Indo people

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This article is about Eurasian and Dutch people. For other uses, see Indo-European.
Indo people
Regions with significant populations
Netherlands 431,000 (dd.2001 incl. 2nd generation).[1]
United States 100,000 (incl. 2nd generation).[2]
Australia 10,000 (excl. 2nd generation)[3]
Languages
Mainly Dutch, English and Indonesian; historically: Malay[4]
Religion
The Netherlands: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and "no religion"[5]
Related ethnic groups
Dutch people, other European peoples and Indonesian peoples, Afrikaners[6]

Indo people (also known as Indos, Eurasians, Indo-Europeans, Indo-Dutch, or Dutch-Indos[2][7][8][9]) "consists of Europeans, Asians, and persons of mixed European–Asian blood", and people who associated themselves with and experienced the colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia that became Indonesia after World War II.[10][11]

Overview[edit]

Intermarriage over centuries between the Dutch, Dutch Eurasians, and natives of the Indies created a substantial population of a unique ethnic group of people, who are generally referred to as Dutch Indos or simply Indos.[12] They are also defined as Indos or Eurasians, who are people acknowledged to be of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent.[13][14] Indo-European (or Indo) was used in the Dutch East Indies "to apply to Europeans who had a part-Asian ancestry".[15] The Dutch term Indische Nederlander more accurately translated to - Indies Dutchman, is a term first mentioned in literature in 1850.[16] In the twentieth century they came to be known as Indische Nederlanders.[6] Indische is an abbreviation of the Dutch term Indische Nederlander. Indische was a term that could be applied to everything connected with the Dutch East Indies.[15] Indo is an abbreviation of the term Indo-European which originated in the Dutch East Indies of the 19th century, as an informal term to describe the Eurasians belonging to the European legal class, the highest class in the colonial hierarchy.[17][18] In the Netherlands the term Indische Nederlander includes all Dutch nationals that lived in the Dutch East Indies, either Dutch or mixed ancestry. To distinguish between the two, Eurasians are called Indo and native Dutch are called Totok.[19][20] In the Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia), these families did not form "a racially, culturally and socially homogenous community between the Totoks (European newcomers) and the indigenous population".[11][15]

In early pre-colonial (16-18th century) history Eurasians were referred to by a Portuguese term mestiço (Dutch: Mesties) or as coloured (Dutch: Kleurling). Additionally a wide range of more contumacious terms, such as for instance liplap can be found in literature from previous centuries.[21]

In contemporary Indonesia the term Indo is not confined anymore to former inhabitants of the Dutch East Indies, but includes all people of a mixed European and Indonesian background.[22] Historical terms used in Indonesia are Belanda-Indo (Indo-Belanda) and Peranakan.[23] Peranakan is the Malay and Indonesian word for descendant. Both terms were officially used for registration purposes during the Japanese occupation in WWII.[24] Indo is an Indonesian term which means Eurasian - a person with European and Indonesian parentage.[25]

The term Dutch-Indonesians is used for Dutch who stayed in Indonesia after independence in 1949 or emigrated to the new state of Indonesia after independence. Same term is used for Indonesian who emigrated to the Netherlands. The term is used most the time wrongly to name Indo-people[26]

Indos and Afrikaners are the major European Creole groups in the Dutch sphere.[6]

History of European trade and colonialism in Southeast Asia (16th century-1949)[edit]

Portuguese and Spanish in Southeast Asia (16th century)[edit]

The earliest significant presence of Europeans in South East Asia were Portuguese and Spanish traders. Portuguese explorers discovered two trade routes to Asia, sailing around the south of Africa and the Americas to create a commercial monopoly. In the early 16th century the Portuguese established important trade posts in South East Asia, which was a diverse collection of many rival kingdoms, sultanates and tribes spread over a huge territory of peninsulas and islands. One of the main Portuguese strongholds was in the Maluku Islands (the Moluccas), the fabled "Spice Islands". Similarly the Spanish established a dominant presence further north in the Philippines. These historical developments were instrumental in building a foundation for large Eurasian communities in this region.[27] Old Eurasian families in the Philippines mainly descend from the Spanish. While the oldest Indo families descend from Portuguese traders and explorers,[28] some family names of old Indo families include Simao, De Fretes, Perera, Henriques, etc.[29][30][31][32][33][34]

Dutch and English in Southeast Asia (17th and 18th century)[edit]

During the 1620s Jan Pieterszoon Coen in particular insisted that families and orphans be sent from Holland to populate the colonies. As a result, a number of single women were sent and an orphanage was established in Batavia to raise Dutch orphan girls to become East India brides.[6] Around 1650, the number of mixed marriages, frequent in the early years of the VOC, declined sharply. There was a large number of women from the Netherlands recorded as marrying in the years around 1650. At least half the brides of European men in Batavia came from Europe. Many of these women were widows, already previously married in the Indies, but almost half of them were single women from the Netherlands marrying for the first time. There were still considerable numbers of women sailing eastwards to the Indies at this time. The ships' passenger lists from the 17th century also evidence this. Not until later in the 17th century did the numbers of passengers to Asia drop drastically.[15]

Given the small population of their country, the Dutch had to fill out their recruitment for Asia by looking for overseas emigration candidates in the underprivileged regions of north-western Europe.[35] Originally, most Dutch VOC employees were traders, accountants, sailors and adventurers, their intentions may have been to stay, some may have thought of themselves as temporary sojourners. In 1622, over half the Batavia garrison of 143 consisted of foreigners (Germans were the majority among them), there were also French, Scots, English, Danes, Flemings, and Walloons (they were half of the VOC overall).[36][37][38][39] Europeans living in Batavia also included: Norwegians, Italians, Maltese, Poles, Irish, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Swedes.[40] It is acknowledged that the number of Swedes travelling to the East on Dutch ships numbered in their thousands. Many settled in Batavia for long periods.[41] Some of the settlers in the 18th and early 19th centuries were men, without wives and mixing occurred with the local inhabitants, others brought family. The VOC and later the colonial government to a certain extent encouraged this, partly to maintain their control over the region.[42] The existing Indo (or Mestizo) population of Portuguese descent was therefore welcome to integrate.[43][44] An Indo-European society developed in the East Indies.[45] Although most of its members became Dutch citizens, their culture was strongly Eurasian in nature, with focus on both Asian and European heritage. 'European' society in the Indies was dominated by this Indo culture into which non-native born European settlers integrated.[46] This would change coming the formal colonization by the Dutch in the 19th century.[47][48][49][50]

Eurasian men were recruited by the colonial regime as go-betweens in both the civil administration and the military, where their mastery of two languages made them valuable employees. Few European women came to the Indies during the Dutch East India Company period to accompany the administrators and soldiers who came from the Netherlands. There is evidence of considerable care by officers of the Dutch East India Company for their illegitimate Eurasian children: boys were sometimes sent to the Netherlands to be educated, and sometimes never returned to Indonesia.[51]

In 1720 Batavia's population consisted of 2,000 Europeans, mainly Dutch merchants (2.2 percent of the total population), 1,100 Eurasians, 11,700 Chinese, 9,000 non-Indonesian Asians of Portuguese culture (mardijkers), 600 Indo-Arab Muslims, 5,600 immigrants from a dozen islands, 3,500 Malays, 27,600 Javanese and Balinese, and 29,000 slaves of varying ethnic origins including Africans.[52]

By the beginning of the eighteenth century, there were new arrivals of Europeans in Malacca who made it their new home and became part of the Malacca Dutch community.[53]

Dutch East Indies (1800 - 1949)[edit]

In the 1890s there were 62,000 civilian 'Europeans' in the Dutch East Indies, most of them Eurasians, making up less than half of one per cent of the population.[54] Indo influence on the nature of colonial society waned following World War I and the opening of the Suez Canal, when there was a substantial influx of white Dutch families.[55]

By 1925, 27.5 percent of all Europeans in Indonesia who married chose either native or mixed-blood spouses, a proportion that remained high until 1940, when it was still 20 percent.[56]

By 1930, there were more than 240,000 people with European legal status in the colony, still making up less than half of one percent of the population.[57] Almost 75% of these Europeans were in fact native Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans.[58] The majority of legally acknowledged Dutchmen were bi-lingual Indo Eurasians.[59] Eurasian antecedents were no bar to the highest levels of colonial society.[60] In 1940, it was estimated that they were 80 per cent of the European population, which at the previous census had numbered 250,000.[11]

An Indo movement led by the Indo European Alliance voiced the idea of independence from the Netherlands, however only an Indo minority led by Ernest Douwes Dekker and P.F.Dahler joined the indigenous Indonesian independence movement.[61]

Examples of famous Indo people in the Dutch East Indies include Gerardus Johannes Berenschot and Eduard Douwes Dekker.

Political organisations[edit]

Japanese occupation (1942-1945)[edit]

During World War II the European colonies in South East Asia, including the Dutch East Indies, were invaded and annexed by the Japanese Empire.[62] The Japanese sought to eradicate anything reminiscent of European government. Many of the Indies Dutch had spent World War II in Japanese concentration camps.[63] All Europeans were put in Japanese concentration camps. First the POWs, then all male adults and finally all females with their children and adolescents were interned. Boys of 10 years old and older were separated from their mothers and put into a boys camp usually together with old men. The Japanese failed in their attempts to win over the Indo community and Indos were made subject to the same forceful measures.[64]

"Nine tenths of the so-called Europeans are the offspring of whites married to native women. These mixed people are called Indo-Europeans… They have formed the backbone of officialdom. In general they feel the same loyalty to Holland as do the white Netherlanders. They have full rights as Dutch citizens and they are Christians and follow Dutch customs. This group has suffered more than any other during the Japanese occupation.” Official US Army publication for the benefit of G.I.’s, 1944.[65]

Indonesian Independence struggle (1945-1949)[edit]

See also: Bersiap

Leaders of the Indonesian independence movement cooperated with the Japanese to realise an independent nation. Two days after Japan's surrender in the Pacific in August 1945, the independence leaders declared an independent Republic of Indonesia. The majority of Indo males were either captive or in hiding and remained oblivious to these developments.[66] During the occupation, the Japanese had imprisoned some 42,000 Dutch military personnel and around 100,000 civilians - mostly Dutch people who could not provide proof of Indonesian descent.[67] During Japan’s occupation, the Dutch were put into the lowest class. Native blood was the only thing that could free Indos from being put into concentration camps.[68] 160,000 Indos (Eurasians) were not herded into camps.[67]

On Nov. 24, 1945, Sutomo leaked propaganda to specifically kill the Dutch, Indo, Ambonese and unarmed civilians.[68] Hundreds of Eurasians were murdered and killed in attacks by fanatical nationalistic Indonesian youth groups in the Bersiap Period during the last quarter of 1945.[69]

Immigration from the Dutch East Indies (1945-1965)[edit]

Over 10 percent "Indo-Europeans" took Indonesian citizenship after Indonesian independence.[70] Most retained full Dutch citizenship after the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia in 1949.[71]

In 1949, 300,000 Eurasians who had been socialized into many Dutch customs were repatriated.[37] The Dutch established a repatriation program which lasted until 1967.[68] Over a period of 15 years after the Republic of Indonesia became an independent state, virtually the entire Dutch population, Indische Nederlanders (Dutch Indonesians) – estimated at between 250,000 and 300,000 – left the former Dutch East Indies.[72][73] Most of them moved to the Netherlands. A significant proportion arrived in the Netherlands for the first time.[10][74] Some of them went to Australia, the United States or Canada. 18.5 percent departed for the United States.[75][76] In 1959 Dutch people who did not embrace Indonesian citizenship were expelled.[38] An estimated 60,000 immigrated to the United States in the 1960s.[9]

Arrival of the vessel "Castel Felice" with Indo Eurasian repatriates from Indonesia on the Lloydkade in Rotterdam, Netherlands, 20 May 1958.

The migration pattern of the so-called Repatriation progressed in five distinct waves over a period of 20 years.

  • The first wave, 1945–1950: After Japan's capitulation and Indonesia’s declaration of independence around 100,000 people, many former captives that spent the war years in Japanese concentration camps and then faced the turmoil of the violent Bersiap period, left for the Netherlands. Although Indos suffered severely during this period, with 20,000 people killed over 8 months in the Bersiap period alone, the great majority only left their place of birth in the next few waves.
  • The second wave, 1950–1957: After formal Dutch recognition of Indonesia's independence[77] many civil servants, law enforcement and defence personnel left for the Netherlands. The colonial army was disbanded and at least 4,000 of the South Moluccan price soldiers and their families were also relocated to the Netherlands. The exact number of people that left Indonesia during the second wave is unknown. In 1956, 200,000 moved to the Netherlands - according to one estimate.[78]
  • The third wave, 1957–1958: During the political conflict around the so-called ‘New-Guinea Issue’ Dutch citizens were declared undesired elements by the young Republic of Indonesia and around 20,000 more people left for the Netherlands.
  • The fourth wave, 1962–1964: When finally the last Dutch ruled territory i.e. New Guinea, was released to the Republic of Indonesia. Also the last remaining Dutch citizens left for the Netherlands, including around 500 Papua civil servants and their families. The total number of people that migrated is estimated at 14,000.
  • The fifth wave, 1949–1967: During this overlapping period a distinctive group of people, known as Spijtoptanten (Repentis), that originally opted for Indonesian citizenship found that they were unable to integrate into Indonesian society and also left for the Netherlands. In 1967 the Dutch government formally terminated this option.[79] Of the 31,000 people that originally opted for Indonesian citizenship (Indonesian term: Warga negara Indonesia) 25,000 withdrew their decision over the years.[80][81][82]

