Islam and secularism

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The role of Islam or religion in the Muslim-majority countries as outlined in the constitutions. Including Islamic or secular states.
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  Secular state

The definition and application of Secularism, especially the place of religion in society, varies among Muslim countries as it does among European countries and the United States.[1] Secularism is often used to describe the separation of public life and civil/government matters from religious teachings and commandments, or simply the separation of religion and politics. Secularism in Muslim countries is often contrasted with Islamism, and secularists tend to seek the ideology of promoting the secular political and social values as opposed to Islamic one. Among western scholars and Muslim intellectuals, there are some debates over Secularism which include the understanding of political and religious authorities in the Islamic world and the means and degree of application of sharia in legal system of the state.

As the concept of Secularism varies among secularists in the Muslim world, reactions of Muslim intellectuals to the pressure of Secularization also varies. On the one hand, Secularism is condemned by some Muslim intellectuals who do not feel that religious influence should be removed from the public sphere.[2] On the other hand, Secularism is claimed by others to be compatible with Islam on the other hand. For example, the quest for Secularism has inspired some Muslim scholars who argue that secular government is the best way to observe sharia; "enforcing [sharia] through coercive power of the state negates its religious nature, because Muslims would be observing the law of the state and not freely performing their religious obligation as Muslims,"[citation needed] says Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, a professor of law at Emory University and author of "Islam and the secular state : negotiating the future of Shariʻa".[3] Moreover, Some scholars argue that secular states have existed in the Muslim world since the Middle Ages.

Nevertheless, Many Muslim-majority countries define themselves as or are regarded as secular, and many of them have a dual system in which Muslims can bring familial and financial disputes to sharia courts. The exact jurisdiction of these courts varies from country to country, but usually includes marriage, divorce, inheritance, and guardianship.[4]

Definition[edit]

The etymology of the Arabic word for secularism can be controversial in itself. Some scholars pointed out that originally there was no Arabic term to describe the secular and secularism and therefore some neologisms were spawned. Secularism was translated into Arabic either as "‘alamaniyah", which is derived from "‘alam(world or universe)", or as "‘ilmaniyah", which is derived from "‘ilm(science or knowledge)". The term "‘alamaniyah" first appeared at the end of the nineteenth century in the dictionary Muhit al-Muhit[5] written by the Christian Lebanese scholar Butrus al-Bustani. It has been suggested that the use of other translations, such as "la diniyah(non-religious)", that implied the exclusion or marginalisation of religion, would have met with outright rejection by Muslims, for whom (according to the principle al-Islam din wa-dawlah, Islam is religion and state) the division between the temporal and the spiritual is literally unthinkable.[6][7]

Moreover, some refer to "‘almaniyyah" which is derived from the word "‘alam", and others prefer "dunyawiyyah", which is derived from "dunya(temporal)", in contrast to "dini(religious)".[citation needed]

Overview[edit]

The concept of Secularism was imported along with many of the ideas of post-enlightenment modernity from Europe into the Muslim world, namely Middle East and North Africa. Among Muslim intellectuals, the early debate on secularism centered mainly on the relationship between religion and state, and how this relationship was related to European successes in science, technology and governance.[6] In the debate on the relationship between religion and state, (in)separability of religious and political authorities in the Islamic world, or status of the Caliph, was one of the biggest issues.[8]

John L. Esposito, a professor of international affairs and Islamic studies, points out: "the post-independent period witnessed the emergence of modern Muslim states whose pattern of development was heavily influenced by and indebted to Western secular paradigms or models. Saudi Arabia and Turkey reflected the two polar positions. [...] The majority of Muslim states chose a middle ground in nation building, borrowing heavily from the West and relying on foreign advisers and Western-educated elites.[9]"

Esposito also argues that in many modern Muslim countries the role of Islam in state and society as a source of legitimation for rulers, state, and government institutions was greatly decreased though the separation of religion and politics was not total. However while most Muslim governments replaced Islamic law with legal systems inspired by western secular codes, Muslim family law (marriage, divorce, and inheritance) remained in force.[10]

However, many Muslims argue that, unlike Christianity, Islam does not separate religion from the state and a majority of Muslims around the world welcome a significant role for Islam in their countries' political life.[11] It is apolitical Islam, not political Islam, that requires explanation and that is an historical fluke of the "shortlived heyday of secular Arab nationalism between 1945 and 1970."[12]

Furthermore, the resurgence of Islam, beginning with the Iranian revolution of 1978-9, defied the illusions of advocates of secularization theory. The resurgence of Islam in politics in the most modernizing of Muslim countries, such as Egypt, Algeria and Turkey, betrayed expectations of those who believed religion should be at the margins not the center of public life. Furthermore, in most cases, it was not rural but urban phenomena, and its leaders and supporters were educated professionals.[13]

From a more historical perspective, scholar Olivier Roy argues that "a defacto separation between political power" of sultans and emirs and religious power of the caliph was "created and institutionalized ... as early as the end of the first century of the hegira" and what has been lacking in the Muslim world is "political thought regarding the autonomy of this space." No positive law was developed outside of sharia. The sovereign's religious function was to defend the Islamic community against its enemies, institute the sharia, ensure the public good (maslaha). The state was an instrument to enable Muslims to live as good Muslims and Muslims were to obey the sultan if he did so. The legitimacy of the ruler was "symbolized by the right to coin money and to have the Friday prayer (Jumu'ah khutba) said in his name."[14]

The concept of Secularism in Islam has been claimed to have religious sanction too. The Sahih of Imam Muslim, the second most authentic book on Hadith, dating from the 2nd century Hijrah, contains a chapter headed as follows: “Whatever the Prophet has said in matters of religion must be followed, but this does not apply to worldly affairs.”[citation needed]

The Hadith is as follows: Once Prophet Muhammad came across some people doing artificial pollination of palm trees. Due to some reason he disliked the idea and commented that it would be better not to do any pollination at all. However for the following year the harvest was poor. When he came to know about this Prophet Muhammad admitted his limitation of knowledge regarding secular affairs and said: “If a question relates to your worldly matters you would know better about it, but if it relates to your religion then to me it belongs.”[citation needed]

Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, the prominent Indian Muslim scholar, comments on this Hadith:[15] “Islam separated religious knowledge from physical knowledge. The source of religious knowledge which came into general acceptance was divine revelation (the authentic version of which is preserved in the form of the Quran), while full freedom was given to enquiry into physical phenomena, so that individuals could arrive at their own conclusions independently”.

He further says: “According to this hadith, Islam separates religious matters from scientific research. In religious affairs, there has to be strict adherence to divine guidance. But in scientific research, the work must proceed according to human experience.[16]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Ira M. Lapidus, an Emeritus Professor of Middle Eastern and Islamic History at The University of California at Berkeley, analyses the separation of religion and state in the early Islamic history.[17] First, he points out the integral unity of religious and political authorities while the Prophet Muhammad was leading the ummah:

The prevailing view among Islamists is that classical Islamic society does not distinguish between the religious and the political aspects of communal life. The Caliphate was both the religious and the political leadership of the community of Muslims, whose individual believers and subjects belonged to a polity defined by religious allegiance. [...] Since Muhammad was the Prophet who revealed God's will in all of life's concerns, belief in Islam entailed both loyalty to a chief whose authority derived from his religious position, and membership in the umma- the community he led. In this sense, religious and political values and religious and political offices were inseparable.[18]

However, Lapidus claims that secular governments had existed in the Muslim world since the 10th century, arguing that an effective separation of religion and politics came into being between 'ulama and political and military leaders under the symbolic authority of the Caliph.:

In fact, religious and political life developed distinct spheres of experience, with independent values, leaders, and organizations. From the middle of the tenth century effective control of the Arab-Muslim empire had passed into the hands of generals, administrators, governors, and local provincial lords; the Caliphs had lost all effective political power. Governments in Islamic lands were henceforth secular regimes - Sultanates - in theory authorized by the Caliphs, but actually legitimized by the need for public order. Henceforth, Muslim states were fully differentiated political bodies without any intrinsic religious character, though they were officially loyal to Islam and committed to its defense.[19]

In the same period, religious communities developed independently of the states or empires that ruled them. The ulama regulated local communal and religious life by serving as judges, administrators, teachers, and religious advisers to Muslims. The religious elites were organized according to religious affiliation into Sunni schools of law, Shi'ite sects, or Sufi tariqas. [...] In the wide range of matters arising from the Shari'a - the Muslim law - the 'ulama' of the schools formed a local administrative and social elite whose authority was based upon religion. Thus though the Muslim madhahib were not organized in the same way as Christian churches, they had many of the religious and social functions we associate with churches. But whether or not we wish to speak of churches, religious organizations, institutions, personnel and activities were clearly separate from the ruling regimes.[20]

As long as two decades ago, Sir Hamilton Gibb, in his essay 'Constitutional Organization', showed that Muslim political thinkers themselves had become aware of the separation of state and religion and recognized the emergence of an autonomous sphere of religious activity and organization. For example, Ibn Taymiyya held that apart from the Caliphate, the ulama constituted the true umma of Islam, and that ruling regimes were 'Muslim' regimes not by any intrinsic quality but by virtue of the support they lent the Muslim religion and religious communities.[21]

Lapidus argues that the Caliphate absorbed the ummah in the beginning but the religious and political aspects of Muslim communal life came to be separated by a historical process that involved three developments, which are Arab rebellions against the Caliphate, the emergence of religious activity independent of the actual authority of the Caliphs and the emergence of the Hanbali school of law.[22]

In early Islamic philosophy, Averroes presented an argument in The Decisive Treatise providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official Ash'ari theology, thus Averroism has been considered a precursor to modern secularism.[23][24]

Modern history[edit]

Many of the early supporters of Secularist principles in Middle Eastern countries were Baathist and non-Muslim Arabs, seeking a solution to a multi-confessional population and an ongoing drive to modernism.[25]

Many Islamic modernist thinkers argued against the inseparability of religious and political authorities in the Islamic world, and described the system of separation between religion and state within their ideal Islamic world.

Muhammad ʿAbduh , a prominent Muslim modernist thinker, claimed in his book "Al-Idtihad fi Al-Nasraniyya wa Al-Islam[26]" that no one had exclusive religious authority in the Islamic world. He argued that the Caliph did not represent religious authority, because he was not infallible nor was the Caliph the person whom the revelation was given to; therefore, according to Abduh, the Caliph and other Muslims are equal. ʿAbduh argued that the Caliph should have the respect of the umma but not rule it; the unity of the umma is a moral unity which does not prevent its division into national states.[27]

Abdel Rahman Al-Kawakibi, in his book "Taba'i' Al-Istibdad(The Characteristics of Tyranny)", discussed the relationship between religion and despotism,[28] arguing that "while most religions tried to enslave the people to the holders of religious office who exploited them, the original Islam was built on foundations of political freedom standing between democracy and aristocracy."[29] Al-Kawakibi suggested that people can achieve a non-religious national unity, saying:"Let us take care of our lives in this world and let the religions rule in the next world."[30] Moreover, in his second book "Umm Al-Qura(The Mother of Villages)" his most explicit statement with regard to the question of religion and state appeared in an appendix to the book, where he presented a dialogue between the Muslim scholar from India and an amir. The amir expressed his opinion that "religion is one thing and the government is another ... The administration of religion and the administration of the government were never united in Islam."[31]

Rashid Rida's thoughts about the separation of religion and state had some similarities with ʿAbduh and Al-Kawakibi. According to the scholar, Eliezer Tauber:

He was of the opinion that according to Islam 'the rule over the nation is in its own hands ... and its government is a sort of a republic. The caliph has no superiority in law over the lowest of the congregation; he only executes the religious law and the will of the nation.' And he added: 'For the Muslims, the caliph is not infallible (ma'sum) and not the source of revelation.' And therefore, 'the nation has the right to depose the imam-caliph, if it finds a reason for doing so'.[32]

What is unique in Rida's thought is that he provided details of his ideas about the future Arab empire in a document, which he called the "General Organic Law of the Arab Empire". Rida argued that the general administrative policy of the future empire would be managed by a president, a council of deputies to be elected from the entire empire, and a council of ministers to be chosen by the president from among the deputies. There, the caliph must recognize the 'General Organic Law' and abide by it. He would manage all the religious matters of the empire. Rida's ideal Islamic empire would be administered in practice by a president, while the caliph would administer only religious affairs and would be obliged to recognize the organic law of the empire and abide by it.[33]

As seen above, these arguments about separability of religious and political authorities in the Islamic world were greatly connected with the presence of the Caliphate. Therefore, the abolishment of the Caliphate by Turkish government in 1924 had considerable influence on such arguments among Muslim intellectuals.

The most controversial work is that of Ali Abd al-Raziq, an Islamic Scholar and Shari’a judge who caused a sensation with his work "Islam and the Foundations of Governance"(Al-Islam Wa Usul Al-Hukm[34]) in 1925. He argued that there were no clear evidence in the Quran and the hadith, which justify a common assumption: to accept the authority of the caliph is an obligation. Furthermore, he claimed that it was not even necessary that the ummah should be politically united and religion has nothing to do with one form of government rather than another. He argued that there is nothing in Islam which forbids Muslims to destroy their old political system and build a new one on the basis or the newest conceptions of the human spirit and the experience of nations.[35] This publication caused a fierce debate especially as he recommended that religion can be separated from government and politics. He was later removed from his position. Rosenthall commented on him saying:

"we meet for the first time a consistent, unequivocal theoretical assertion of the purely and exclusively religious character of Islam".[36]

Taha Hussein, a Egyptian writer, was also an advocate for the separation of religion and politics from a viewpoint of Egyptian nationalism. Hussein believed that Egypt always had been part of Europe and that Egypt had its renaissance in the nineteenth century and had re-Europeanized itself. For him, the distinguishing mark of the modern world is that it has brought about a virtual separation of religion and civilization, each in its own sphere. It is therefore quite possible to take the bases of civilization from Europe without its religion, Christianity. Moreover, he believed that it is easier for Muslims than for Christian, since Islam has no priesthood, and so there has grown up no vested interest in the control of religion over society.[37]

Influences[edit]

Colonial influence[edit]

When colonial rule was established, the process of secularization began to expand into Muslim lands.[citation needed] Secularism thus came as the European colonialists dominated the region and supplanted rule with their own processes and procedures.

"Modernisation was seen as a legacy of European colonialism perpetuated by western-oriented elites who imposed and fostered the twin processes of westernization and secularization."[38]

Colonial powers in many cases replaced indigenous political, social, economic, legal, and educational institutions. For instance, in many former colonised Middle East countries, the Kuttab or the madrassas (the Quranic schools) were moved to the western format. The French colonial government in the protectorates of the Maghreb changed the education system into a secular model closely modeled on their own. The colonialists firmly believed that their secular system was more modern, efficient, and progressive than the incumbent practices. Naturally, these changes had far-reaching social consequences and laid the foundation of Arab Secularism by separating the Islam from government affairs, education, and justice.[39]

In consequence, "perception of the public, political, and social domain through the prism of religion became marginal and was replaced by a new perception, a perception that was modern, temporal, ideological, ethical, evolutionary, and political."[40] This provided a challenge to some governments, which had no choice but to change in the face of overwhelming force. It is from this experience that secularism gained also its perceived foreign identity.

Communist influence[edit]

In 1918 the Soviet Union opened the Commissariat for Muslim Affairs, which actively opposed the colonial powers in the Middle East and their system of Mandates.[41]

In the 1920s the formation of the first communist parties in the Middle East started playing a key role in the anti-colonial struggle and promoting their ethos regarding workers rights. During the Second World War they also played a role fighting against fascism and participating in the international peace movement.[42]

A key element of the Communism movement was the well organized network of parties in different countries that provided support to each other and enabled communist organizations to become an effective outlet against oppression.

Communism went on to become one of the key components of Arab Nationalism and was particularly prominent during the rule of Gamel Abdel Nasser in Egypt in which Egyptian communists stood aside.[43] And even though communism was often a prominent supporter of Arab nationalism, the international relationships which allowed it to be such a potent force were also used by opposition regimes, and to some extent third parties during the Cold War.

Secular states with majority Muslim populations[edit]

Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Secularist movements[edit]

Turkey[edit]

Secularism in Turkey was both dramatic and far reaching as it filled the vacuum of the fall of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. With the country getting down Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led a political and cultural revolution. "Official Turkish modernity took shape basically through a negation of the Islamic Ottoman system and the adoption of a west-oriented mode of modernization."[60]

  • The abolition of the Caliphate.
  • Religious lodges and Sufi orders were banned.
  • A secular civil code was adopted to replace the previous codes based on Islamic law (shari’a) outlawing all forms of polygamy, annulled religious marriages, granted equal rights to men and women, in matters of inheritance, marriage and divorce.
  • The religious court system and institutions of religious education were abolished.
  • The use of religion for political purposes was banned.
  • The article that defined the Turkish state as Islamic was removed from the constitution.
  • The alphabet was changed from Arabic to Roman.
  • A portion of religious activity was moved to the Turkish language, including the Adhan (call to prayer) which lasted until 1950.[61]

Throughout the 20th century the authoritarian secular Turkish nationalism was continuously challenged by Islamists. Finally at the end of 20th century and beginning of 21st century, political Islamists and Islamic democrats such as the Welfare Party and Justice and Development Party (Turkey) gained enough power through democratic process to gradually convert extremely secular and authoritarian state of Turkey into an softly Islamic and relatively much more liberal state. These groups oppose laws that limit the freedom of Islam or forbid the external display of religious symbols, including the headscarf in public spheres.[62]

Fauzi Najjar considers the secularization in Turkey as "anti-religious" and claims that

"The term ‘almaniyya acquired a bad connotation and was associated with irreligion in the Muslim world after the establishment of an anti-religious political system, that was portrayed as secular, in Turkey in 1924 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk".[63]

Iran[edit]

Following the military coup of 21 February 1921, Reza Khan had established himself as the dominant political personality in the country. Fearing that their influence might be diminished, the clergy of Iran proposed their support and persuaded him to assume the role of the Shah.[64]

1925-1941: Reza Shah began to make some dramatic changes to Iranian society with the specific intention of westernization and removing religion from public sphere. He changed religious schools to secular schools, built Iran’s first secular university and banned the hijab in public. Nevertheless, the regime became totally undemocratic and authoritarian with the removal of Majles power (the first parliament in 1906) and the clampdown on free speech.[65]

1951-1953: During the early 1950s the Prime Minister Dr Mossadeq was again forming a pro secularization government with a socialist agenda with the specific aim of reducing the power held by the clergy. However his plans for nationalization the oil industry were a step too far for Britain. So with the help of the CIA they supported a coup which replaced the government with Mohammad Reza Shah.[30]

1962-1963: Using the mandate of westernization, Mohammad Reza Shah introduced White Revolution. During this time a number of changes were made to put Iran on the path to become a westernized secularist capitalist country.

1963-1973: Radically authoritarian secular changes alienated many of Mohammad Reza Shah's political opponents and majority of Iranian masses and any dissent was crushed by the brutal secret police of Shah. Opposition rallied untied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and by the end of the 1970s the Shah was overthrown in an Islamic Revolution (1979).[30]

Tunisia[edit]

Under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba (1956–1987), Tunisia’s post independence government pursued a program of secularization.[66]

Bourguiba, who has Been one of the most avowedly secularist political strategies in the Arab world, modified laws regarding habous (religious endowments), secularized education and unified the legal system so that all Tunisians, regardless of religion, were subject to the state courts. He restricted the influence of the religious University of Ez-Zitouna and replaced it with a faculty of theology integrated into the University of Tunis, banned the headscarf for women, made members of the religious hierarchy state employees and ordered that the expenses for the upkeep of mosques and the salaries of preachers to be regulated.[67]

Moreover, his best known legal innovations was the ‘Code du Statut Personel’ (CSP) the laws governs issues related to the family: marriage, guardianship of children, inheritance and most importantly the abolishing of polygamy and making divorce subject to judicial review.[68]

Bourguiba clearly wanted to undercut the religious establishment’s ability to prevent his secularization program, and although he was careful to locate these changes within the framework of a modernist reading of Islam and presented them as the product of ijtihad (independent interpretation) and not a break with Islam, he became well known for his secularism. John Esposito says that "For Bourguiba, Islam represented the past; the west was Tunisia's only hope for a modern future, but he was mistaken, Islam is modernization"[69]

Following increasing economic problems, Islamist movements came about in 1970 with the revival of religious teaching in Ez-Zitouna University and the influence which came from Arab religious leaders like Syrian and Egyptian Muslim Brotherhoods.[70] There is also influence by Hizb ut-Tahrir, whose members issue a magazine in Tunis named Azeytouna.[71] In the aftermath, the struggle between Bourguiba and Islamists became uncontrolled and in order to repress the opposition the Islamist leaderships were exiled, arrested and interrogated.[72]

Ennahda Movement, also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a moderate Islamist political party in Tunisia.[73][74][75][76] On 1 March 2011, after the secularist dictatorship of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali collapsed in the wake of the 2011 Tunisian revolution, Tunisia's interim government granted the group permission to form a political party. Since then it has become the biggest and most well-organized party in Tunisia, so far outdistancing its more secular competitors. In the Tunisian Constituent Assembly election, 2011, the first honest election in the country's history with a turn out of 51.1% of all eligible voters, the party won 37.04% of the popular vote and 89 (41%) of the 217 assembly seats, far more than any other party.[77][78][79][80][81]

Egypt[edit]

Secularism in Egypt has had a very important role to play in both the history of Egypt and that of the Middle East. Egypt’s first experience of Secularism started with the British Occupation (1882–1952), the atmosphere which allowed propagation of western ideas. In this environment, pro-secularist intellectuals like Ya'qub Sarruf, Faris Nimr, Nicola Haddad who sought political asylum from Ottoman Rule were able to publish their work. This debate had then became a burning issue with the work of Egyptian Shaykh Ali abd al-Raziq (1888–1966), "The most momentous document in the crucial intellectual and religious debate of modern Islamic history"[82]

By 1919 Egypt had its first political secular entity called the Hizb 'Almani (Secular Party) this name was later changed to the Wafd party. It combined secular policies with a nationalist agenda and had the majority support in the following years against both the rule of the king and the British influence. The Wafd party supported the allies during World War II and then proceeded to win the 1952 parliamentary elections, following these elections the prime minister was overthrown by the King leading to riots. These riots precipitated a military coup after which all political parties were banned including the Wafd and the Muslim Brotherhood.[30]

The government of Gamel Abdel Nasser was secularist-nationalist in nature which at the time gathers a great deal of support both in Egypt and other Arab states. Key elements of Nasserism:[83]

Secular legacy of Nasser's dictatorship influenced dictatorial periods of Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak and secularists ruled Egypt until 2011 Egyptian revolution. Despite continuous secularist oppression, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has become one of the most influential movements in the Islamic world,[84] particularly in the Arab world. For many years it was described as "semi-legal"[85] and was the only opposition group in Egypt able to field candidates during elections.[86] In the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011–2012, the political parties identified as "Islamist" (the Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party, Salafi Al-Nour Party and liberal Islamist Al-Wasat Party) won 75% of the total seats.[87] Mohamed Morsi, an Islamist democrat of Muslim Brotherhood is first democratically elected president of Egypt. Nowadays, most Egyptian proponents of secularism emphasize the link between secularism and ‘national unity’ between Coptic Christians and Muslims.

Syria[edit]

The process of secularization in Syria began under the French mandate in the 1920s and went on continuously under different governments since the independence. Syria has been governed by the Arab nationalist Baath Party since 1963. The Baath regime combined Arab Socialism with secular ideology and an authoritarian political system. The constitution guarantees religious freedom for every recognized religious communities, including many Christian denominations. All schools are government-run and non-sectarian, although there is mandatory religious instruction, provided in Islam and/or Christianity. Political forms of Islam are not tolerated by the government. The Syrian legal system is primarily based on civil law, and was heavily influenced by the period of French rule. It is also drawn in part from Egyptian law of Abdel Nasser, quite from the Ottoman Millet system and very little from Sharia. Syria has separate secular and religious courts. Civil and criminal cases are heard in secular courts, while the Sharia courts handle personal, family, and religious matters in cases between Muslims or between Muslims and non-Muslims.[88] Non-Muslim communities have their own religious courts using their own religious law.[89]

Muslim Brotherhood of Syria is Sunni Islamist force in Syria and very loosely affiliated to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. It has also been called the "dominant group" or "dominant force" in the Arab Spring uprising in Syria.[90] The group's stated political positions are moderate and in its most recent April 2012 manifesto it "pledges to respect individual rights", to promote pluralism and democracy.[91][92]

Pakistan[edit]

Early in the history of the state of Pakistan (12 March 1949), a parliamentary resolution (the Objectives Resolution) was adopted, just a year after the death of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, in accordance with the vision of other founding fathers of Pakistan (Muhammad Iqbal, Liaquat Ali Khan).[93] proclaiming:

Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust.

  • The State shall exercise its powers and authority through the elected representatives of the people.
  • The principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed.
  • Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Islam as set out in the Quran and Sunnah.
  • Provision shall be made for the religious minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures.

This Objective Resolution differed from the Muhammad Ali Jinnah's 11th August Speech that he made in the Constitutive Assembly, but however, this resolution was passed by the rest of members in the assembly after Muhammad Ali Jinnah's death in 1948. This resolution later became key source of inspiration for writers of Constitution of Pakistan and is included in constitution as preamble. However, Pakistan is still an semi-secular state and Islamists and Islamic democratic parties in Pakistan are relatively less influential then democratic Islamists of other Muslim democracies.

Lebanon[edit]

Lebanon is a parliamentary democracy within the overall framework of Confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities.

A growing number of Lebanese, however, have organized against the confessionalist system, advocating for an installation of laïcité in the national government. The most recent expression of this secularist advocacy was the Laïque Pride march held in Beirut on April 26, 2010, as a response to Hizb ut-Tahrir's growing appeal in Beirut and its call to re-establish the Islamic caliphate.

Opposition and critique[edit]

Secularism and religion[edit]

Islamists believe that Islam fuses religion and politics, with normative political values determined by the divine texts.[94] It is argued that this has historically been the case and the secularist/modernist efforts at secularizing politics are little more than jahiliyyah (ignorance), kafir (unbelief), irtidad (apostasy) and atheism.[82][95] "Those who participated in secular politics were raising the flag of revolt against Allah and his messenger."[96]

Saudi scholars denounce secularism as strictly prohibited in Islamic tradition. The Saudi Arabian Directorate of Ifta', Preaching and Guidance, has issued a directive decreeing that whoever believes that there is a guidance (huda) more perfect than that of the Prophet, or that someone else's rule is better than his is a kafir.[97]

It lists a number of specific tenets which would be regarded as a serious departure from the precepts of Islam, punishable according to Islamic law. For example:

  • The belief that human made laws and constitutions are superior to the Shari'a.
  • The opinion that Islam is limited to one's relation with God, and has nothing to do with the daily affairs of life.
  • To disapprove of the application of the hudud (legal punishments decreed by God) that they are incompatible in the modern age.
  • And whoever allows what God has prohibited is a kafir.[98]

In the words of Tariq al-Bishri, "secularism and Islam cannot agree except by means of talfiq [combining the doctrines of more than one school, i.e., falsification], or by each turning away from its true meaning."[99]

Secularism and authoritarianism[edit]

There is a direct relationship between secularism and oppression in the Middle East. Spread of Islamism and Islamic revival made secular leaders more repressive and authoritarian in order to protect secularism. At the same time the more repression from the government made society opposed to secularism and this opposition made Islamists more popular in the Middle East.[100]

Authoritarianism has left in many countries the mosque as the only place to voice political opposition.[101] Scholars like Vali Nasr argue that the secular elites in the Muslim world were imposed by colonial powers to maintain hegemony.[102]

Secularism is also associated with military regimes, such as those in Turkey and Algeria. Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) succeeded in December 1991 elections in Algeria[103] and Welfare Party succeeded in 1995 elections in Turkey.[104] Both of these parties are example of relatively democratic minded Islamic parties. However, both of these parties were eliminated through military coups in order to protect secularism.[105] While Welfare Party government in Turkey was forced to resign from the office by Turkish military in February 1997 with a military intervention which is called as "post modern coup",[106] FIS in Algeria lived an austere military coup which carried the country in to a civil war in 1992.[105] Military forces in those countries could use their power in undemocratic ways in order to ‘protect secularism’.

In some countries, the fear of Islamist takeover via democratic processes has led to authoritarian measures against Islamist political parties.[107] "The Syrian regime was able to capitalize on the fear of Islamist coming to power to justify the massive clampdown on the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood."[108] When American diplomats asked Hosni Mubarak to give more rights to the press and stop arresting the intellectuals, Mubarak rejected it and said, "If I do what you ask, the "fundamentalists" will take over the government in Egypt. Do you want that?" Or when President Bill Clinton asked Yasser Arafat to establish democracy in Palestine in 2001, Yasser Arafat also replied similarly. "He said that in a democratic system Islamist Hamas will surely take control of the government in Palestine".[100] Most of the Middle Eastern secularist autocrats drew upon the risk of Islamism in order to justify their autocratic rule of government in the international arena.

See also[edit]

Islamism:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Asad, Talal. Formation of Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003. 5-6.
  2. ^ From the article on secularism in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
  3. ^ Naʻīm, ʻAbd Allāh Aḥmad. Islam and the secular state : negotiating the future of Shariʻa. Cambridge:Harvard University Press, 2008. ISBN9780674027763
  4. ^ "Islam: Governing Under Sharia", Author:Tony Johnson, November 10, 2010
  5. ^ Bustānī, Buṭrus ibn Būlus. Muḥīṭ al-Muḥīṭ:qāmūs muṭawwal al-lughah al-ʻArabīyah/taʼlīf Buṭrus al-Bustānī. Beirut:Maktabat Lubnān, 1977.
  6. ^ a b Tamimi, Azzam. "The Origins of Arab Secularism." In Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, edited by Espasito, Jon L. and Tamimi, Azzam. 13-28. New York: New York University Press, 2000. 17.
  7. ^ Keane, John. "The Limits of Secularism." In Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, edited by Espasito, Jon L. and Tamimi, Azzam. 29-37. New York: New York University Press, 2000. 35.
  8. ^ Ardic, Nurullah. Islam and the Politics of Secularism: The Caliphate and Middle Eastern modernization in the early 20th century. New York: Routledge, 2012. 8
  9. ^ Esposito, John L. "Islam and Secularism in the Twenty-First Century." In Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, edited by Esposito, Jon L. and Tamimi, Azzam. 1-12. New York: New York University Press, 2000.2.
  10. ^ Esposito, John L. "Islam and Secularism in the Twenty-First Century." In Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, edited by Esposito, Jon L. and Tamimi, Azzam. 1-12. New York: New York University Press, 2000. 2.
  11. ^ "MUSLIM WORLD: Poll shows majority want Islam in politics; feelings mixed on Hamas, Hezbollah"" LA Times", December 5, 2010.
  12. ^ Understanding Islamism Middle East/North Africa Report N°37 2 March 2005
  13. ^ Esposito, John L. "Islam and Secularism in the Twenty-First Century." In Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, edited by Esposito, Jon L. and Tamimi, Azzam. 1-12. New York: New York University Press, 2000. 3.
  14. ^ Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk, Harvard University Press, 1994, p.14-15
  15. ^ Wahiduddin Khan, Islam: Creator of the modern age
  16. ^ Al Dunya - This World
  17. ^ Ira M. Lapidus. "The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society", International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4) (October 1975): 363-385.
  18. ^ Ira M. Lapidus. "The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society", International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4) (October 1975): 363-385. 363-364.
  19. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (October 1975). "The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society", International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4), pp. 363-385 [364]
  20. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (October 1975). "The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society", International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4), pp. 363-385 [364-5]
  21. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (October 1975). "The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society", International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4), pp. 363-385 [365]
  22. ^ Ira M. Lapidus. "The Separation of State and Religion in the Development of Early Islamic Society", International Journal of Middle East Studies 6 (4) (October 1975): 363-385. 366-370
  23. ^ Abdel Wahab El Messeri. Episode 21: Ibn Rushd, Everything you wanted to know about Islam but was afraid to Ask, Philosophia Islamica.
  24. ^ Fauzi M. Najjar (Spring, 1996). The debate on Islam and secularism in Egypt, Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ).
  25. ^ such as Faris Nimr and Ya’qub Sarruf, intellectuals and journalists from Lebanon who relocated to Egypt in the 1880s and Salama Musa, who is a Coptic Christian Egyptian and founder of the Egyptian socialist Party in 1920 - Fauzi Najjar: the debate on islam and secularism, Arab Studies Quarterly; 1996, Vol.18 Issue2
  26. ^ ʿAbduh, Muhammad. "al-Idtihad fi al-Nasraniyya wa al-Islam." In al-A'mal al-Kamila li al-Imam Muhammad ʿAbduh. edited by Muhammad ʿAmara. Cairo: Dar al-Shuruk, 1993. 257-368.
  27. ^ Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 156.
  28. ^ Tamimi, Azzam. "The Origins of Arab Secularism." In Islam and Secularism in the Middle East, edited by Espasito, Jon L. and Tamimi, Azzam. 13-28. New York: New York University Press, 2000.
  29. ^ Tauber, Eliezer. "Three Approaches, One Idea: Religion and State in the Thought of 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, Najib 'Azuri and Rashid Rida." In British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies Vol.21. 190-198. 192.
  30. ^ a b c d Ibid.
  31. ^ Ibid. 193.
  32. ^ Tauber, Eliezer. "Three Approaches, One Idea: Religion and State in the Thought of 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, Najib 'Azuri and Rashid Rida." In British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies Vol.21. 190-198. 196.
  33. ^ Tauber, Eliezer. "Three Approaches, One Idea: Religion and State in the Thought of 'Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi, Najib 'Azuri and Rashid Rida." In British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies Vol.21. 190-198.
  34. ^ ʻAbd al-Rāziq, ʻAlī. al-Islām wa-uṣūl al-ḥukm : baḥth fī al-khilāfah wa-al-ḥukūmah fī al-Islām. Sūsah:Dār al-Maʻārif lil-Ṭibāʻah wa-al-Nashr,1999?.
  35. ^ Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 183-188.
  36. ^ Black, A, "The history of Islamic Political Thought", Edinburgh University Press, 2001, pp. 316-319
  37. ^ Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798-1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 330-332.
  38. ^ John L.Esposito, the Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality, p. 13
  39. ^ Ibid., pp. 13–14
  40. ^ Aziz Al-Azmeh, Islams and Modernities, p48
  41. ^ Nicola Pratt, Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Arab World, p 163
  42. ^ Ibid
  43. ^ Communism in the Middle East: Information and Much More from Answers.com
  44. ^ [1] Article 31
  45. ^ a b [2] Article 1
  46. ^ [3] Article 1 (1)
  47. ^ [4] Article 25
  48. ^ [5] Article 1
  49. ^ SC order restores principles of ’72 Constitution: Shafique
  50. ^ SC dismisses pleas against 5th amendment verdict
  51. ^ [6] Article 1 (1)
  52. ^ Article 1 (1)[dead link]
  53. ^ Characteristics of the Republic: Article 2, Provisions Relating to Political Parties: Article 68, Oath taking: Article 81, Oath: Article 103, Department of Religious Affairs: 136, Preservation of Reform Laws: 174
  54. ^ [7] Article 1
  55. ^ [8] Section 1: Foundations of the constitutional order, Article 1
  56. ^ [9] Constitution of Turkey Characteristics of the Republic: Article 2, Provisions Relating to Political Parties: Article 68, Oath taking: Article 81, Oath: Article 103, Department of Religious Affairs: 136, Preservation of Reform Laws: 174
  57. ^ Syria Country Report
  58. ^ Press Confrence by Maronite Patriarch about Religious Freedom in Middle East
  59. ^ [10] Article 7/Article 18
  60. ^ Alev Cinar, Modernity, Islam and Secularism in Turkey, p 14
  61. ^ Ibid., p. 16-17
  62. ^ Ibid., p.18
  63. ^ Fauzi Najjar: The debate on Islam and secularism in Egypt, Arab Studies Quarterly; 1996, pp.1
  64. ^ Homa Omid, Theocracy of democracy? The critics of `westoxification' and the politics of fundamentalism in Iran: Third World Quarterly; Dec92, Vol. 13 Issue 4
  65. ^ Fred Halliday, Iran: Dictatorship and Development, p23
  66. ^ Secularism and Democracy in the Middle East; http://www.islam-democracy.org/4th_Annual_Conference-shakman-Hurd_paper.asp
  67. ^ Nazih N. Ayubi, Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World, p. 113
  68. ^ Laurie A.Brand, Women, the State and Political Liberalization: Middle East and North Africa Experiences, p. 178
  69. ^ Paper: "Secularism and Democracy in the Middle East" by Elizabeth Shakman Hurd - May 16, 2003 - Center for the Study of Islam & Democracy (CSID)
  70. ^ Nazih N.Ayubi, Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World, p. 114
  71. ^ http://www.azeytouna.net Azeytouna Magazine
  72. ^ John L.Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, p.167
  73. ^ Tunisia legalises Islamist group Ennahda. BBC News Online. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011 
  74. ^ Khalaf, Roula (27 Apr 2011). "Tunisian Islamists seek poll majority". Financial Times (FT.com). Retrieved 24 June 2011 
  75. ^ "Tunisian leader returns from exile". Al Jazeera English. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2011 
  76. ^ Kaminski, Matthew (26 October 2011). "On the Campaign Trail With Islamist Democrats". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 October 2011 
  77. ^ ISIE, High and Independent Instance for the Elections. (2011), Decree of 23 Nov. 2011 about the Final Results of the National Constituent Assembly Elections (in Arabic) 
  78. ^ Feldman, Noah (2011-10-30). "Islamists’ Victory in Tunisia a Win for Democracy: Noah Feldman". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  79. ^ Tunisia's New al-Nahda Marc Lynch 29 June 2011
  80. ^ Bay, Austin. accessdate=2012-3-22 "Tunisia and its Islamists: The Revolution, Phase Two". 
  81. ^ Totten, Michael. "No to America and No to Radical Islam". Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  82. ^ a b Fauzi Najjar, The debate on Islam and Secularism, Arab Studies Quarterly; 1996, Vol. 18 Issue 2
  83. ^ Mahfouz's grave, Arab liberalism's deathbed | openDemocracy
  84. ^ "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood," [dead link] Robert S. Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine
  85. ^ "Free Republic. The day before, and after – It's been 25 years since the Islamist genie first went on the rampage". Fr.jpost.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21. 
  86. ^ The Islamism Debate: God's Counterculture Sonja Zekri, © Süddeutsche Zeitung / Qantara.de 2008 Translated from the German by Phyllis Anderson
  87. ^ Islamists Win 70% of Seats in the Egyptian Parliament The New York Times.
  88. ^ freedomhouse.org: View a Page
  89. ^ Syria - Islam
  90. ^ Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood is gaining influence over anti-Assad revolt By Liz Sly, Washington Post 12 May 2012
  91. ^ Khaled Yacoub Oweis "Syria's Muslim Brotherhood rise from the ashes," Reuters (6 May 2012).
  92. ^ "Syria Muslim Brotherhood Issues Post-Assad State-for-All Commitment Charter," ikhwanweb.com (The Muslim Brotherhood’s Official English web site) (7 April 2012).
  93. ^ "[11]"Objectives Resolution, Republic of Rumi
  94. ^ Bonney, R, “Jihad: From Qur’an to Bin Laden”, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 2004, p. 149
  95. ^ Nabhani, T, "The Islamic State", al-Khilafah Publications
  96. ^ 1948, Mawlana Mawdudi founder of Jamaat e-Islami
  97. ^ Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi, Contemporary Islamic Thought, p 338
  98. ^ Mohammad Ibrahim Mabruk, al-‘almaniyyun (Cairo, 1990), p. 149.
  99. ^ Al-Ahram, 12 December 1989
  100. ^ a b Zakaria, F. 2007, The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. W Norton & Co Inc, New York.
  101. ^ Fred Halliday, Two Hours That Shook the World.
  102. ^ Esposito, J, "The Oxford History of Islam", Oxford University Press, 1999
  103. ^ http://www.binghamton.edu/cdp/era/elections/alg91par.html
  104. ^ Türkiye Seçimleri
  105. ^ a b Norton, A. R. (ed), 1996. Civil Society in the Middle East, 2nd volume. Brill, Leiden
  106. ^ Yavuz, M. H. (2006) The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the Ak Parti. Utah: Utah University Pres
  107. ^ Garon2003
  108. ^ Nicola Pratt, Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Arab World, p. 137

Further reading[edit]