Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari

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Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari
Jalaluddin Bukhari's Tomb.jpg
Jalaluddin Bukhari's tomb
Mir Surkh, Mir Buzurg, Makhdum-ul-Azam, Surkh-Posh, Jalal Ganj
Born c. 595 AH (1199 CE)
Bukhara
Died c. 690 AH (1291 CE)
Uch
Honored in
Islam (Suhrawardi Sufi order)
Influences Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Influenced South Asian Sufis

Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari (Urdu: سید جلال الدین سرخ پوش بخاری‎ c. 595-690 AH, 1199–1291 CE) was a Sufi saint and missionary. He was a follower of Baha-ud-din Zakariya of the Suhrawardiyya order. Bukhari died on the 19th day of the 5th month (Jumada al-awwal) 690 AH (20 May 1291 CE) in Uch, Punjab aged 95.[1]

Names[edit]

Bukhari, a family name, is derived from his birthplace, Bukhara, in modern Uzbekistan.[1] Bukhari is a Sayyid, a male who is a descendant of Muhammad. Bukhari's ancestors were Muhammad's grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Bukhari was born Jalaluddin (Abu Ahmed (ابواحمد) in Arabic). However, he has a number of names and titles. He is known as Jalal Ganj; Mir Surkh (Leader Surkh); Sharrif ullah (Sharrif of Allah); Mir Buzurg (Leader Buzurg); Makhdum-ul-Azam; Jalal Akbar; Azim ullah (Azim of Allah); Sher Shah (founder); Jalal Azam and Surkh-Posh Bukhari.[2] With formal honorifics, Bukhari is known as Sayyid Jalaluddin; Mir Surkh Bukhari; Shah Mir Surkh-Posh of Bukhara; Pir Jalaluddin Qutub-al-Aqtab; Sayyid Jalal and Sher Shah Sayyid Jalal. Bukhari was known as Surkh-posh ("clad in red") because he often wore a red mantle.

Family[edit]

Bukhara old town, 2012

Bukhari was born on Friday, the fifth day of the twelfth month (Dhu al-Hijjah) of the year 595 AH in Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan. The Bukharis were a prominent Muslim family in India at the time of the Turkish dysnasties (for example, the Tughlaq and the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi). Bukhari was the son of Syed Ali Al-Moeed and the grandson of Syed Ja’far Muhammed Hussain.[2] Bukhari's early education was provided by his father. He was later influenced by Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi.[3]

Fatima (first wife)[edit]

Bukhari's first wife was Syeda Fatima, daughter of Syed Qasim. Bukhari and Fatima had two children, Ali and Ja’far. In 635 AH, after Fatima's death, Bukhari moved with his two sons from Bukhara to Bhakkar.[4] Ali and Ja’far are buried in Bukhara.

Zohra (second wife)[edit]

In Bhakkar, Bukhari married Bibi Táhirih (Zohra), daughter of Badruddin (Badar-u-Din) Bhakkari, the grandson of Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki. Zohra and Bukhari had two sons: Sadaruddin Mohammed Ghaus (who moved to the Punjab) and Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom. Their descendants live in and around Thatta, Uch (Deogarh) and Lahore. A daughter of Sadaruddin Mohammed Ghaus married Jahaniyan Jahangasht.[2]

Bibi Fatima Habiba Saeeda (third wife)[edit]

After Zohra's death, Bukhari married the second daughter of Badruddin Bhakkari, Bibi Fatima Habiba Saeeda. They had a son, Syed Ahmed Kabir (Ahmed Kabir), who was the father of Jahaniyan Jahangasht and Makhdoom Sadruddin.[2]

Life's work[edit]

Bukhari's life was spent travelling. As an Islamic missionary, he converted tribes such as the Soomro, Samma, Chadhar, Sial, Daher and the Warar. Bukhari was one of the Chaar Yaar (not to be confused with the Rashidun). The Chaar Yaar were the group of pioneers of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi and Chisti movements of the 13th century. Bukhari founded the "Jalali" section of the Suhrawardiyya order of Sufi. He converted the Samma, the Sial, the Chadhar, the Daher and the Warar tribes of the Southern Punjab and Sindh. Some of his followers (mureed) spread to Gujarat. The mureed included Bukhari's grandson, Jahaniyan Jahangasht (d. 1384 CE) who visited Mecca 36 times. Other mureed included Abu Muhammad Abdullah (Burhanuddin Qutb-e-Alam) (d. 1453 CE) and Shah e Alam (d. 1475 CE). In 1134 CE, the Sial followers of Bukhari settled in the community that is now Jhang. In the late 17th century, the settlement was washed away. Bukhari's descendent, Mehboob Alam Naqvi-ul Bukrari Al-Maroof Shah Jewna, encouraged the followers to resettle the area. Many of Bukhari's disciples are buried in Banbhore and Makli Hill near Thatta.

Legendary meetings[edit]

Genghis Khan[edit]

Bukhari had a legendary meeting with Genghis Khan. Bukhari tried to convert Genghis Khann to Islam and encouraged him to spare innocent people from death. Genghis Khan was enraged by this bold act and ordered that Bukhari be burnt alive but the fire became a rose bush. When Genghis Khan saw the miracle, his attitude towards Muslims softened.[citation needed].

Khan offered Bakhari his daughter's hand in marriage. At first, Bukhari refused; then, a divine voice told him his descendants would be Qutbs (saints) throughout the world. Sayyid families of the Punjab, Sindh, the United Provinces (Uttar Pradesh), Kachchh and Hyderabad Deccan claim to be descendants of Chengiz Khan and Bukharif.[citation needed]

Sultan of Delhi[edit]

In 642 AH, when Bukhari had begun his missionary work in Uch, he was visited by Nasiruddin Mahmud of the Delhi Sultanate.

Shah Daulah Shahid[edit]

Shah Daulah Shahid, is a Muslim saint who is buried in Bengal. In Bukhara, Bukhari presented Saint Daulah with a pair of gray pigeons. From Bukhara, Saint Daulah travelled to Bengal where he battled and was killed by the Hindu king of Shahzadpur.[5]

Lalla[edit]

One of Bukhari's female disciples was Lalleshwari (Lal Ded) (d. 1400 CE, Bijbehara). She met Jahaniyan Jahangasht, a descendant of Bukhari and embraced Islam at his hands. She travelled in Kashmir with him. Lalla was a teacher of Nuruddin Nurani who is considered by the Kashmiris, both Hindus as well as Muslims, as the patron saint of Kashmir.[6]

Ancestors and descendents[edit]

Bukhari's biography and family history are cited extensively in such works as the Mazher-i-Jalali, the Akber-ul-Akhyar, the Rauzat-ul-Ahbab, Maraij-ul-Walayat, Manaqabi Qutbi, the Siyar-ul-Aqtar, the Siyar-ul-Arifeen and the Manaqib-ul-Asifya. These manuscripts are held by Bukhari Sayyids. His descendants are called "Naqvi al-Bukhari". The part of Uch where the family settled is called "Uch Bukharian". The lineage contains saints and religious leaders. Some moved to Turkestan and were married to the Tatar Mongols. Others moved to Bursa in Turkey and others moved to Bilot Sharif, Attock Khurd and the Tribal Areas of Kurram, Orakzai and Kohat. There are a number of tombs of Bukhari descendants across the Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. They include: Jahaniyan Jahangasht (d. 1308 CE), Rajan Qittal, Bibi Jawindi (c. 1492 CE), Bukhari's great granddaughter and Mir Mohammad Masoom, the forefather of the Bokhari Naqvi family of Dreg, Dera Ghazi Khan and Channan Pir.

The tomb of Bibi Jawindi and the tomb and mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari have been on the "tentative" list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 2004.[7] World Monuments Fund also promotes its conservation.[8]

Descendents[edit]

Family lineage[edit]

According to Mara'at Jalali[2] and Malfuzul Makhdoom, Bukhari's lineage is:

Hassamuddin Hassan Bukhari[edit]

Syed Hassamuddin Hassan Bukhari was the son of Makhdoom Sadruddin. Firuz Shah Tughlaq, the Sultan of Delhi presented to Syed Hassamuddin Hassan Bukhari to Kara-Manikpur. He is buried in Parsaki (or Parsakhi).

Mai Heer[edit]

Bukhari's son, Ahmed Kabir, had a disciple called Choochak Sial, a member of the Sial tribe. Choochak's daughter was Mai Heer, of the popularised romantic tragic poem Heer Ranjha.

Syed Pahlawan Shah[edit]

In the Kurram Agency the Jalali leader was Pahlawan Shah. He was the son of Hussain Ali Shah, Fakir ul Fukara. Miracles have been attributed to him. Pahlawan Shah led the resistance against the British Raj in Kurram Agency. In the Orakzai Agency, Bukhari's teaching was presented by Pahlwan Shah's elder brother, Gul Badshah.

Baba Shah Jamal of Ichchra Lahore[edit]

Baba Shah Jamal was a religious leader in Lahore. He was the 7th descendant of Makhdoom Syed Sadruddin Rajan Qattal, who was a son of Makhdoom Syed Sultan Ahmad Kabir Bin Makhdoom Syed Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari.

Qutub al-Aktab Makhdoom Syed Fateh Muhammad Shah Bukhari al-maroof Ghazi Baba[edit]

Ghazi Baba moved to Wadpagga Shareef, Peshawar. He was the 15th descendant of Syed Nasiruddin Mehmood, who was a son of Makhdoom Jahanian. Ghazi Baba was a contemporary of Mian Omar, a saint buried in the village of Chamkani, Peshawar. Ghazi Baba had seven sons, the eldest being Syed Abdul Wahab Shah and the youngest Syed Abdullah Shah. Four of the six sons settled in Wadpagga Shareef and two in nearby areas. The Shrine of Ghazi Baba is a site of pilgrimage.

Mithy Waly[edit]

The Mithy Waly are descendants of Bahauddin Mohamed Masoom who was one of Bukhari's 22 sons from Uch. The family line begins in Dreg, Dera Ghazi Khan. Sardar Mohammad Osman Shah of Dreg), had two sons (Mitha and Kurra) and three daughters. The descendants of Mitha are known as "Mitha Waly" and of Kurra as "Khurra Waly". “Khurra Waly" became associated with the name "Syed Ghulab Shah Bukhari" (Kury Waly Peer). After Osman's death, the sons were rejected by the people. They escaped from Dreg to Multan City, to an area called "Shah Yousaf Gardez Mohallah", now known as "Mithy Waly". A cousin, Mohabbat Shah escaped with the sons. Mitha and Mohabbat Shah are buried beside the famous “Bagh Langy Khan”. Syed Ghulab Shah Bukhari (Kury Waly Peer) is buried near Ghazizbad, behind the shrine of Hazrat Syed Ahmed Saeed Kazmi.

This line includes:

  • Mir Mohammad Masoom (forefather of Mithy Waly and Kury Waly Peer)
  • Hassan Jalaluddin Bukhari
  • Ali Al-Moayad
  • Ja’far
  • Muhammad Abu al Fateh
  • Mahmood
  • Ahmed
  • Abdullah
  • Ali AL Ashghar,
  • Ja’far (d. 271 AH, Samarra)
  • Ali al-Hadi
  • Muhammad al-Jawad
  • Ali al-Ridha
  • Musa al-Kadhim
  • Ja'far al-Sadiq
  • Muhammad al-Baqir
  • Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin
  • Husayn ibn Ali
  • Ali ibn Abi-Talib

Descendants in Sindh[edit]

Bukhari's descendants in Sindh included famous Sufis. After the death of Hazrat Makhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht, Hazrat Makhdoom Mehmood Nasiruddin qalan was declared as Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan.[citation needed] Then, Hazrat Makhdoom Syed Abdullah Burhan u Deen Qutb E Aalam migrated to Gujarat, India. He had a son named Makhdoom Syed Shah Alam.

This line includes:

  • Burhan Muhammad
  • Ahmad
  • Abdul Shakoor
  • Ahmad
  • Hazrat Syed Mehmood (moved to Shahpur Jehanian, Nawabshah)
  • Muhammad Ali Rajan Sada Bhaag (eldest son of Mehmood, stayed in Uch)
  • Ahmad (son of Mehmood, worked in Sindh)
  • Hamid (Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh, son of Ahmad)
  • Shah Mehmood
  • Mehmood Abdul Ghafoor
  • Ishaq Shah.
  • Weedhal Shah (son of Ishaq, who founded Shahpur Jehanian, Nawabshah, Sindh. Moved to Tando Jahania, Hyderabad and had 8 sons).
  • Hamid Shah
  • Bahawal Shah (16th Sajadanasheen Makhdoom Jahania of the Jahania family)
  • Ishaq Shah
  • Ghulam Shah (had no children)
  • Kamil Shah (moved to Shahpur Jehanian)

Faqir Syed Mehdi Shah Jahaniyan[edit]

Mehdi was the great great grandson of Kamil Shah. He was a poet who lived in Muhammad Qasim Bughio near the Chowdaggi Hala road district of Matiari.

  • Buland Shah
  • Abdul Ghafoor Shah (son of Buland, moved to Hyderabad)
  • Muhammad Shah
  • Fateh Deen Shah
  • Qutub u Deen Shah Jahaniyan (son of Fateh Deen, a poet and saint)
  • Shams u Deen (son of Qutub, a poet)
  • Shams u Deen Shah Jahaniyan (son of Shams, buried at Wadee Dargah)
  • Najaf Ali Shah (Kamtar Naqvi, grandson of Jahaniyan, poet)
  • Lutf Ali Shah (Manzoor Naqvi, grandson of Jahaniyan, poet)
  • Faiz Ali Shah (Faiz Naqvi, grandson of Jahaniyan, poet)
  • Bahawal Shah Jahaniyan
  • Muhammad Ali Shah
  • Dadan Shah Jahaniyan
  • Weedhal Shah III
  • Present Sajjada Nasheen Makhdoom Jahaniyan Sindh (Zawar Hussain Shah Jahaniyani, Zawar Naqvi)

Death[edit]

In 1244 CE (about 640AH), Bukhari moved to Uch, Sindh with his son, Baha-ul-Halim, where he founded a religious school. He died in about 690 AH (1290 CE) and was buried in a small town near Uch. After his tomb was damaged by flood waters of the Ghaggar-Hakra River, Bukhari's remains were buried in Qattal. In 1027 AH, Sajjada Nashin Makhdoom Hamid, son of Muhammad Nassir-u-Din, moved Bukhari's remains to their present location in Uch and erected a building over them. In 1670 CE, the tomb was rebuilt by the Nawab of Bahawalpur, Bahawal Khan II. The tomb is a short way from the cemetery of Uch. It stands on a promontory overlooking the plains and the desert beyond. To one side of the tomb is a mosque decorated with blue tile work. In front of the tomb is a pool. A carved wooden door leads into the room containing Bukhari's coffin. UNESCO describes the site:

The brick-built tomb measures 18 meters by 24 meters and its carved wooden pillars support a flat roof and it is decorated with glazed tiles in floral and geometric designs. The ceiling is painted with floral designs in lacquer and its floor covered with the graves of the saint and his relatives an interior quaters provides purdah for those of his womenfolk. Its mosque consists of a hall, measuring 20 meters by 11 meters, with 18 wooden pillars supporting a flat roof. It was built of cut and dressed bricks and further decorated, internally and externally, with enamelled tiles in floral and geometric designs.[7]

Mela Uch Sharif[edit]

The Mela Uch Sharif is a week-long mela (folk festival) held in March – April in Uch. People from the southern Punjab come to honour Bukhari's role in spreading Islam. Participants visit Bukhari's tomb, and offer Friday prayers at the local mosque which was built by the Abbasids. The mela commemorates the congregation of Sufi saints connected with Bukhari. It aligns with the Hindu calendar month of Chaitra.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yasin M. and Asin M. (Ed.) "Reading in Indian History." Atlantic 1988. p41. Accessed in English at Google Books 23 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e Hassami S. K. A. B. Marat-e-Jalali (مرآت جلالی) First Edition 1918, Allahabad, Second Edition 1999, Karachi.
  3. ^ Yadav R. S. and Mandal B. N. "Global encyclopaedia of Islamic mystics and mysticism." Global Vision Publishing Ho, 2007 ISBN 8182202272, 9788182202276 Vol 1 of 4, p 488.
  4. ^ Qadr M. A. "Mukhdoom Jahaniyan Jahangasht"
  5. ^ Wali M. A. (1904) "On the Antiquity and Traditions of Shahzadpur" Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta. January to December 1904. p2
  6. ^ Sikand y. "The Muslim Rishis of Kashmir: crusaders for love and justice." Webpage Accessed 28 November, 2013
  7. ^ a b "Tomb of Bibi Jawindi, Baha'al-Halim and Ustead and the Tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari." UNESCO Global strategy, tentative lists, submitted 30 January, 2004. Accessed 28 November, 2013.
  8. ^ "Uch monument complex." World Monuments Fund, New York, NY. Accessed 28 November, 2013.

External links[edit]