AGM-88 HARM

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AGM-88 HARM[1]
AGM-88 HARM on FA-18C.jpg
An AGM-88 HARM missile loaded aboard an F/A-18C
Type Air-to-surface anti-radiation missile
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1985–present
Used by U.S. and others
Wars Gulf War, Kosovo War, Iraq War, 2011 military intervention in Libya
Production history
Designer Texas Instruments
Designed 1983
Manufacturer Texas Instruments, then Raytheon Corporation
Unit cost US$284,000
US$870,000 for AGM-88E[2]
Produced 1983–present
Specifications
Weight 355 kilograms (783 lb)
Length 4.1 metres (13 ft)
Diameter 254 millimetres (10.0 in)
Warhead WDU-21/B blast-fragmentation in a WAU-7/B warhead section, and later WDU-37/B blast-fragmentation warhead.
Warhead weight 66 kilograms (146 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
FMU-111/B laser proximity fuze

Engine Thiokol SR113-TC-1 dual-thrust rocket engine
Wingspan 1.1 metres (3.6 ft)
Propellant Solid fuel
Operational
range
150 kilometres; 92 miles (80 nmi)[3]
Speed 2,280 km/h (1,420 mph)
Guidance
system
Passive radar homing with home-on-jam,GPS/INS and MMW active radar homing in E variant.[4] 500-20,000 MHz for AGM-88C
Launch
platform
F/A-18, F-4G, F-16, Tornado IDS, F-35 and others

The AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is a tactical, air-to-surface missile designed to hone in on electronic transmissions coming from surface-to-air radar systems. It was originally developed by Texas Instruments as a replacement for the AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78 Standard ARM system. Production was later taken over by Raytheon Corporation when it purchased the defense production business of Texas Instruments.

Description[edit]

The AGM-88 can detect, attack and destroy a radar antenna or transmitter with minimal aircrew input. The proportional guidance system that homes in on enemy radar emissions has a fixed antenna and seeker head in the missile's nose. A smokeless, solid-propellant, booster-sustainer rocket motor propels the missile at speeds over Mach 2. HARM, a US Navy-led program, was initially integrated onto the A-6E, A-7 and F/A-18 and later onto the EA-6B. RDT&E for use on the F-14 was begun, but not completed. The USAF introduced HARM on the F-4G Wild Weasel and later on specialized F-16s equipped with the HARM Targeting System (HTS).

History[edit]

Deployment[edit]

The HARM missile was approved for full production in March 1983, and then deployed in late 1985 with VA-72 and VA-46 aboard the aircraft carrier USS America. It was soon used in combat—in March 1986 against a Libyan SA-5 site in the Gulf of Sidra, and then Operation Eldorado Canyon in April. HARM was used extensively by the United States Navy and the United States Air Force for Operation Desert Storm during the Gulf War of 1991.

During the Gulf War, the HARM was involved in a friendly fire incident when the pilot of an F-4G Wild Weasel escorting a B-52 bomber mistook the latter's tail gun radar for an Iraqi AAA site. (This was after the tail gunner of the B-52 had targeted the F-4G, mistaking it for an Iraqi MiG.) The F-4 pilot launched the missile and then saw that the target was the B-52, which was hit. It survived with shrapnel damage to the tail and no casualties. The B-52 was subsequently renamed In HARM's Way.[5]

"Magnum" is spoken over the radio to announce the launch of an AGM-88.[6] During the Gulf War, if an aircraft was illuminated by enemy radar a bogus "Magnum" call on the radio was often enough to convince the operators to power down.[7] This technique would also be employed in Serbia during air operations in 1999.

In 2013 President Obama offered the AGM-88 to Israel for the first time.[8]

AGM-88E AARGM[edit]

AGM-88E

The newest upgrade is a joint venture by the Italian Ministry of Defense and the US Department of Defense: the AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM), produced by Alliant Techsystems.

In November 2005, the Italian Ministry of Defense and the US Department of Defense signed a Memorandum of Agreement on the joint development of the AGM-88E AARGM missile. Italy was providing $20 million of developmental funding as well as several millions worth material, equipment and related services. The Italian Air Force was expected to procure up to 250 missiles for its Tornado ECR aircraft. Thus flight test program was set to integrate the AARGM onto Tornado ECR's weapon system.

The AARGM features the latest software, enhanced capabilities intended to counter radar shutdown and passive radar using an additional active millimeter wave seeker. It was released in November 2010.

The Navy demonstrated the AARGM's capability during Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) in spring 2012 with live firing of 12 missiles. Aircrew and maintenance training with live missiles was completed in June. The Navy authorized Full-Rate Production (FRP) of the AARGM in August 2012, with 72 missiles for the Navy and nine for the Italian Air Force to be delivered in 2013. A U.S. Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet squadron will be the first forward-deployed unit with the AGM-88E.[9]

It will be initially integrated onto the FA-18C/D, FA-18E/F, EA-18G, and Tornado ECR aircraft and later on the F-35.[10]

In September 2013, ATK delivered the 100th AARGM to the U.S. Navy. The AGM-88E program is on schedule and on budget, with Full Operational Capability (FOC) planned for September 2014.[11]

Operators[edit]

See also[edit]

F-16 carrying an AIM-120 AMRAAM (top), AIM-9 Sidewinder (middle) and AGM-88 HARM

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "AGM-88 HARM (high-speed antiradiation missile) - Smart Weapons". Fas.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  2. ^ AGM-88E AARGM / Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile, HDAM
  3. ^ Raytheon Company: Miniature Air Launched Decoy (MALD)
  4. ^ AGM-88E Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile | NAVAIR - U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command - Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Research, Development, Acquisition, Test and Eva...
  5. ^ Lake, Jon (2004). B-52 Stratofortress Units in Operation Desert Storm (1 ed.). Oxford: Osprey. pp. 47–48. ISBN 1-84176-751-4. 
  6. ^ "Operational Brevity Words And Terminology". Fas.org. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  7. ^ Lambeth, Benjamin (2000). The Transformation of American Air Power. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-8014-3816-5. 
  8. ^ "Israel seeks $5B in U.S. loans to buy arms."
  9. ^ Navy Approves Full Rate Production for New Anti-Radiation Missile - Strategicdefenseintelligence.com, August 30, 2012
  10. ^ "ATK Awarded $55 Million Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile Low Rate Initial Production...". Reuters. 2009-01-21. Retrieved 2011-07-13. 
  11. ^ ATK Delivers 100th Advanced Anti-Radiation Guided Missile (AARGM) to U.S. Navy - PRNewswire.com, 17 September 2013
  12. ^ "AGM-88E AARGM Missile: No Place To Hide Down There". Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved 2013-11-25. 
  13. ^ "Harpoon Databases: AGM-88 HARM". Harpoon Databases. Retrieved 2013-11-25. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]