Horseracing in Great Britain

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Racehorse statue at Newmarket, the home of British horseracing

Horse racing is the second largest spectator sport in Great Britain,[1] and one of the longest established, with a history dating back many centuries. It generates over £3.7 billion for the British economy.[2] and the major horseracing events such as Royal Ascot and Cheltenham Festival are important dates in the British and international sporting and society calendar.

The sport has taken place in the country since Roman times and many of the sport's traditions and rules originated there. The Jockey Club, established in 1750, codified the Rules of Racing and one of its members, Admiral Rous laid the foundations of the handicapping system, including the weight-for-age scale. Britain is also home to some of the world's iconic racecourses including Newmarket, Ascot and Cheltenham and many of the world's iconic races including the Epsom Derby, Grand National and Cheltenham Gold Cup. The UK has also produced some of the greatest jockeys, including Sir Gordon Richards and Lester Piggott.

Britain has also historically been a hugely important centre for thoroughbred racehorse breeding. All modern thoroughbred racehorses can trace a line back to three foundation sires which were imported to Britain in the late 17th/early 18th centuries[3] and the General Stud Book first published by James Weatherby still records details of every horse in the breed.

Gambling on horseraces has been one of the cornerstones of the British betting industry and the relationship between the two has historically been one of mutual dependence. The betting industry is an important funder of horse racing in Great Britain, through the betting levy administered by the Horserace Betting Levy Board and through media rights negotiated by racecourses and betting shops.

Types of racing[edit]

There are two main forms of horse racing in Great Britain.

Collectively, the above racing is often referred to as racing "under rules", since there is another form of racing which is run on an altogether more informal and ad hoc basis, known as point-to-point racing. Point-to-point is a form of steeplechasing for amateur riders.

All the above forms of the sport are run under the auspices of the governing and regulatory body for horse-racing in Great Britain, the British Horseracing Authority.[4] with the exception of point-to-pointing which is administered by the Point-to-Point Authority with the BHA taking on regulatory functions.[5] There is also a limited amount of harness racing which takes place under the auspices of the British Harness Racing Society and Arabian racing which takes place under the auspices of the Arabian Racing Organisation.

History[edit]

Roman era to Middle Ages[edit]

It is thought that the first races to take place in Britain were organised by soldiers of the Roman Empire in Yorkshire around 200 AD, although the earliest written mention of 'running-horses' is a record of Hugh, from the French House of Capet, gifting some as a present to King Athelstan of England in the 9th/10th century.[6]

The first recorded race meeting was during the reign of Henry II at Smithfield, London, in 1174 during a horse fair. The event is attested by William Fitzstephen and the poet Drayton.[6] The Middle English romance Sir Bevis of Hampton has couplets which refer to races taking place in the time of Richard I.[7]

For the next three centuries thare are numerous records of Kings of England keeping 'running horses'. Edward III bought horses at £13 6s 8d each, and was also gifted two by the King of Navarre. The royal stud continued to grow throughout the reign of Henry VII.[8]

Kiplingcotes, Yorkshire, home of the world's oldest horse race

16th Century[edit]

Records become more substantial during the time of Henry VIII. He passed a number of laws relating to the breeding of horses[9] and also imported a large number of stallions and mares for breeding. He kept a training establishment at Greenwich and a stud at Eltham.[3]

Formal race meetings began to be instigated too. It is believed that the first occurrence of a trophy being presented to the winner of a race was in 1512 by organisers of a fair in Chester and was a small wooden ball decorated with flowers.[citation needed] Meanwhile, the oldest horse race still in existence, the Kiplingcotes Derby was first run in 1519. The Carlisle Bells, reputedly the oldest sporting trophy in the world, were first competed for in the 16th century, in a race that still bears their name. One of the bells is inscribed "The sweftes horse thes bel tak" ("The swiftest horse takes this bell").[10]

17th century[edit]

During the reign of Elizabeth, interest in horse racing appears to have waned, for reasons unrecorded.[11] But this changed when in 1605, James I discovered the little village of Newmarket whilst out hawking or riding. He began to spend time there racing horses, and from then on it has been known as the home of horse racing in England. In fact, James spent so much time there that the House of Commons petitioned him to concentrate more of his time on running the country.[citation needed] The region has had a long association with horses going back to the time of Boudica and the Iceni.[citation needed]

Race meetings began to spring up elsewhere in the country. Races were run for silver bells at Gatherley, Yorkshire, Croydon and Theobalds on Enfield Chase. Jockey weights began to be measured and rigorously enforced.[12]

Around the time that Charles I of England came to the throne, Spring and Autumn race meetings were introduced to Newmarket and in 1634 the first Gold Cup event was held. All horse racing was then banned in 1654 by Oliver Cromwell, and many horses were requisitioned by the state. Despite this Cromwell himself kept a stud running of his own.[13] With the restoration of Charles II racing flourished and he instituted the Newmarket Town Plate in 1664, writing the rules himself:

Articles ordered by His Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to ride for the Plate, the new round heat at Newmarket set out on the first day of October, 1664, in the 16th year of our Sovereign Lord King Charles II, which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the second Thursday in October for ever

King Charles II, Rules of the Newmarket Town Plate

The three foundation sires of the modern thoroughbred, the Byerley Turk, Darley Arabian and Godolphin Barb were imported to England in the late 17th and early 18th centuries and founded the lines which can be traced down to every modern thoroughbred racehorse.[3]

Jockey, Edwardian painting by the famous Irish artist William Orpen

18th century[edit]

In the early 18th century, Queen Anne kept a large string of horses and was instrumental in the founding of Royal Ascot where the opening race each year is still called the Queen Anne Stakes. The first published account of race results was John Cheney's Historical list of all the Horse Matches run, and all plates and prizes run for in England and Wales which dates to 1727.[14] In a later work, published in York in 1748, the result is recorded of a race run in September 1709 on Clifton and Rawcliffe Ings, near York, for a gold cup of £50.[15]

In 1740, Parliament introduced an act "to restrain and to prevent the excessive increase in horse racing"; this was largely ignored and in the 1750 the Jockey Club was formed to create and apply the Rules of Racing.

Interest in the sport was at a high throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. As Whyte's History of the English Turf noted in 1840, "For nearly a century and a half, the "Turf" has formed a favourite amusement of "Kings, Lords and Commons".[16] Or as Rice's History reported in 1879, "for some two hundred years the pursuit of Horse-racing has been attractive to more of our countrymen than any other out-door pastime"[17]

19th century to modern day[edit]

The Jockey Club governed the sport until its governance role was handed to the British Horseracing Board, (formed in June 1993) and while the BHB became responsible for strategic planning, finance, politics, race planning, training and marketing, the Jockey Club continued to regulate the sport. In 2006 it formed the Horseracing Regulatory Authority to carry out the regulatory process whilst it focused on owning 13 racecourses and the gallops in Newmarket and Lambourn. In July 2007 the HRA merged with the BHB to form the British Horseracing Authority.

Racecourses[edit]

There are 59 licensed racecourses in Great Britain, with a further two in Northern Ireland (Down Royal and Downpatrick). Apart from Great Leighs (currently mothballed, but due to reopen as Chelmsford City Racecourse) and Ffos Las (which opened in 2009), all the courses date back to 1927 or earlier. The oldest is Chester Racecourse, which dates to the early 16th century.[18]

Unlike some other countries, notably the United States, racing in Britain usually takes place on turf. There are four courses which have all-weather tracks - Kempton Park, Lingfield, Southwell and Wolverhampton. Southwell's surface is Fibresand, while the other three are Polytrack. Courses also vary wildly in layout. There are very few which are regular ovals, as is the typical layout of other countries like the United States. Each course has its own idiosyncrasies, and horses are known to be more suited to some tracks than others, hence the idiom "horses for courses."

There are two main operating groups of British racecourses - Jockey Club Racecourses and Arena Racing Company which run fifteen courses each.

Important races and meetings[edit]

Flat[edit]

Britain is home to some of the world's most important flat races and race meetings. While ancient horse races like the Kiplingcotes Derby and Newmarket Town Plate are now mainly curiosities, there are many older races which retain modern relevance. The five British Classics - the 1,000 Guineas, 2,000 Guineas, The Oaks, The Derby and the St. Leger - were founded in the late 18th and early 19th centuries and still represent the pinnacle of achievement for each generation of horses. The structure and distances of these races, if not the exact names, have been adopted by many other European horse racing authorities, such as Ireland. Royal Ascot is the major flat racing festival in Europe and attracts horses from all over the world. The modern flat season in Britain now also climaxes with British Champions Day, a festival of championship races, also held at Ascot.

National Hunt[edit]

Britain is the home of National Hunt racing, although the sport has more national significance and popularity in Ireland.[citation needed] The Cheltenham Festival is the foremost jump racing festival in the world, and is an annual target for both British and Irish trainers. The festival hosts races such as the Cheltenham Gold Cup and Champion Hurdle, which are seen as the peak of their disciplines and over the years have been won by horses whose appeal has transcended the sport, including Kauto Star and Desert Orchid. More widely known still is the Grand National at Aintree, which despite being an anomalously long and difficult race that is historically contested by a lower grade of horses than races at Cheltenham, has produced some of the sports equine superstars, like Red Rum. It has an estimated global audience of 600 million viewers.[19]

Major festivals[edit]

  • August
    • York - Ebor Festival
  • September
    • Haydock Park - William Hill Sprint Cup
    • Doncaster - St. Leger Meeting
    • Ayr - Western Meeting
    • Ascot - Ascot Festival
  • October
  • November
    • Cheltenham - The Paddy Power Open
    • Haydock & Aintree - North West Masters
    • Newbury - Hennessy Meeting
  • December
    • Sandown Park - Tingle Creek Meeting
    • Kempton Park - Stan James Christmas Festival
    • Chepstow - Coral Welsh National

Media coverage[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

British horse racing is served by a daily, national newspaper, the Racing Post, founded in 1986. This carries industry news, racecards for all British and Irish race meetings, tipping columns and betting information, as well as smaller sections on greyhound racing and general sport. There are also dedicated weekly publications including Racing Plus and monthly magazines such as Throughbred Owner & Breeder. In addition, there is a limited amount of racing coverage in broader equestrian magazines, such as Horse & Hound. Many national dailies also carry racing news and information in their sports pages.

At various times in history, there has been more than one racing daily, and fierce rivalries have existed between them.[20] For most of the 20th century, the Sporting Life and Sporting Chronicle were the two competing papers, before the Manchester-based Chronicle closed in 1983 due to debts and falling circulation. The Racing Post was founded in 1986 to fill the gap and challenge the Sporting Life monopoly that resulted and these two were rivals throughout the 80s and 90s. Ultimately, the Post won the battle when the Sporting Life's owners, Trinity Mirror closed the Life and took over the Racing Post trademark.

Going back to Victorian times, there was a wide range of sporting newspapers that carried racing news to a greater or lesser extent. These include Bell's Life in London (forerunner to the Sporting Life), The Sporting Times and The Sportsman (not to be confused with the shortlived 2006 newspaper of the same name). In 1840, Bell's Life is reported to compete with the Sunday Times as the two weekly turf newspapers.[21] There were also four monthly magazines at that time - the Old Sporting Magazine (founded 1792), the New Sporting Magazine (founded 1824), the Sporting Review (founded 1837) and the Sportsman (stated to have originated in 1829, so not the same as the Sportsman above which was founded in 1865).[21] However, coverage of horse racing in newspapers is believed to date as far back as the Evening English Chronicle in 1779.[22]

Television[edit]

TV presenter, John McCririck

There are two dedicated horse racing channels on British digital television - At The Races (free to air) and Racing UK (subscription only). Daily broadcasts of British race meetings are split between the two according to contracts arranged by racecourses and racecourse owning groups. Saturday racing and key midweek festival meetings are also broadcast on terrestrial television by Channel 4, who have been covering the sport since 1984. The channel broadcasts a four-hour afternoon programme of live racing and an hour-long weekly magazine show on Saturday mornings called The Morning Line. Since the start of 2013, the network's horse racing output has been fronted by Claire Balding,[23] with support from other presenters such as Nick Luck, Jim McGrath, Alice Plunkett and Mick Fitzgerald.

For many years, racing was also broadcast on the BBC, who pioneered coverage of the sport in the 1950s. The network retained the rights to key race meetings, such as the Grand National, Royal Ascot and the Derby until 2012 when it was outbid for the rights by Channel 4.[24] The BBC broadcast some of the key moments in the history of British horse racing, such as Red Rum winning his third Grand National and the 1967 victory of Foinavon in the same race after most of the field fell at the same fence. ITV began to show horse racing in its first weeks on air in 1955, and in the 1970s it provided an alternative to BBC coverage with the ITV Seven which featured as part of the channel's World of Sport programme. This lasted until the early 1980s, when coverage was gradually transferred to Channel 4.

As with other sports, many of the people who have presented racing on TV through the years have become inseparably linked with racing in the public consciousness. Foremost among these for many years was the BBC's Sir Peter O'Sullevan, known as 'the voice of racing', who commentated on 50 Grand Nationals.[25] Channel 4's most recognisable racing figure was John McCririck, famed for his eccentric dress sense and use of the bookmakers' sign language 'tic-tac'. Channel 4 chose not to renew his contract when they became the sole terrestrial racing broadcaster in 2013, leading McCririck to sue them on grounds of ageism.[26]

Betting[edit]

Main article: Bookmaking

Wagering money on horse races is as old as the sport itself, but in the United Kingdom the links between horseracing and nationwide wagering are very strong. Betting shops are common sights in most towns, tending to be sited wherever a significant number of people with disposable cash can be expected. At one point in the 1970s it was said that the ideal location was "close to a pub, the Labour Exchange and the Post Office",[by whom?] the first being a source of customers in a good mood, the other two being sources of ready cash in the form of "the dole" and state pension money, which was dispensed through Post Offices at the time.

Betting shop in Brigg, Lincolnshire

As early as 1938, £500,000,000 was being gambled on horse racing in England according to the Christian Social Council Committee on Gambling.[27] However, betting shops were not legalised until 1960,[28] at which time many of the famous British betting shop chains such as William Hill, Ladbrokes and Corals were legally established on the high street. Previously betting was either on course, via certain credit betting offices, or illegally conducted often in or around public houses, with 'bookies runners' ferrying the bets from bookmaker to client.

Betting is taxed under the authority of various acts of Parliament. A gross profit tax is levied on all UK based bookmakers which is payable to the exchequer, and a separate sum is agreed and collected by the Horserace Betting Levy Board, a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, who use the funds for race prize money and the improvement of horseracing.[29] For the latest year reported, the levy resulted in £103.5 million being collected.[citation needed]

Member of Parliament Clement Freud, who himself had owned racehorses, alleged in an article published in the 1970s, before his election to Parliament, that horseracing was organized purely to generate taxes. He cited the large number of otherwise non-viable racecourses kept open (to ensure sufficient races being run) even as the financial rewards to the owners and trainers declined to the point where most could barely cover their expenses.[citation needed]

On 6 October 2001, the Government abolished the turnover-based tax on betting, which had been 9% of the stake or the winnings, the punter having the choice to pay a certain small amount or an uncertain large amount.[citation needed] The tax, now based on gross profit, is now effectively indirectly levied on the punters, the cost being absorbed in the odds that bookmakers offer.[neutrality is disputed]

The last 10 years in the UK has seen massive growth in online gambling. Punters are now going online to place their bets[vague], where technology gives them access to a greater wealth of information and knowledge. Now racing punters exchange information on online forums, tipping sites etc.

Key people[edit]

Jockeys[edit]

Further information: List of jockeys

In the early days of British horseracing, owners tended to ride their own horses in races. This practice died out as racing became more organised and the owners, most of them aristocrats, had grooms ride the horses instead. Jockeys at this time were often scruffy and unkempt and not well-regarded.[30] Nevertheless, several Yorkshire-based jockeys became acclaimed in the mid-to-late 18th century. These included John Mangle, Bill Pierse, John Shepherd, three different individuals named John Singleton, Ben Smith and Bill Clift.[31] Between them they won many of the early runnings of the oldest classic, the St. Leger. Their counterparts in the south became similarly celebrated, and exercised a similar dominance over the Newmarket classics. Amongst their number were Sam Chifney, Jem Robinson, the Arnull family - John, Sam and Bill - and "the first man to bring respectability to the profession" - Frank Buckle.[32]

The 19th century was dominated by three jockeys - Nat Flatman, George Fordham and Fred Archer - who between them won forty flat jockeys' championships. With the expansion of print media and the growth of interest in horse racing among ordinary people, these jockeys became nationally recognised figures, with a profile enjoyed by the footballers and TV celebrities of today. When Archer died at his own hand, it is said:

In London, special editions of the evening papers were issued; crowds thronged Fleet Street to buy them and omnibuses stopped to allow passengers to read the billboards ... In tram or train, Archer's death was the sole topic of converstion. No greater interest could have been aroused had he been Prime Minister or a member of the Royal family.

- Tanner & Cranham, pp 78-79

The high profile of jockeys at this time is illustrated (literally) by the number of caricatures of jockeys that feature in Victorian society magazine, Vanity Fair, alongside MPs, aristocrats and other national figures.

Three figures dominate the flat racing scene of the 20th century too - Steve Donoghue, Gordon Richards and Lester Piggott. Richards is often regarded as the greatest jockey ever[33] and set many records which still stand, including most flat race victories and most flat jockey championships. Piggott is descended from the great racing families of the 19th century, the Days and the Cannons, and for many is the greatest jockey still living.[citation needed]

In the modern day, Frankie Dettori is the jockey with the widest public profile beyond racing, appearing on Celebrity Big Brother[34] and launching his own food range.[35] He has also gained public attention for his feats on the racetrack, including his 'Magnificent Seven' wins at Ascot in 1997[36] and three jockeys' championships. Kieren Fallon was a regular champion around the turn of the century and still rides today, and younger jockeys to have won multiple championships include Ryan Moore, Jamie Spencer and Paul Hanagan. In recent years, Hayley Turner has come to prominence as the first British woman to win a Group 1 race outright[37] and as Champion Apprentice in 2005.

Historically, jumps jockeys have not had the same profile as their flat counterparts, but this changed to some extent in the 20th century. The large television audience enjoyed by the Grand National has helped in this regard. Previously unknown jockeys like 2013 winner Ryan Mania have received their first nationwide coverage as a result of the race.[38]

The most-celebrated jumps jockey of all-time is the Northern Irishman Tony McCoy, winner of every Jumps Jockeys' Championship since 1996 and the only horse racing figure to ever win the BBC Sports Personality of the Year.[39] He broke Gordon Richards' record for most winners in a season in 2001/02 and his total number of career wins is now close to 4,000, well eclipsing the numbers set by Peter Scudamore and Richard Dunwoody who between them were the leading jumps jockeys of the 1980s and early 1990s. Richard Johnson, who has been second to McCoy in nearly all of his championships is the second most winningmost jockey of all time, and gained tabloid fame in the late 1990s for his relationship with Zara Philips.[40]

Former champion jump jockeys Dick Francis and John Francome have become known to a wider public after enjoying second careers as writers of racing-based fiction,[41] while Francome (until the end of 2012) and Mick Fitzgerald are known as horse racing TV pundits.

There are currently between four and five hundred professional jockeys based in the United Kingdom.[42]

Trainers[edit]

Further information: List of race horse trainers

The two dominant forces in flat training in Britain in the modern era are Aidan O'Brien and Godolphin, through their trainers Saeed Bin Suroor and, until his recent ban, Mahmood Al Zarooni. They largely concentrate on Group races. Operating in much larger numbers of runners, but with a greater spread of quality, are trainers such as Mark Johnston, Richard Hannon, Jr. and Richard Fahey.

In the jumps sphere, Nicky Henderson and Paul Nicholls dominate, with the likes of David Pipe, Donald McCain and Venetia Williams following close behind.

Owners[edit]

Aristocratic families have always owned horses in Britain and the list of Classic winners features names such as the Earl of Grafton, Earl Grosvenor and Earl of Egremont from early days. In the modern era, the Queen continues to retain a stable of horses trained by the likes of Michael Stoute. The Queen Mother was famously keen on horse racing and a race at the Cheltenham Festival, the Queen Mother Champion Chase, is named in her honour.

The two most prominent flat owners of the current era are Sheikh Mohammed, under the Godolphin banner and the team of Michael Tabor, John Magnier and others, based in Ireland.

Prominent jumps owners include JP McManus, Graham Wylie and Trevor Hemmings

Administrators[edit]

Modern-day racing originated in Britain, so many figures from British racing have shaped the sport. Admiral Rous established the handicapping process, including the weight-for-age scale, while in the 20th century, form expert and some time administrator of the sport, Phil Bull established Timeform whose ratings are often used to assess the all-time great horses.

Key data[edit]

Key data for 2004, 2005 and 2010 extracted from the British Horseracing Board's annual reports for 2004 and 2005, the 2010 annual reportfrom its successor organisation, the British Horseracing Authority and the 2011/12 British Horseracing Fact Book

2004 2005 2010 2011
Fixtures 1,299 1,300 1,392 1,469
Races 8,757 8,588 9,566 10,147
Runners 92,761 94,659 92,025 94,376
Prize Money (Total) £101.3 million 99.3 million 99.1 million 93.9 million
Prize Money (Flat) £1
Prize Money (Jump) £35.9 million 35.4 million 31.5 million 31.5 million
Racegoers (Total) 6,048,517 5,896,922 5,769,382 6,151,282
Racegoers (Flat) 3,873,508 3,704,567 3,854,863 3,917,510
Racegoers (Jump) 2,175,009 2,192,435 1,914,518 2,233,772
Monthly average horses in training 13,914 14,388 14,340 14,056
Monthly average owners with horses in training 9,266 9,403 8,774 8,425

The Chief Executive of the BHB stated in the 2005 annual report that "Success was achieved in an environment of great uncertainty." The sport is adapting to the loss of income from pre-race data following court ruling prohibiting the practice of charging for such in 2004 and 2005, to which the BHB attributes the fall in prize money in 2005. The data charges were themselves designed to replace income lost when a statutory levy was abolished. In 2004 attendances exceeded 6 million for the first time since the 1950s (2004 annual report). The decrease in 2005 is attributable to the closure of Ascot Racecourse for redevelopment for the entire year.

Racehorse welfare[edit]

A 2006 investigation by The Observer found that each year 6-10,000 horses are slaughtered for consumption abroad, a significant proportion of which are horses bred for racing. [43] The industry produces approximately 5,000 foals, whilst 4-5,000 racehorses are retired each year, 90 being taken into care by the industries charity Retraining of Racehorses[43] Research conducted by the Equine Fertility Unit found that 66% of thoroughbred foals were never entered for a race, and more than 80% were no longer in training after four years. [43] Foal production has increased threefold since 1966. [43] Racehorses are capable of living for more than 30 years on average. [43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Armytage, Marcus (14 January 2010). "Racing is the second most popular spectator sport". Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  2. ^ "Economic Impact of British Horseracing 2009". British Horseracing Authority. 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Waterman, Jack (1999). The Punter's Friend. Harpenden, Herts, UK: Queen Anne Press. ISBN 1852916001.  edit
  4. ^ About the British Horseracing Authority
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ a b Whyte 1840, p. 19.
  7. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 21-22.
  8. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 22.
  9. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 22-26.
  10. ^ "Bell and Plate Day". Carlisle Racecourse. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Whyte, p. 29.
  12. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 31.
  13. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 36.
  14. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 385.
  15. ^ Whyte 1840, p. 387.
  16. ^ Whyte 1840, p. i.
  17. ^ Rice, James (1879). History of the British turf from the earliest times to the present day, Volume I. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington. p. ix. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Marcus Armytage (2008-05-06). "Chester racecourse moves with the times". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  19. ^ "Broadcasting of the Grand National". Aintree Racecourse. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  20. ^ Davies, Ian (11 June 1996). "Media: Life's hard in a two-horse race". London, England: The Independent. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  21. ^ a b Whyte 1840, p. xiii.
  22. ^ Saunders 1863, p. 269.
  23. ^ Plunkett, John (13 August 2012). "Clare Balding to be face of Channel 4 horse racing". The Guardian (London). 
  24. ^ "Channel 4 gets rights for Grand National, Derby and Royal Ascot". BBC Sport. 19 March 2012. 
  25. ^ "Sir Peter O'Sullevan: Former BBC racing commentator in hospital". BBC Sport. 26 March 2013. 
  26. ^ Townend, Marcus (9 January 2013). "McCririck sues Channel 4 for £3m claiming he was axed for being too old". Daily Mail (London). 
  27. ^ "Englishmen Gamble £500,000,000 A Year". Catholic Herald. 13 January 1939. p. 13. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 
  28. ^ "Betting And Gaming Act, 1960". Acts of the United Kingdom Parliament 1960. Retrieved 20 April 2013 
  29. ^ Website
  30. ^ Tanner & Cranham 1992, p. 15.
  31. ^ Tanner & Cranham 1992, p. 18-20.
  32. ^ Tanner & Cranham 1992, p. 21-27.
  33. ^ Randall, John (23 August 1999). "John Randall on the 100 makers of 20th-century racing (Part 4)". The Racing Post. Retrieved 19 April 2013. 
  34. ^ Paley, Tony (3 January 2013). "Frankie Dettori gambles with career on Celebrity Big Brother". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  35. ^ "Dettori turns masterchef". Horse & Hound. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  36. ^ Paley, Tony (31 July 2007). "Dettori's magnificent seven". The Sun (London). Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  37. ^ Cook, Chris (9 July 2011). "Hayley Turner in Group One triumph as Dream Ahead wins July Cup". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  38. ^ Hudson, Elizabeth (11 April 2013). "Grand National win offers no guarantees for jockey Ryan Mania". BBC Sport. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  39. ^ "Jockey Tony McCoy wins Sports Personality of the Year". BBC Sport. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  40. ^ Fletcher, Damien (17 September 2005). "The Taming of Zara Philips". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  41. ^ Crace, John (15 February 2010). "How Dick Francis helped me through adolescence". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  42. ^ "Jockeys". British Horseracing Authority. 
  43. ^ a b c d e Barnett, Anthony (1 October 2006). "The slaughtered horses that shame our racing". The Observer (London). 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Organisations

Media