle. 10 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  22. ^ a b "Tripura, Meghalaya to ban gutka, pan masala". The Times of India. 2013-04-23. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  23. ^ Singh, Bikash (2013-03-08). "Gutka, pan masala containing tobacco and nicotine banned in Assam". Economic Times. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  24. ^ "Assam govt imposes ban on gutkha". Indian Express. 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  25. ^ Bhatia, Banjot Kaur (31 May 2012). "World No Tobacco Day: Bihar govt bans gutkha, pan masala for 1 year". The Times of India. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  26. ^ [1][dead link]
  27. ^ a b "PIL seeks ban on tobacco, gutka in J&K". Kashmir Times. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  28. ^ "The Government of Chhattisgarh banned Gutka and Pan Masala". Jagran Josh. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  29. ^ "HC refuses to lift gutka ban". The Times of India. 2012-10-13. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  30. ^ Perappadan, Bindu Shajan (2012-09-11). "Delhi decides to ban gutka". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  31. ^ "Delhi bans gutka following High Court orders". IBN Live. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  32. ^ "Delhi government slaps ban on all gutka products". The Times of India. 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  33. ^ "Goa to ban gutka consumption". Economic Times. 2005-09-27. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  34. ^ "Gutka to be banned in Gujarat from 11 September: Narendra Modi". Indian Express. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  35. ^ "Gutka to be banned in Gujarat from 11 Sept.: Modi". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  36. ^ "Gutkha ban: Lone unit exempted". Financial Express. 28 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  37. ^ "Himachal govt bans Gutka, pan masala products". Zee News. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  38. ^ "Haryana to ban food items having tobacco". The Times of India. 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  39. ^ "Jharkhand bans production, sale of gutka/panmasala". MSN News. 2012-07-25. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  40. ^ Jharkhand bans sale, manufacturing of gutka
  41. ^ Mathew, Roy (2012-05-25). "Kerala bans pan masala and its variants". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  42. ^ "HC refuses to stay ban on pan masala". 2 August 2012. 
  43. ^ "Karnataka to ban gutka on 'World No Tobbaco Day'". The Times Of India. 2013-05-30. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  44. ^ "Madhya Pradesh bans gutkha and other chewing tobacco products". Down To Earth. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  45. ^ Tripathi, Ashish (18 September 2012). "'Ban gutka or we will', High court tells Akhilesh Yadav government". The Times Of India. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  46. ^ "Ban Day 1: FDA set to root out gutka". The Times Of India. 2012-07-21. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  47. ^ "Maharashtra bans gutka, paan m". The Times Of India. 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  48. ^ Deshpande, Swati (2012-07-14). "‘Current ban on stronger footing than in 2002’". The Times Of India. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  49. ^ "Bombay High Court upholds ban on gutka, pan masala in Maharashtra". NDTV.com. 2012-09-15. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  50. ^ "Mizoram bans gutkha products". Indian Express. 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  51. ^ "Mizoram bans gutkha products". Zee News. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  52. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/mizoram-bans-gutkha-products-112101800580_1.html
  53. ^ "Call to replicate Mizoram ban in State". The Assam Tribune. 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  54. ^ "Odisha rings in 2013 with gutka ban - The Times of India". indiatimes.com. 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2013. "The state government on Tuesday announced a ban on the sale and manufacture of gutka and paan masala." 
  55. ^ "Business Line : News / States : Odisha bans gutkha, tobacco sale". thehindubusinessline.com. 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2013. "The Odisha Government on Tuesday announced a State-wide ban on the manufacture, sale and use of gutkha and chewing tobacco containing nicotine." 
  56. ^ "Briefly Nation: Orissa bans use of gutkha - Indian Express". indianexpress.com. 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2013. "Orissa government on Tuesday announced a state-wide ban on the manufacture, sale and use of gutkha and chewing tobacco containing nicotine." 
  57. ^ "Punjab bans sale of gutka, pan masala". News.webindia123.com. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  58. ^ "Rajasthan government decides to ban Gutkha". Zee News. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  59. ^ "Rajasthan government decides to ban Gutkha". India TV News. 2012-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  60. ^ "Sikkim bans gutkha". DownToEarth. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  61. ^ "TN bans pan masala, gutka". The Hindu. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  62. ^ "After HC order, UP to ban gutka from April 1 next year, 2013". The Times Of India. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  63. ^ "Uttarakhand gutka ban now from January 1". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  64. ^ "Finally, state orders ban on gutka". The Times Of India. 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  65. ^ http://www.wbhealth.gov.in/go/cfs146.pdf
  66. ^ Chandramouli, Rajesh (2012-09-14). "Gutka ban loss could be Rs 1500 - Rs 2000 crores". The Times Of India. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  67. ^ "‘Ban surrogate advertisements of tobacco products’". 20 June 2012. 
  68. ^ "No relaxation on gutka ban - The Times of India". The Times Of India. 
  69. ^ http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/11/18/city/karachi/gutka-sale-thrives-in-city-despite-ban/

References[edit]

  • Javed F, Altamash M, Klinge B, Engström PE. (2008). Periodontal conditions and oral symptoms in gutka-chewers with and without type 2 diabetes. Acta Odontol Scand; 66(5):268-73.
  • Javed F, Chotai M, Mehmood A, Almas K. Oral mucosal disorders associated with habitual gutka usage. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;109:857-64.
  • Javed F, Bello Correa FO, Chotai M, Tappuni AR, Almas K. Systemic conditions associated with areca nut usage: A literature review. Scand J Public Health 2010; 38: 838–44.

External links[edit]