Many Indos that had left for the Netherlands often continued the journey of their Diaspora to warmer places in North America like for instance California and Florida in the United States of America.[83] A 2005 study estimates the number of Indos that went to Australia around 10,000.[84] Research has shown that most Indo immigrants are assimilating into their host societies.[85] The Indos are disappearing as a group.[86]

United States[edit]

During the 1950s and 1960s an estimated 60,000 Indos arrived in the USA, where they have integrated into mainstream American society. These Indos were sometimes also referred to as Indo-Europeans and Amerindos.[95] They are a relatively small Eurasian refugee-immigrant group in the United States of America.[2]

Indo's who emigrated to the United States following Indonesian independence assimilated into their new country, marrying people outside the community; most never returned to Indonesia.[9] Migration to the United States occurred under legislative refugee measures, these immigrants were sponsored by Christian organizations such as the Church World Service and the Catholic Relief Services. An accurate count of Indo immigrants is not available, as the U.S. Census classified people according to their self-determined ethnic affiliation. The Indos may have been included in overlapping categories of "country of origin”, “other Asians," "total foreign”, “mixed parentage”, "total foreign-born” and “foreign mother tongue". However the Indos that settled via the legislative refugee measures number at least 25,000 people.[96]

The original post-war refugee legislation of 1948, already adhering to a strict 'affidavit of support' policy, was still maintaining a colour bar making it difficult for Indos to emigrate to the USA. By 1951 American consulates in the Netherlands registered 33,500 requests and had waiting times of 3 to 5 years. Also the Walter-McCarren Act of 1953 adhered to the traditional American policy of keeping down immigrants from Asia. The yearly quota for Indonesia was limited to a 100 visas, even though Dutch foreign affairs attempted to profile Indos as refugees from the alleged pro-communist Sukarno administration.[97]

The 1953 flood disaster in the Netherlands resulted in the Refugee Relief Act including a slot for 15,000 ethnic Dutch that had at least 50% European blood (one year later loosened to Dutch citizens with at least 2 Dutch grandparents) and an immaculate legal and political track record. In 1954 only 187 visas were actually granted. Partly influenced by the anti-western rhetoric and policies of the Sukarno administration the anti-communist representative Francis E. Walter pleaded for a second term of the Refugee Relief Act in 1957 and an additional slot of 15,000 visas in 1958.[98]

In 1958 the Pastore-Walter Act (Act for the relief of certain distressed alliens) was passed allowing for a one off acceptance of 10,000 Dutchmen from Indonesia (excluding the regular annual quota of 3,136 visas). It was hoped however that only 10% of these Dutch refugees would in fact be racially mixed Indos and the American embassy in The Hague was frustrated with the fact that Canada, where they were more strict in their ethnic profiling, was getting the full blooded Dutch and the USA was getting Dutch "all rather heavily dark". Still in 1960 senators Pastore and Walter managed to get a second 2-year term for their act which was used by a great number of Indo 'Spijtoptanten' (Repentis).[99]

The Indos that immigrated and their descendants can be found in all fifty states, with a majority in southern California.[100] The 1970 U.S. Census recorded 28,000 foreign-born Dutch (Dutch not born in the Netherlands) in California, while the 6 traditional Dutch American stronghold states Michigan, New York, New Jersey, Illinois and Washington as well as Florida hosted most of the other 50,000 foreign born Dutch.[83] The formation of Indo enclaves was prevented because of various factors. Indos settled initially with their sponsors or in locations offered to them by the sponsor. Indos also had a wide variety of occupations and in this respect were not limited to certain geographic areas. There were no forces in the host society limiting the choice of location, there was a full choice as to where to settle.[101]

Unlike in the Netherlands, U.S. Indos do not increase numerically. This is due to their relative small numbers and geographical dispersion. Also the disappearance of a proverbial "old country" able to supply a continual influx of new immigrants stimulates the rapid assimilation of U.S. Indos into the U.S.A. Although several Indo clubs[102] have existed throughout the second half of the 20th century, the community's elders are passing away steadily. Some experts expect that within the lifespan of the second and third generation descendants the community will be assimilated and disappear completely into American multi-cultural society.[103] The great leap in technological innovation of the 20th and 21st century, in the areas of communication and media, is mitigating the geographical dispersion and diversity of American Indos. Triggered by the loss of family and community elders American Indos are starting to rapidly reclaim their cultural heritage as well as sense of community.[95][104]

Australia[edit]

Notwithstanding Australia’s ‘White Australia policy’ during the 1950s and 1960s, approximately 10,000 Indos migrated to Australia, mostly via the Netherlands. With regard to mixed-race Eurasians, who were called NPEO’s (Non Pure European Origine) by the Australian Ministries, subjective decision making became the norm of the policy until the 1970s.[105]

During WWII a large refugee community from the Dutch East Indies existed in Australia of which 1,000 chose to stay in Australia after the War.[106] The Dutch-Australian agreement signed in 1951, to stimulate immigration to the Australia did not bypass Australia’s overall ‘White Australia Policy’, which considerably hampered the immigration of Indos.[107]

In the early 50s Australian immigration officials based in 3 offices in the Netherlands screened potential Indo migrants on skin color and western orientation. Refusals were never motivated or explained. Notes to the applicants read this standard sentence in English: “It is not the policy of the department to give reasons so please do not ask.”[108] In 1956 an Australian security official publicly stated in the Australian newspaper that Dutch Eurasians may become a serious social problem and even an Asian fifth column.[105]

In the early 60s only vocationally skilled migrants were accepted to Australia. Originally applicants were required to be of 100% European descent. Later Indos were required to show a family tree proving 75% European descent. Eventually the key question posed by Australian officials was: “Would they be noticed, if they walked down the streets of Canberra or Melbourne or Sydney, as being European or non-European?”[109]

In the 70s, in an attempt to make the policy more objective, a procedure was implemented that gave the applicant the opportunity to ask for a second opinion by a different official. Both decisions were then weighed by a higher official. Moreover Anti-Asian migration policies started to change and in 1976 Australian immigration officials were even dispatched to Asia. Consequently Indo migrants were less and less subject to discrimination based on skin color.[109]

Europe[edit]

See also List of Dutch Indos

In the Netherlands, they are not considered as an ethnic minority, and most of them are of mixed European-Indies origin bearing European family names.[110]

In 1990 the Dutch Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) registered the number of first-generation Indos living in the Netherlands at around 180,000 people. In 2001 official registration, including the second generation, accumulate their numbers to around half a million. Based on this the estimations, which include the third generation descendants, reach up to at least 800,000 people. However researcher Dr. Peter Post of the NIOD estimates that there are between 1.5 to 2 million people with Indo blood living in the Netherlands. The Indo Dutch living abroad not counted. This makes them by far the largest minority community in the Netherlands.[111]

Integration[edit]

The Indo community is considered the best integrated ethnic and cultural minority in the Netherlands. Statistical data compiled by the CBS shows that Indos belong to the group with the lowest crime rates in the country.[112]

A CBS study of 1999 reveals that of all foreign born groups living in the Netherlands, only the Indos have an average income similar to that of citizens born in the Netherlands. Job participation in government, education and health care is similar as well. Another recent CBS study, among foreign born citizens and their children living in the Netherlands in 2005, shows that on average, Indos own the largest number of independent enterprises. A 2007 CBS study shows that already over 50% of first-generation Indos have married a native born Dutch person. A percentage that increased to 80% for the second generation.[113][114] One of the first and oldest Indo organisations that supported the integration of Indo repatriates into the Netherlands is the Pelita foundation.[115]

Although Indo repatriates,[116] being born overseas, are officially registered as Dutch citizens of foreign descent, their Eurasian background puts them in the Western sub-class instead of the Non-Western (Asian) sub-class.

Two factors are usually attributed to the essence of their apparently seamless assimilation into Dutch society: Dutch citizenship and the amount of 'Dutch cultural capital', in the form of school attainments and familiarity with the Dutch language and culture, that Indos already possessed before migrating to the Netherlands.[117]

Culture[edit]

There were few public signs of the Indo culture. The most visible one was the yearly event Pasar Malam Besar (the Great Night Market) in The Hague that currently continues under the name Tong Tong Fair.[118]

Indo culinary culture has made an enduring impact on Dutch society. There is no other place outside Indonesia with such an abundance of Indonesian food available.[119] Indos played a pivotal role in introducing both Indonesian cuisine and Indo fusion cuisine to the Netherlands, making it so popular some consider it an integral part of Dutch cuisine.[120] The Countess C.van Limburg Stirum writes in her book "The Art of Dutch Cooking" (1962): There exist countless Indonesian dishes, some of which take hours to prepare; but a few easy ones have become so popular that they can be regarded as "national dishes". She then provides recipes for dishes that have all become commonplace in the Netherlands nasi goreng (fried rice), pisang goreng (fried bananas), lumpia goreng (fried spring rolls), bami (fried noodles), satay (grilled skewered meat), satay sauce (peanut sauce), and sambal oelek (chilli paste).[120] Practically each town in the Netherlands will have an Indies or Indonesian restaurant and Toko (shop). Even most Chinese restaurants have included Indonesian dishes to their menu such as Babi Pangang (roasted pork) and changed their names into Chinese Indies Restaurants.[121]

Indo influence in Dutch society is also reflected in the arts, i.e. music[122][123] and literature.[124]

An important champion of Indo culture was the writer Tjalie Robinson (1911–1974), who co-founded the Tong Tong Fair.[125][126] Louis Couperus' Of Old People, the Things that Pass (Van oude mensen, de dingen die voorbij gaan, 1906) is a well-known example of an older Indies narrative. Maria Dermoût is known as a nostalgic Indies writer. Marion Bloem's postmemory work evolves around an artistic exploration of Indo identity and culture, which puts her in the tradition of the Indo spokesman Tjalie Robinson.[71][127]

Authors[edit]

First-generation[edit]

Notwithstanding the fact that Indos in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies were officially part of the European legal class and were formally considered to be Dutch nationals, the Dutch government always practiced an official policy of discouragement with regard to the post-WWII repatriation of Indos to the Netherlands.[128] While Dutch policy was in fact aimed at stimulating Indos to give up Dutch citizenship and opt for Indonesian citizenship, simultaneously the young Indonesian Republic implemented policies increasingly intolerant towards anything remotely reminiscent of Dutch influence. Even though actual aggression against Indos decreased after the extreme violence of the Bersiap period, all Dutch (language) institutions, schools and businesses were gradually eliminated and public discrimination and racism against Indos in the Indonesian job market continued. In the end 98% of the original Indo community repatriated to their distant fatherland in Europe.[129]

In the Netherlands the first generation Indo repatriates quickly adapted to the host society’s culture and at least outwardly adopted all customs associated with it.[130] Exactly as was the case in the old colony the necessity to blend in with dominant Dutch culture remained paramount for social and professional advancement.[131]

Unlike in the Dutch East Indies pressure to assimilate invaded even the intimacy of the private household. On a regular basis Indos that were lodged in guest houses were carefully screened for so called ‘oriental practices’ by social workers. These deviating ‘oriental practices’ included the private use of any language other than Dutch, the home preparation of Indonesian food, wearing clothing from the Indies, using water for hygiene in the toilet and even the practice of taking daily baths.[129][132]

Second- and Third-generation[edit]

Dutch society does not impose a compulsory ethnic identity on "Dutch Eurasians" because no community exists. Although third- and fourth-generation Indos[133] are part of a fairly large minority community in the Netherlands, the path of assimilation ventured by their parents and grandparents has left them with little knowledge of their actual roots and history, even to the point that they find it hard to recognise their own cultural features. Some Indos find it hard to grasp the concept of their Eurasian identity and either tend to disregard their Indonesian roots or on the contrary attempt to profile themselves as Indonesian.[134][135] In recent years however the reinvigorated search for roots and identity has also produced several academic studies.[136]

In her master thesis published in 2010 Dutch scholar Nora Iburg[137] argues that for third-generation descendants of Indos in the Netherlands there is no need to define the essence of a common Indo group identity and concludes that for them there is in fact no true essence of Indo identity except for its hybrid nature.[138]

Indos in the Dutch Royal Family[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

See also List of Indonesian Indos

"...the place that the Indos ...occupy in our colonial society has been altered. In spite of everything, the Indos are gradually becoming Indonesians, or one could say that the Indonesians are gradually coming to the level of the Indos. The evolution of the deeply ingrained process of transformation in our society first established the Indos in a privileged position, and now that same process is withdrawing those privileges. Even if they retain their 'European" status before the law, they will still be on a level with the Indonesians, because there are and will continue to be many more educated Indonesians than Indos. Their privileged position thus is losing its social foundation, and as a result that position itself will also disappear.” Sutan Sjahrir, 1937[139]

During colonial times Indos were not always formally recognized and registered as Europeans. A considerable number of Indos integrated into their respective local indigenous societies and have never been officially registered as either European or Eurasian sub-group. Exact numbers are unknown.[140]

Case studies by organisations such as Halin concern Indo children that had either lost their parents or needed to take care of an immobile parent during the years following Indonesian independence and were unable to attain the necessary Dutch travel papers.[141]

In 2009 German actor Nino Fernandez (German father, Indonesian mother) played the lead role of Indo pilot Ishak in the critically acclaimed historical movie Ruma Maida.[142]

In Malang the Indo upper class is clustered in particular neighbourhoods and Sunday ceremony in the Sion Church is still in Dutch. In Bandung over 2000 poor Indos are supported by overseas organisations such as Halin[141] and the Alan Neys Memorial Fund.[143]

Another place with a relatively large Dutch speaking Indo community is Depok, on Java.[144] Smaller communities still exist in places such as Kampung Tugu in Koja, Jakarta.[145] Recently after the Aceh region in Sumatra became more widely accessible, following post Tsunami relief work, the media also discovered a closed Indo Eurasian community of devout Muslims in the Lamno area, mostly of Portuguese origin.[146][147]

Like the Chinese minority in Indonesia also most Indos have changed their family names to blend into mainstream society and prevent discrimination. The latest trend among Indo-Chinese and Indo-Europeans is to change them back.[148]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes and citations[edit]

  1. ^ Note: Official CBS number excluding Totoks, not the reconstructed NIDI number (totalling 561,000 people, including Totoks, Indo immigrants and South Moluccans.) made for 'The Gesture' financial compensation calculations. 2001. See for full formulas and official definitions: Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.82 ISSN 0922-7210 ISBN 978-90-70990-92-3 OCLC 55220176 [1]
  2. ^ a b c Greenbaum-Kasson, Elisabeth The long way home. LA Times Article, dated Feb 2011. Online transcript
  3. ^ Cote, Joost and Westerbeek, Loes, ‘Recalling the Indies: Colonial Culture and Postcolonial Identities‘, (Askant Academic Publishers, 2005). ISBN 90-5260-119-4 Googlebooks
  4. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
  5. ^ Steijlen, Fridus Indisch en Moluks religieus leven in na-oorlogs Nederland. (Publisher: Stichting Tong Tong, Indische School, The Hague, 2009) [2][3]
  6. ^ a b c d Dutch Colonialism, Migration and Cultural Heritage. KITLV Press. 2008. p. 104;115. 
  7. ^ Yanowa, Dvora; van der Haar, Marleen (2012). "People out of place: allochthony and autochthony in the Netherlands' identity discourse—metaphors and categories in action". Journal of International Relations and Development (Palgrave Macmillan Journals) 16: 227–261. doi:10.1057/jird.2012.13. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  8. ^ Pattynama, P (2012). Cultural memory and Indo-Dutch identity formations. The University of Amsterdam. pp. 175–192. 
  9. ^ a b c Asrianti, Tifa (10 January 2010). "Dutch Indonesians' search for home". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  10. ^ a b van Imhoff, E; Beets, G (2004). "A demographic history of the Indo-Dutch population, 1930–2001". Journal of Population Research (Springer) 21 (1): 47;49. doi:10.1007/bf03032210. Retrieved 3 November 2013. 
  11. ^ a b c The Colonial Review. Department of Education in Tropical Areas, University of London, Institute of Education. 1941. p. 72.  Indo's or people of Dutch descent who stayed in the new republic Indonesia after it gained independence or emigrated to Indonesia after 1949 are called Dutch-Indonesians. Although the majority of the Indos are found in the lowest strata of European society, they do not represent a solid social or economic group."
  12. ^ Ockerse; Blaney, R; E (2011). Our Childhood In the Former Colonial Dutch East Indies: Recollections Before and During Our Wartime Internment By the Japanese. p. 296;220. 
  13. ^ Lai, Selena (2002). Understanding Indonesia in the 21st Century. Stanford University Institute for International Studies. p. 12. 
  14. ^ Penninx, Rinus (1997). Newcomers: Immigrants and Their Descendants in the Netherlands 1550-1995. Het Spinhuis. p. 39. 
  15. ^ a b c d Bosma, Ulbe; Raben, Remco (2008). Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920. University of Michigan, NUS Press. p. 21;37. ISBN 9971-69-373-9. 
  16. ^ De gids: algemeen cultureel maandblad, Volume 14, Part 2
  17. ^ Neijndorff, Frank Een Indo in Holland (Publisher: Indonet, Rotterdam, 1997) P.3 ISBN 90-75413-04-1
  18. ^ Stoler, Ann (1997). Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 201. 
  19. ^ Willems, Wim "Tjalie Robinson; Biografie van een Indo-schrijver" Chapter: Een Totok als vader (Publisher: Bert Bakker, 2008) P.45 ISBN 978-90-351-3309-9
  20. ^ (Indonesian) Sastrowardoyo, Subagio Sastra Hindia Belanda dan kita (Publisher: PT Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1990) P.21 ISBN 979-407-278-8 [4]
  21. ^ Quote: "Liplap: A vulgar and disparaging nickname given in the Dutch East Indies to Eurasians." See: Yule, Henry, Coke Burnell, Arthur Hobson-Jobson: the Anglo-Indian dictionary (Publisher: Wordsworth Editions, 1996) P.518
  22. ^ A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  23. ^ An Indonesian-English Dictionary - John M. Echols - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  24. ^ Meijer, Hans. In Indie geworteld, de twintigste eeuw 'De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders' triptych series. (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2004). ISBN 90-351-2617-3 P.221
  25. ^ Echols, John (1989). An Indonesian-English Dictionary. Cornell University Press. p. 222. ISBN 979-403-756-7. 
  26. ^ Demografie van de Indische Nederlanders, 1930–2001 http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/482F9147-4512-4E9F-B8EF-BDD3E50607E9/0/2003k1b15p058art.pdf
  27. ^ Notable Mestizo communities with Portuguese roots are the Larantuka and Topasses people, they were a powerful and independent group of Mestizo, who controlled the sandalwood trade and that challenged both the Dutch and Portuguese. Their descendants live on the islands of Flores and Timor to this day. Boxer, C.R., The Topasses of Timor,(Indisch Instituut, Amsterdam, 1947).
  28. ^ Many Portuguese family names can be found on the islands of Ambon, Flores and East Timor. Although most Portuguese family names were adopted after conversion to the Christian religion, many families can still trace back their roots to Portuguese ancestors. (Dutch) Rumphius, G.E. ‘De Ambonse landbeschrijving’ (Landelijk steunpunt educatie Molukkers, Utrecht, 2002) ISBN 90-76729-29-8
  29. ^ Justus M. Van Der Kroef 'The Indonesian Eurasian and His Culture'
  30. ^ (Portuguese) Pinto da Franca, A. ‘Influencia Portuguesa na Indonesia’ (In: ‘STUDIA N° 33’, pp. 161-234, 1971, Lisbon, Portugal)
  31. ^ (Portuguese) Rebelo, Gabriel ‘Informaçao das cousas de Maluco 1569’ (1856 & 1955, Lisboa, Portugal)
  32. ^ Boxer, C. R. ‘Portuguese and Spanish Projects for the Conquest of Southeast Asia, 1580-1600’ (In: ‘Journal of Asian History’ Vol. 3, 1969; pp. 118-136.)
  33. ^ "Braga Collection National Library of Australia". Nla.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  34. ^ "Timeline Milestones 1". Gimonca.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  35. ^ Etemad, Bouda (2007). Possessing the world: taking the measurements of colonisation from the 18th to the 20th century. Berghahn Books. p. 20. 
  36. ^ Megan Vaughan, Creating the Creole Island: Slavery in Eighteenth-Century Mauritius, 2005, p. 7
  37. ^ a b Thomas Janoski, The Ironies of Citizenship: Naturalization and Integration in Industrialized Countries. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 163, 168 ISBN 0-521-14541-4
  38. ^ a b Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
  39. ^ Murdoch, Steve (2005). Network North: Scottish Kin, Commercial And Covert Associations in Northern. Brill. p. 210. 
  40. ^ Donald F. Lach, Edwin J. Van Kley, Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia , 1998, p. 1317
  41. ^ Huigen, De Jong, Kolfin, Siegfried, Jan, Elmer (2010). The Dutch Trading Companies As Knowledge Networks. Brill. p. 362. 
  42. ^ Boxer C.R. ‘The Dutch Seaborne Empire 1600–1800’ (Penguin 1991) ISBN 978-0-14-013618-0 [5] p.220
  43. ^ The language of trade was Malay with Portuguese influences. To this day the Indonesian language has a relatively large vocabulary of words with Portuguese roots e.g. Sunday, party, soap, table, flag, school.
  44. ^ "Throughout this period Indo people were also referred to by their Portuguese name: Mestizo". Kitlv-journals.nl. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  45. ^ In this time period the word (and country) 'Indonesia' did not exist yet. Neither was the colony of the 'Dutch East Indies' founded yet.
  46. ^ The non-native born (totok) Europeans adopted Indo culture and customs. The Indo lifestyle (e.g. language and dress code) only came under exceeding pressure to westernise in the following centuries of formal Dutch colonisation. See: Taylor, Jean Gelman ‘The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia’ (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
  47. ^ Blusse, Leonard. ‘Strange company: Chinese settlers, Mestizo women, and the Dutch in VOC Batavia.’ (Dordrecht-Holland; Riverton, U.S.A., Foris Publications, 1986. xiii, 302p.) number: 959.82 B659
  48. ^ Boxer, C. R. ‘Jan Compagnie in war and peace, 1602-1799: a short history of the Dutch East-India Company.’ (Hong Kong, Heinemann Asia, 1979. 115p.) number: 382.060492 B788
  49. ^ Masselman, George. ‘The cradle of colonialism.’ (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963) number: 382.09492 MAS
  50. ^ "Timeline Milestones 2". Gimonca.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  51. ^ Lehning, James (2013). European Colonialism since 1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 145;147. 
  52. ^ Dirk, Hoerder (2002). Cultures in Contact: World Migrations in the Second Millennium. Duke University Press. p. 183. 
  53. ^ Laura Jarnagin, Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511-2011, vol. 2: Culture and Identity in the Luso-Asian World: Tenacities & Plasticities, 2012, p. 266
  54. ^ Therborn, Göran (2004). Between Sex and Power: Family in the World, 1900-2000. Psychology Press. p. 54. ISBN 0415300770. 
  55. ^ Bosma U., Raben R. ‘Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920’ (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008) ISBN 9971-69-373-9 [6]
  56. ^ Frances Gouda, Dutch Culture Overseas: Colonial Practice in the Netherlands Indies, 1900-1942, 2008, p. 165
  57. ^ Beck, Sanderson, (2008) South Asia, 1800-1950 - World Peace Communications ISBN 0-9792532-3-3, ISBN 978-0-9792532-3-2 - By 1930 more European women had arrived in the colony, and they made up 113,000 out of the 240,000 Europeans.
  58. ^ Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.36 ISBN 9789070990923
  59. ^ Meijer, Hans (2004) In Indie geworteld. Publisher: Bert bakker. ISBN 90-351-2617-3. P.33, 35, 36, 76, 77, 371, 389 [7]
  60. ^ Knight, G. (2000). Narratives of Colonialism: Sugar, Java, and the Dutch. Nova Science Publishers. p. 48. 
  61. ^ 'E.F.E. Douwes Dekker (known after 1946 as Danudirja Setyabuddhi), a Eurasian and descendant of the author of Max Havelaar. A veteran of the Boer War (1899–1902) fighting on the Afrikaner side and a journalist, Douwes Dekker criticized the Ethical Policy as excessively conservative and advocated self-government for the islands and a kind of "Indies nationalism" that encompassed all the islands' permanent residents but not the racially exclusive expatriates (Dutch: Trekkers) (Indonesian: Totok).' Ref: Country studies. US Library of Congress. [8]
  62. ^ L http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/index.html, Klemen (1999–2000). "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942". 
  63. ^ Smith, Andrea (2003). Europe's Invisible Migrants: Consequences of the Colonists' Return. Amsterdam University Press. p. 16. 
  64. ^ Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly ‘Japanese minority policy : the Eurasians on Java and the dilemma of ethnic loyalty’ No.4 vol 152 1996, p553-572 (KITLV Press, Leiden, Netherlands, 1997) ISSN: 0006-2294 [9]
  65. ^ War and Navy Departments of the United States Army, ’A pocket guide to the Netherlands East Indies.’ (Facsimile by Army Information Branch of the Army Service Forces re-published by Elsevier/Reed Business November 2009) ISBN 978-90-6882-748-4 p.18
  66. ^ "NIOD (Dutch War Documentation) website with camp overview". Indischekamparchieven.nl. 1941-12-08. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  67. ^ a b Raben, Remco (1999). Representing the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia. Personal Testimonies and Public Images in Indonesia, Japan, and the Netherlands. Washington University Press. p. 56. 
  68. ^ a b c Sidjaja, Calvin Michel (22 October 2011). "Who is responsible for ‘Bersiap’?". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  69. ^ Post, Peter; Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly (1997). Japan, Indonesia, and the War: Myths and Realities. KITLV Press. p. 48. 
  70. ^ R. B. Cribb, Audrey Kahin, Historical Dictionary of Indonesia, 2004, p. 185
  71. ^ a b Bosma, Ulbe (2012). Post-Colonial Immigrants and Identity Formations in the Netherlands. Amsterdam University Press. p. 139. 
  72. ^ Spreading the 'burden'?: A Review of Policies to Disperse Asylum Seekers and ... - Vaughan Robinson, Roger Andersson, Sako Musterd - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  73. ^ Herzog, B (2013). Anticolonialism, decolonialism, neocolonialism. Blackwell Publishing. p. 21. 
  74. ^ Robinson, Vaughan Andersson, Roger Musterd, Sako Spreading the 'burden'?: A Review of Policies to Disperse Asylum Seekers (Publisher: The Policy Press, University of Bristol, 2003) ISBN 1 86134 417 1 P.26 Googlebook: [10]
  75. ^ "Status of Indos in the United States — AmerIndo". Amerindo.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  76. ^ September 8, 2014. "Indo’s and Moluccans in the Netherlands: How did they get there? | YOUR GATEWAY TO SOUTHEAST ASIA". Latitudes.nu. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  77. ^ "uit Indonesi� overdracht souvereiniteit en intocht van president Sukarno in Djakarta;embed=1 Link to video footage.". Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  78. ^ Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1950, prosperity and welfare - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  79. ^ Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.23 ISSN 0922-7210 ISBN 978-90-70990-92-3 OCLC 55220176 [11]
  80. ^ Note: These people are known by the Dutch term: 'Spijtoptanten' See:nl:Spijtoptant (English: Repentis). See: Van Nimwegen, Nico De demografische geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders, Report no.64 (Publisher: NIDI, The Hague, 2002) P.38 ISBN ISSN 0922-7210 ISBN 978-90-70990-92-3 OCLC 55220176 [12]
  81. ^ "Timeline Milestones 8". Gimonca.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  82. ^ "Passenger lists archive". Passagierslijsten1945-1964.nl. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  83. ^ a b Brinks, Herbert "Dutch Americans, Countries and Their Cultures" (2010) Online: [13]
  84. ^ Cote, Joost and Westerbeek, Loes, ‘Recalling the Indies: Colonial Culture and Postcolonial Identities‘, (Askant Academic Publishers, 2005). ISBN 90-5260-119-4 [14]
  85. ^ (Dutch) Willems, Wim, ’De uittocht uit Indie 1945–1995’ (Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1
  86. ^ David Levinson, Melvin Ember, American immigrant cultures: builders of a nation, 1997, p. 441
  87. ^ "Music News: Latest and Breaking Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  88. ^ "100 Greatest Guitar Solos - tablature for the best guitar solos of all time". Guitar.about.com. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  89. ^ Allmusic.org
  90. ^ Gosselaar, Mark-Paul (15 October 2008). "Catching up with...Mark-Paul Gosselaar". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  91. ^ Rohit, Parimal M. (3 March 2011). "Mark-Paul Gosselaar Discusses Franklin and Bash". Santa Monica Mirror. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  92. ^ "Mark-Paul Gosselaar...From Outrageous Con Man To Reluctant Icon!". Mark-Paul Gosselaar.net. 2005. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  93. ^ "The Story of Tetris: Henk Rogers". Sramana Mitra. September 16, 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  94. ^ "Henk B. Rogers's Page". TechHui. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  95. ^ a b "UC Berkeley 'Amerindo' Research Website". Dutch.berkeley.edu. 2013-10-17. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  96. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.254 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
  97. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indië (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.255 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
  98. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indië (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.256-257 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
  99. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) p.258 ISBN 90-351-2361-1
  100. ^ "Holland Festival in L.A., CA". Latimesblogs.latimes.com. 2009-05-26. Event occurs at 9:28 am. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  101. ^ Krancher, Jan Indos: The Last Eurasian Community in the USA? Article adapted from “American Immigrant Cultures – Builders of a Nation,” volume 1, 1997, Simon and Schuster McMillan. (Publisher: Eurasian Nation, April 2003) Online transcript: Berkeley University Website
  102. ^ American Indo organisation publishing the magazine 'De Indo' once established by Tjalie Robinson. In 2007 its publisher Creutzburg was awarded Dutch royal honours in Anaheim, California for 44 years of dedication to his community.
  103. ^ Indos in the USA, article on the Eurasian Nation platform
  104. ^ Joe Fitzgibbon/Special to The Oregonian (2009-11-05). "Portland (US) News Article about new Indo Eurasian documentary (dd. Nov. 2009)". Oregonlive.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  105. ^ a b Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.272
  106. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.278
  107. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.270
  108. ^ Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.271
  109. ^ a b Willems, Wim "De uittocht uit Indie (1945–1995), De geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders" (Publisher: Bert Bakker, Amsterdam, 2001) ISBN 90-351-2361-1 P.271
  110. ^ Spaan, Ernst; Hillmann, Felicitas; van Naerssen, Ton (2005). Asian Migrants and European Labour Markets: Patterns and Processes of Immigrant Labour Market Insertion in Europe. Taylor & Francis US. p. 240. 
  111. ^ "Ref. page 58 of the official CBS 2001 census document." (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  112. ^ "Indo immigration as colonial inheritance: post colonial immigrants in the Netherlands, 1945-2002". Informaworld.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  113. ^ De Vries, Marlene (2009). Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. Amsterdam University Press. p. 369. ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0. 
  114. ^ 'Indisch is een gevoel': de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders
  115. ^ Pelita founded and operated by Indos celebrated its 60-year jubilee in 2007.[15]
  116. ^ The Dutch census protocol administered by the CBS registers first-generation Indo repatriates(emigrants with Dutch roots), as well as their children, as foreign born citizens of the Netherlands (Dutch: Allochtoon). [16]
  117. ^ Van Amersfoort, Hans "Immigration as a Colonial Inheritance: Post-Colonial Immigrants in the Netherlands, 1945-2002." in "Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1469-9451"(Publisher: Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies (IMES), Volume 32, Issue 3, 2006) P.323–346 [17]
  118. ^ Thanh-Dam, Truong; Gasper, Des (2011). Transnational Migration and Human Security: The Migration-Development-Security Nexus. Springer. p. 201. 
  119. ^ Keasberry, Jeff Indische Keukengeheimen, recepten en verhalen van 3 generaties Keasberry's. (Publisher: Karakter Uitgevers BV, Uithoorn, 2012) ISBN 978 90 452 0274 7 P.33 Online: Official Website Author
  120. ^ a b C. Countess van Limburg Stirum The Art of Dutch Cooking (Publisher: Andre Deutsch Limited, London, 1962) p.179-p.185
  121. ^ Keasberry, Jeff Indische Keukengeheimen, recepten en verhalen van 3 generaties Keasberry's. (Publisher: Karakter Uitgevers BV, Uithoorn, 2012) ISBN 978 90 452 0274 7 P.33
  122. ^ "Indo music in Europe". Rockabillyeurope.com. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  123. ^ (Indonesian)Indo music in Indonesia - newspaper articles
  124. ^ Famous Dutch Indo writers include: Louis Couperus (1863–1923), Maria Dermoût (1888–1962), Edgar du Perron (1899–1940), Adriaan van Dis (1946- ), Marion Bloem (1952- ).
  125. ^ Willems, Wim Tjalie Robinson; Biografie van een Indo-schrijver (Publisher: Bert Bakker, 2008) ISBN 978-90-351-3309-9
  126. ^ Nieuwenhuys, Rob Mirror of the Indies: A History of Dutch Colonial Literature - translated from Dutch by E. M. Beekman (Publisher: Periplus, 1999) [18]
  127. ^ de Mul, Sarah (2012). The Postcolonial Low Countries: Literature, Colonialism, and Multiculturalism. Lexington Books. p. 100;109. 
  128. ^ Dossier Karpaan (NCRV TV channel, 16-10-1961) Original video footage (Spijtoptanten) on Dutch History Website. Retrieved 09-10-2011.
  129. ^ a b (Dutch)Iburg, Nora “Van Pasar Malam tot I Love Indo, identiteitsconstructie en manifestatie door drie generaties Indische Nederlanders.” (Master thesis, Arnhem University, 2009, Ellessy Publishers, 2010) ISBN 978-90-8660-104-2 [19].
  130. ^ van Amersfoort, Hans (2006) Immigration as a colonial inheritance: post-colonial immigrants in the Netherlands, 1945-2002 (Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Commission for racial equality, 2006)
  131. ^ Willems, Wim Sporen van een Indisch verleden (1600-1942) (COMT, Leiden, 1994) ISBN 90-71042-44-8
  132. ^ Note: The Indo practice of taking frequent baths was considered extravagant by social workers as the Dutch at the time were accustomed to taking weekly baths only.
  133. ^ The academic definition in sociological studies often used to determine first-generation Indos: Indo repatriates that could consciousnessly make the decision to immigrate. As of age 12.
  134. ^ Crul, Lindo and Pang. ‘Culture, Structure and Beyond, Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children.’ (Het Spinhuis Publishers, 1999) ISBN 90-5589-173-8 p.37. Books.google.com.my. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  135. ^ (Dutch) Dutch third-generation Indo website
  136. ^ Recent academic studies in the Netherlands include: Boersma, Amis, Agung. Indovation, de Indische identiteit van de derde generatie. (Master thesis, Leiden University, Faculty Languages and cultures of South East Asia and Oceania, Leiden, 2003) [20] ; De Vries, Marlene. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. (Amsterdam University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0 [21] ; Vos, Kirsten Indie Tabe, Opvattingen in kranten van Indische Nederlanders in Indonesië over de repatriëring (Master Thesis Media and Journalism, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Faculty of history and art, The Hague, 2007) [22] Radio interview with K.Vos ; Iburg, Nora “Van Pasar Malam tot I Love Indo, identiteitsconstructie en manifestatie door drie generaties Indische Nederlanders.” (Master thesis, Arnhem University, 2009, Ellessy Publishers, 2010) ISBN 978-90-8660-104-2 [23].(Dutch)
  137. ^ Herself a third-generation Indo descendants.
  138. ^ (Dutch)Iburg, Nora “Van Pasar Malam tot I Love Indo, identiteitsconstructie en manifestatie door drie generaties Indische Nederlanders.” (Master thesis, Arnhem University, 2009, Ellessy Publishers, 2010) p.134 ISBN 978-90-8660-104-2 [24].
  139. ^ Panel paper ASAA conference by Dr Roger Wiseman, University of Adelaide
  140. ^ Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008) P.220 ISBN 9971-69-373-9 Googlebook
  141. ^ a b "Halin Website". Stichtinghalin.nl. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  142. ^ Kurniasari, Riwik `Ruma Maida' portrays the country's history (Publisher: THE JAKARTA POST, Jakarta 2009) Online: [25] and [26]
  143. ^ (Dutch) Alan Neys Memorial Fundraise Website Retrieved 19 April 2010
  144. ^ (Dutch) Dutch Depok community Website
  145. ^ The Indo community of Tugu descend from the old Portuguese mestizo.Dutch newspaper article: 'Tokkelend hart van Toegoe', Maas, Michel (Volkskrant, 09 jan 2009)
  146. ^ (Indonesian)Online article (id) about the Blue Eyed People from Lanbo, Aceh, Sumatra.
  147. ^ (Indonesian)Jakarta Post article about the 'Portuguese Achenese' People from Lanbo, Aceh, Sumatra.
  148. ^ Indonesian language article on KUNCI Cultural Studies Website[dead link]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bosma U., Raben R. Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, 1500–1920 (University of Michigan, NUS Press, 2008) ISBN 9971-69-373-9 [27]
  • (Dutch) Bussemaker, H. Th. Bersiap. Opstand in het Paradijs (Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 2005).
  • Cooper, Frederick and Stoler, Ann Laura Tensions of empire: colonial cultures in a bourgeois world (Publisher: University of California Press, Berkeley, 1997) Googlebook
  • (Indonesian) Cote, Joost and Westerbeek, Loes. Recalling the Indies: Kebudayaan Kolonial dan Identitas Poskolonial, (Syarikat, Yogyakarta, 2004).
  • Crul, Lindo and Lin Pang. Culture, Structure and Beyond, Changing identities and social positions of immigrants and their children (Het Spinhuis Publishers, 1999). ISBN 90-5589-173-8
  • (Dutch) De Vries, Marlene. Indisch is een gevoel, de tweede en derde generatie Indische Nederlanders. (Amsterdam University Press, 2009) ISBN 978-90-8964-125-0 [28] [29]
  • Gouda, F. American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia (Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2002).
  • Krancher, Jan A. The Defining Years of the Dutch East Indies, 1942–1949 (McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers). ISBN 978-0-7864-1707-0
  • (German) Kortendick, Oliver. „Indische Nederlanders und Tante Lien: eine Strategie zur Konstruktion ethnischer Identität.“ (Master Thesis, Canterbury University of Kent, Social Anthropology, 1990). ISBN 0-904938-65-4 [30]
  • Palmer and Colton. A History of the Modern World (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1992). ISBN 0-07-557417-9
  • Ricklefs, M. C. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300 (Stanford University Press, 2001).[31]
  • Schenkhuizen, M. Memoires of an Indo Woman (Edited and translated by Lizelot Stout van Balgooy), (Ohio University Press (number 92) Athens, Ohio 1993).
  • (Indonesian) Soekiman, Djoko. Kebudayaan Indis dan gaya hidup masyarakat pendukungnya di Jawa (Unconfirmed Publisher, 2000). ISBN 979-8793-86-2
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman. The Social World of Batavia: European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1983). ISBN 978-0-300-09709-2
  • Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia: Peoples and Histories (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003). ISBN 0-300-09709-3

External links[edit]