Star of Bethlehem

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Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337). The Star of Bethlehem is shown as a comet above the child. Giotto witnessed an appearance of Halley's Comet in 1301.

In Christian tradition, the Star of Bethlehem, also called the Christmas Star,[1] revealed the birth of Jesus to the Biblical Magi, and later led them to Bethlehem. The star appears only in the nativity story of the Gospel of Matthew, where magi "from the east" are inspired by the star to travel to Jerusalem.[2] There they meet King Herod of Judea, and ask where the king of the Jews had been born. Herod, following a verse from the Book of Micah interpreted as a prophecy, directs them to Bethlehem. The star leads them to Jesus' home in the town, where they worship him and give him gifts. The wise men are then given a divine warning not to return to Herod so they return home by a different route.[3]

Many Christians see the star as a miraculous sign to mark the birth of the Christ (or messiah). Some theologians claimed that the star fulfilled a prophecy, known as the Star Prophecy.[4] Astronomers have made several attempts to link the star to unusual astronomical events, such as a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, a comet or a supernova.[5][6]

Many modern scholars do not consider the story to be describing a historical event but a pious fiction created by the author of the Gospel of Matthew.[7]

The subject is a favorite at planetarium shows during the Christmas season,[8] although the Biblical account describes Jesus as a "child" (paidon) rather than an infant (brephos), possibly implying that some time has passed since the birth. The visit is traditionally celebrated on Epiphany (January 6) in Western Christianity.[9]

Matthew's narrative[edit]

In the Gospel of Matthew account, the Magi (usually translated as "wise men" but in this context meaning "astrologer"[10]) arrive at the court of Herod in Jerusalem and tell the king of a star which signifies the birth of the King of the Jews:

Now after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, saying, Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East [or at its rising[11]] and have come to worship Him. When Herod the king heard this, he was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he inquired of them where the Christ was to be born.[12]

Adoration of the Magi, Chartres Cathedral, by Jehan de Beauce, France, 16th century.

Herod is "troubled", not because of the appearance of the star, but because the magi have told him that a "king of the Jews" had been born,[13] which he understands to refer to the Messiah, a leader of the Jewish people whose coming was believed to be foretold in scripture. So he asks his advisors where the Messiah would be born.[14] They answer Bethlehem, birthplace of King David, and quote the prophet Micah.[nb 1] The king passes this information along to the magi.[15]

Then Herod, when he had secretly called the wise men, determined from them what time the star appeared. And he sent them to Bethlehem and said, Go and search carefully for the young Child, and when you have found Him, bring back word to me, that I may come and worship Him also. When they heard the king, they departed; and behold, the star which they had seen in the East went before them, till it came and stood over where the young Child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy.[16]

Matthew's account suggests that the magi knew from the star that the "king of the Jews" had been born even before they arrived in Jerusalem. They present Jesus with gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.[17] In a dream, they are warned not to return to Jerusalem, so they leave for their own country by another route.[18] When Herod realizes he has been tricked, he orders the execution of all male children in Bethlehem two years old and younger, based on the information the magi had given him concerning the time the star first appeared.[nb 2] Joseph, warned in a dream, takes his family to Egypt for their safety.[19] The Gospel links the escape to a verse from scripture, which it interprets as a prophecy: "Out of Egypt I called my son."[20] This was a reference to the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt under Moses, so the quote suggests that Matthew saw the life of Jesus as recapitulating the story of the Jewish people, with Judea representing Egypt and Herod standing in for pharaoh.[21] After Herod dies, Joseph and his family return from Egypt,[22] and settle in Nazareth in Galilee.[23] This is also said to be a fulfillment of a prophecy ("He will be called a Nazorean," (NRSV)) for which no scriptural reference is known.[nb 3]

Explanations[edit]

Pious fiction[edit]

Many scholars, seeing the Gospel Nativity stories as later apologetic accounts created to establish the Messianic status of Jesus, regard the Star of Bethlehem as a pious fiction.[24][25] Aspects of Matthew's account which have raised questions of the historical event include: Why would a star be needed to guide the Magi from Jerusalem, 10 kilometers down a road, to Bethlehem (Matthew 2:9)? Matthew is the only one of the four gospels which mentions either the Star of Bethlehem or the magi. The author of the Gospel of Mark, considered by modern text scholars to be the oldest of the Gospels,[26] does not appear to be aware of the Bethlehem nativity story.[27] A character in the Gospel of John states that Jesus is from Galilee, and not Bethlehem.[28] The Gospels often described Jesus as "of Nazareth,"[29] but never as "of Bethlehem". Scholars suggest that Jesus was born in Nazareth and that the Bethlehem nativity narratives reflect a desire by the Gospel writers to present his birth as the fulfillment of prophecy.[30] The Matthew account conflicts with that given in the Gospel of Luke, in which the family of Jesus already live in Nazareth, travel to Bethlehem for the census, and return home almost immediately.[31]

"Adoration of the Magi", by Jean Fouquet (15th century). The Star of Bethlehem can be seen in the top right. The soldiers and castle in the background may represent the Battle of Castillon (1453).

Matthew's description of the miracles and portents attending the birth of Jesus can be compared to stories concerning the birth of Augustus (63 BC).[nb 4] Linking a birth to the first appearance of a star was consistent with a popular belief that each person's life was linked to a particular star.[32] Magi and astronomical events were linked in the public mind by the visit to Rome of a delegation of magi at the time of a spectacular appearance of Halley's Comet in AD 66,[33] about the time the Gospel of Matthew was being composed. This delegation was led by King Tiridates of Armenia, who came seeking confirmation of his title from Emperor Nero. Ancient historian Dio Cassius wrote that, "The King did not return by the route he had followed in coming,"[33] a line echoed in Matthew's account.[34]

Fulfillment of prophecy[edit]

The ancients believed that astronomical phenomena were connected to terrestrial events. Miracles were routinely associated with the birth of important people, including the Hebrew patriarchs, as well as Greek and Roman heroes.[35]

The Star of Bethlehem is traditionally linked to the Star Prophecy in the Book of Numbers:

I see him, but not now;
I behold him, but not near;
A Star shall come out of Jacob;
A Scepter shall rise out of Israel,
And batter the brow of Moab,
And destroy all the sons of tumult.[36]

Although evidently intended to refer to the immediate future, since the kingdom of Moab had long ceased to exist, by the time the Gospels were being written this had become widely seen as a reference to the coming of a Messiah.[4] It was, for example, cited by Josephus, who believed it referred to Emperor Vespasian.[37] Origen, one of the most influential early Christian theologians, connected this prophecy with the Star of Bethlehem:

If, then, at the commencement of new dynasties, or on the occasion of other important events, there arises a comet so called, or any similar celestial body, why should it be matter of wonder that at the birth of Him who was to introduce a new doctrine to the human race, and to make known His teaching not only to Jews, but also to Greeks, and to many of the barbarous nations besides, a star should have arisen? Now I would say, that with respect to comets there is no prophecy in circulation to the effect that such and such a comet was to arise in connection with a particular kingdom or a particular time; but with respect to the appearance of a star at the birth of Jesus there is a prophecy of Balaam recorded by Moses to this effect: There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a man shall rise up out of Israel.[38]

Origen suggested that the magi may have decided to travel to Jerusalem when they "conjectured that the man whose appearance had been foretold along with that of the star, had actually come into the world".[39]

The magi are sometimes called "kings" because of the belief that they fulfill prophecies in Isaiah and Psalms concerning a journey to Jerusalem by gentile kings.[40] Isaiah mentions gifts of gold and incense.[41] In the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament probably used by Matthew, these gifts are given as gold and frankincense,[42] similar to Matthew's "gold, frankincense, and myrrh."[17] The gift of myrrh symbolizes mortality, according to Origen.[39]

While Origen argued for a naturalistic explanation, John Chrysostom viewed the star as purely miraculous: "How then, tell me, did the star point out a spot so confined, just the space of a manger and shed, unless it left that height and came down, and stood over the very head of the young child? And at this the evangelist was hinting when he said, "Lo, the star went before them, till it came and stood over where the young Child was."[43]

Astronomical object[edit]

It has become popular in recent decades to translate the phrase in Matthew 2:2, "in the east," as an astrological term concerning a "heliacal rising." The magi told Herod that they saw the star "in the East,"[44] "at its rising",[11] which may imply the routine appearance of a constellation, asterism, or heliacal rising. The Greek word for "east" used in this passage is singular, yet plural in those passages where it refers to the magi's homelands.[45] However, at least two modern professional translators of ancient astrological texts disagree, insisting that the text has nothing to do with either a heliacal or an acronycal rising of a star.[46] Another expert on ancient astrology, Franz Boll (philologist) (1867–1924), also rejected this relatively modern "heliacal rising" translation of Matthew 2:2, which was first proposed by Heinrich Voigt in 1911.[47] Older Bible translations and many newer ones simply indicate that the wise men saw the star "while they were in the east."

In 1614, German astronomer Johannes Kepler determined that a series of three conjunctions of the planets Jupiter and Saturn occurred in the year 7 BC.[8] Although conjunctions were important in astrology, Kepler was not thinking in astrological terms. He argued (incorrectly) that a planetary conjunction could create a nova, which he linked to the Star of Bethlehem.[8] Modern calculations show that there was a gap of nearly a degree (approximately twice a diameter of Moon) between the planets, so these conjunctions were not visually impressive.[48] An ancient almanac has been found in Babylon which covers the events of this period, but does not indicate that the conjunctions were of any special interest.[48] In the 20th century, Prof. Karlis Kaufmanis, an astronomer, argued that this was an astronomical event where Jupiter and Saturn were in a triple conjunction in the constellation Pisces.[49][50]

Other writers suggest that the star was a comet.[48] Halley's Comet was visible in 12 BC and another object, possibly a comet or nova, was seen by Chinese and Korean stargazers in about 5 BC.[48][51] This object was observed for over seventy days with no movement recorded.[48] Ancient writers described comets as "hanging over" specific cities, just as the Star of Bethlehem was said to have "stood over" the "place" where Jesus was (the town of Bethlehem).[33] However, this is generally thought unlikely as in ancient times comets were generally seen as bad omens.[52]

Another Star of Bethlehem candidate is Uranus, which passed close to Saturn in 9 BC and Venus in 6 BC. This is unlikely because Uranus moves very slowly and is barely visible with the naked eye.[53]

A zodiac from a 6th-century mosaic at a synagogue in Beit Alpha, Israel

A recent hypothesis is that the star of Bethlehem was a supernova or hypernova occurring in the nearby Andromeda Galaxy. Although supernovae have been detected in Andromeda, it is extremely difficult to detect a supernova remnant in another galaxy, let alone obtain an accurate date of when it occurred.[54]

Astrological events[edit]

Although magi (Greek μαγοι) is usually translated as "wise men," in this context it probably means "astronomer" or "astrologer".[55] The involvement of astrologers in the story of the birth of Jesus was problematic for the early Church, because they condemned astrology as demonic; a widely cited explanation was that of Tertullian, who suggested that astrology was allowed 'only until the time of the Gospel'.[56]

In 3–2 BC, there was a series of seven conjunctions, including three between Jupiter and Regulus and a strikingly close conjunction between Jupiter and Venus near Regulus on June 17, 2 BC. "The fusion of two planets would have been a rare and awe-inspiring event", according to Roger Sinnott.[57] Archaeologist and Assyriologist Simo Parpola has also suggested this explanation.[58] This event however occurred after the generally accepted date of 4 BC for the death of Herod. Since the conjunction would have been seen in the west at sunset it could not have led the magi south from Jerusalem to Bethlehem.[59] It also does not fit with an event seen at rising that might have started them on the journey.

Astronomer Michael R. Molnar has proposed a link between the Star of Bethlehem and a double occultation of Jupiter by the moon on March 20 and April 17 of 6 BC in Aries, particularly the second occultation on April 17.[60][61] Occultations of planets by the moon are quite common, but Firmicus Maternus, an astrologer to Roman Emperor Constantine, wrote that an occultation of Jupiter in Aries was a sign of the birth of a divine king.[60][62] The events were quite close to the sun and would not have been visible to the naked eye.[63]

Religious interpretations[edit]

Eastern Orthodoxy[edit]

Russian icon of the Nativity. The Star of Bethlehem is depicted at the center top as a dark semicircle, with a single ray coming down.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Star of Bethlehem is not interpreted as an astronomical event, but rather as a supernatural occurrence, whereby an angel was sent by God to lead the Magi to the Christ Child. This is illustrated in the Troparion of the Nativity:

Your birth, O Christ our God,
dawned the light of knowledge upon the earth.
For by Your birth those who adored stars
were taught by a star
to worship You, the Sun of Justice,
and to know You, Orient from on High.
O Lord, glory to You.[64]

In Orthodox icons, the Star of Bethlehem is often depicted not as golden, but as a dark aureola, a semicircle at the top of the icon, indicating the Uncreated Light of Divine grace, with a ray pointing to "the place where the young child lay" Matt 2:9. Sometimes the faint image of an angel is drawn inside the aureola.

Mormonism[edit]

Mormons believe that the Star of Bethlehem was an actual astronomical event visible the world over.[65] In the Book of Mormon, which they believe contains writings of ancient prophets, Samuel the Lamanite prophesies that a new star will appear as a sign that Jesus has been born, and Nephi later writes about the fulfillment of this prophecy.[66]

Jehovah's Witnesses[edit]

Among Jehovah's Witnesses the Star of Bethlehem is seen as a product of Satan, rather than a sign from God, since the star led the astrologers to Jerusalem where they met King Herod's plan to kill Jesus.[67]

Seventh-day Adventist[edit]

In The Desire of Ages, Ellen White states "That star was a distant company of shining angels, but of this the wise men were ignorant."[68]

Determining the year Jesus was born[edit]

If the story of the star was describing an actual event, it might identify the year Jesus was born. The Gospel of Matthew describes the birth of Jesus as taking place when Herod was king.[69] According to Josephus, Herod died after a lunar eclipse.[70] This is usually identified as the eclipse of March 13, 4 BC.[71] The narrative implies that Jesus was born sometime between the first appearance of the star and the appearance of the Magi at Herod's court. That the king is said to have ordered the execution of boys two years of age and younger, implies that the star made its appearance within the preceding two years. Modern scholars date the birth of Jesus as 6–4 BC.[72]

The Gospel of Luke on the other hand, while it implies that the birth took place when Herod was alive, also says that Jesus was born during the census taken when Quirinius was governor of Syria,[73] which took place in AD 6, nine years after Herod died. The Luke account also says that the family of Jesus left Bethlehem shortly after the birth.

Depiction in art[edit]

Paintings and other pictures of the Adoration of the Magi may include a depiction of the star in some form. In the fresco by Giotto di Bondone, it is depicted as a comet. In the tapestry of the subject designed by Edward Burne-Jones (and in the related watercolour), the star is held by an angel.

The colourful star lantern known as a paról is a cherished and ubiquitous symbol of the holiday for Filipinos, its design and light recalling the star. In its basic form, the paról has five points and two "tails" that evoke rays of light pointing the way to the stable, and candles inside the lanterns have been superseded by electric illumination.

Popular culture[edit]

"The Star" was an episode of the Twilight Zone during its run in the 1980s, based on a science fiction short story by English writer Arthur C. Clarke.

A distant space ship comes across a super-nova that was calculated to have occurred in approximately 3,000BC, at a distance of 3,000 light-years. A well-developed civilization was eradicated by the super-nova and one of the astronauts, who was also a priest, had a crisis of faith about why God would let such a civilization die to herald the birth of Christ. Another astronaut shows him a recording from that civilization populace stating that they realized they were at the peak of their time and had to make way for a new people. They had left their art and music behind as a legacy to the future generations.

Christmas carols[edit]

The star is often alluded to in Christmas carols about the Magi. For example, We Three Kings has the refrain:

O star of wonder, star of night,
Star with royal beauty bright,
Westward leading, still proceeding,
Guide us to thy perfect light.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Matthew 2:5–6. Matthew's version is a conflation of Micah 5:2 and 2 Samuel 5:2.
  2. ^ Matthew 2:16 This is presented as a fulfillment of a prophecy and echoes the killing of firstborn by pharaoh in Exodus 11:1–12:36.
  3. ^ Judges 13:5–7 is sometimes identified as the source for Matthew 2:23 because Septuagint ναζιραιον (Nazirite) resembles Matthew's Ναζωραῖος (Nazorean). But few scholars accept the view that Jesus was a Nazirite.
  4. ^ The god Apollo was said to have conceived with Augustus' mother and there was a "public portent" indicating that a king of Rome would soon be born. (Suetonius, C. Tranquillus,, "The Divine Augustus", The Lives of the Twelve Caesars  |chapter= ignored (help)).

References[edit]

  1. ^ A Christmas Star for SOHO, NASA, archived from the original on December 24, 2004, retrieved 2008-07-04 
  2. ^ Matthew 2:1–2
  3. ^ Matthew 2:11–12
  4. ^ a b Freed, Edwin D. (2001), The Stories of Jesus' Birth: A Critical Introduction, Continuum International, p. 93, ISBN 0-567-08046-3 
  5. ^ "Star of Bethlehem." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  6. ^ "Jesus was born in June", The Daily Telegraph (London), 2008-12-09, retrieved 2011-12-14  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  7. ^ For example, