M. G. Ramachandran
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|Born||Marudhur Gopalan Ramachandran
January 17, 1917
Kandy, British Ceylon
(now in Sri Lanka)
|Died||24 December 1987
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
|Other names||M. G. R., Puratchi Thalaivar, Makkal Thilagam|
|Occupation||Actor, Politician, Producer|
|Years active||1935-1984 (Actor)
|Spouse(s)||Thangamani (died in 1942)
Sathanandavathi (died in 1962)
V. N. Janaki (died in 1996)
in 1988 (Posthumous)
Marudhur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known by his initials MGR, was an Indian film actor, director, producer, and politician who also served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu successively for three terms.
In his youth, MGR and his elder brother, M. G. Chakrapani became members of a drama troupe to support their family. Influenced by Gandhian ideals, MGR joined the Indian National Congress. After a few years of acting in plays, he made his film debut in the 1936 film Sathi Leelavathi in a supporting role. In the late 1940s he graduated to leading roles and for the next three decades dominated the Tamil film industry. He became a member of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and rose rapidly through its ranks. He successfully used his popularity as a film hero to build a large political base. In 1972, he left the DMK to form his own party the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK). In 1977 he became the chief minister of Tamil Nadu - the first film actor in India to become the chief minister of a state. He remained as chief minister till his death in 1987.
Early life and background
MGR was born in Nawalapitiya near Kandy, Sri Lanka, to Melakkath Gopala Menon a Palakadu Nair and Maruthur Satyabhama. Melakkath Gopala Menon had been excommunicated in 1903, regarding an allegation that dealt with an illicit relationship with a widowed Brahmin woman; and hence he left his family, and married Maruthur Satyabhama.
MGR was a Hindu and a devotee of Murugan, as is the common practice for Hindus in Sri Lanka. This was during his early days. Later, when he joined the DMK,a pro-rationalist party,he followed the rationalist ideology, though not appearing very aggressively atheistic.However,in later days after he founded his own party following his expulsion from the DMK, he seems to have shown some leaning towards religious faith. He had asked his followers to pray for the success of his AIADMK party.
His followers even prayed for him when it was determined that he had a kidney illness. After his demise, his wife opened up a temple in his name.
After his father's death, he joined a drama troupe called Original Boys. Later, he entered the world of cinema, becoming an actor, and later a director, producer, and editor. MGR married Bargavi also known as Thangamani who died early due to illness. He later married Sathanandavathhi who also died soon due to Tuberculosis. M. G. R. married V. N. Janaki a former Tamil film actress as his third wife after the death of his second wife. Janaki divorced her husband Ganapati Bhatt, to marry MGR.
He made his film debut in 1936, in the film Sathi Leelavathi, directed by Ellis Dungan, an American-born film director. Generally starring in romance or action films, MGR got his big breakthrough in the 1947 film Manthiri Kumari, written by M. Karunanidhi. Soon he rose to superstardom in the 1954 blockbuster Malaikallan. He acted as hero in the Tamil film industry's first ever colour movie, the 1955 blockbuster Alibabavum 40 Thirudargalum. He rose to become the heart throb of millions of Indians with movies such as Anbe Vaa, Aayirathil Oruvan, Mahadevi, Panam Padaithavan, Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan, Adimai Penn, etc. He won the National Film Award for Best Actor for the film Rickshawkaran in 1972. His film Nadodi Mannan, released in 1958, was a Tamil version of the interpretation of the Prisoner of Zenda, produced and directed by himself and released in 1956, ran to full houses. He began to act in many movies that appealed to the direct sentiments of the common man and the rich as well. His 1973 blockbuster Ulagam Sutrum Vaalibhan broke previous box office records. It was one of the few movies filmed abroad in those days. It was shot in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Japan. The DMK unsuccessfully tried to curtail that movie. His acting career ended in 1984 with his last film, Ullagam Suthi Paru, which he acted when he was diagnosed with kidney failure.
MGR was a member of the Congress Party till 1953 and he used to wear Khādī. In 1953 MGR joined the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) attracted by Founder of DMK Mr. C.N.Annadurai. He became a vocal Tamil and Dravidian nationalist and prominent member of the DMK ("Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam" aka Dravidian Progressive Federation). He added glamour to the Dravidian movement which was sweeping Tamil Nadu. He became a member of the state Legislative Council in 1962. He was first elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly in 1967. After the death of his mentor, Annadurai, MGR became the treasurer of DMK in 1969 after Karunanidhi became the chief minister.
M.R. Radha (M.R.Radha), both had worked together in 25 films together. But on 12 January 1967 M.R.Radha with a producer visited MGR to talk about a future project. But during the conversation M.R.Radha stood up and shot MGR in his left ear twice and then pretended to shoot himself. MGR drove to the hospital by himself and spoke to the doctor with his own voice for the last time. After the operation his voice changed. Since he had been shot in his ear MGR lost hearing in his left ear and had ringing in the ear problems but never complained until he had kidney problems in the early 1983. When Sinnappa Devar paid his first visit to see MGR at the hospital after the shooting incident he paid an advance for the next MGR's movie. So after getting released from the hospital and finishing Arasakattalai MGR acted in Devar's movie Vivasaayee even against doctors' advice but when finishing the movie Kaavalkaaran MGR's speaking parts were reduced, this was the only movie MGR spoke with own and new voices between scenes. When MGR was acting in the film Kaavalkaran in 1967 opposite J. Jayalalithaa this incident happened. Petralthaan Pillaya was the last movie of MGR-MR Radha together, shooting which ended just few days before MGR was shot at.The bullet was permanently lodged in his neck and his voice damaged. Within hours of the shooting, some 50,000 fans had gathered at the hospital where MGR had been taken. People cried in the streets. For six weeks, he lay in the hospital as fans awaited each report of his health. He was visited by a steady stream of commoners and luminaries of film industry, polity and bureaucracy.From his hospital bed, he conducted his campaign for Madras Legislative Assembly. He won twice the number of votes polled by his Congress rival and the largest vote polled by any candidate for the Assembly. the
In 1972, DMK leader Karunanithi started to project his first son M.K.Muthu in a big way in film industry and also in politics. Understanding the tactics played by Karunanithi to corner him, MGR started to claim that corruption had grown within the party after the demise of Annadurai and in a public meeting asked for the financial details of the party to be publicised which enraged the leadership of DMK. Consequently, MGR was expelled from the party as per Karunanithi's plan, and forcefully floated a new party named Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK), later renamed All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), the only powerful opponent of the DMK. He mobilised the period between 1972-1977 to spread and preach his party ambition with films like Netru Indru Naalai(1974), Idhayakani(1975), Indru Pol Endrum Vazhga (1977) etc. He became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on the 30th of June 1977, remaining in office till his death in 1987. In 1979, members of his party Satyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor, became the first non-Congress politicians from Tamil Nadu to be ministers in the Union Cabinet. The AIADMK won every state assembly election as long as MGR was alive. Although Anna Durai as well as Karunanidhi had acted in stage plays in trivial roles, in their younger days, before becoming chief minister, MGR was the first popular film actor to be a Chief Minister in India.Though the Congress won by a small margin of votes with the DMK in the 1980 parliamentary elections, the AIADMK under MGR won the state elections the same year.This made the Congress to ally with the AIADMK in the 1984 elections. MGR ended his acting career in 1977.
Once he became Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, he placed great emphasis on social development, especially education. One of his most successful policies was the conversion of the "Midday Meal Scheme" introduced by the popular Congress Chief Minister and kingmaker K Kamaraj, which already was encouraging underprivileged children to attend school, into "MGR's Nutritious Meal Scheme" in the Government-run and aided schools in Tamil Nadu by adding saththurundai -a nutritious sugary flour dumpling. This scheme was at a cost of Rs.100 crore and was imposed in 1982. A little more than 120000 children of the state were benefited. He also introduced Women's Special buses. He introduced liquor ban in the state and preservation of old temples and historical monuments, ultimately increasing the state's tourist income. He set up a free school for the Cinema Technicians children in Kodambakkam called MGR Primary & Higher Secondary School which provided Free Mid-Day meals in the 1950s. He led the ADMK to victory in the 1984 assembly elections despite not taking part in the campaigning. At that time he was undergoing medical treatment in America and his images were broadcast in Tamil Nadu through cinema halls. This was an effective campaign tactic and ADMK won the elections claiming around 56% of assembly seats, indicating the depth of his popular support. He won his seat in a double landslide victory in 1984. He still holds the record of being the chief minister with the highest consistent longevity of more than a decade.
Karunanidhi claimed on 1 April 2009 and again on 13 May 2012 that MGR was ready for the merger of his party with the DMK in 1979, with Biju Patnaik acting as the mediator. The plan however failed, because Panruti Ramachandran, who was close to MGR acted as a spolier and later MGR changed his mind.
Member of Legislative Assembly
|1967||Elected||St. Thomas Mount||DMK|
|1971||Re-elected||St. Thomas Mount||DMK|
|From Year||To Year||Election|
|1977||1980||Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1977|
|1980||1984||Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1980|
|1984||1987||Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1984|
- Filmfare Best Actor Award for Enga Veettu Pillai
- Filmfare Best Film Award for Adimai Penn
- National Film Award for Best Actor for the film Rickshawkaran in 1971.
- Honorary doctorate received from University of Madras and The World University (Arizona).
- Bharat Ratna was conferred by the Government of India (posthumously) in 1988 for his reformation activities and support from Tamil Nadu.
He personally offered relief in disasters and calamities like fire, flood, drought, and cyclones. He was the first donor during the war with China in 1962, donating Rs. 75,000 to the war fund. He was the founder and editor of Thai weekly magazine and Anna daily newspaper in Tamil. He was the owner of Sathya Studios and Emgeeyar Pictures (willed to charity) which produced many of the films he acted in. He had gifted a golden sword weighing half a Kilogram to Mookambika temple in Kollur, Udupi district.
Illness and Death
In October 1984, MGR was diagnosed with kidney failure, which was further complicated by diabetes, a mild heart attack and a massive stroke. He was rushed to the Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, United States for treatment, undergoing a kidney transplant. He returned to Chennai on Feb 04, 1985. He was sworn in as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for the 3rd consecutive term on Feb 10, 1985. The next 2 years and 10 months were spent in frequent trips to the USA for treatment. MGR never fully recovered from his illness and died on December 24, 1987 at 3:30 AM in Chennai Apollo Hospital after his prolonged illness. He was almost 71. His death sparked off a frenzy of looting and rioting all over the state of Tamil Nadu. Shops, movie theatres, buses and other public and private property became the target of violence let loose all over the state. The police had to resort issuing shoot-at-sight orders. Tamilians from Bangalore rushed to Madras in trains to see the mortal remains of MGR. Govt had announced free train facility for this visit. The violence during the funeral alone left 29 people dead and 47 police personnel badly wounded., This state of affairs continued for almost a month all over the state of Tamil Nadu. Around one million people followed his remains, around 30 followers committed suicide and people had their heads tonsured. After his death, his political party, the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, split between his wife Janaki Ramachandran and J. Jayalalithaa; they later merged in 1988. In 1989 Dr. M. G. R. Home and Higher Secondary School for the Speech and Hearing Impaired was established in the erstwhile Residence MGR Gardens, Ramapuram, in accordance with his will dated January 17, 1986. His official residence at 27, Arcot Street, T.Nagar is now MGR Memorial House and is open for public viewing. His film studio, Sathya Studios has been converted into a women's college.
As producer & director
- 1958 Nadodi Mannan , Producer and Director
- 1958 Nadodi Mannan, Director
- 1969 Adimai Penn, Producer
- 1973 Ulagam Sutrum Valiban , Director
- 1977 Madhurai Meetha Sundharapandian, Director
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|Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu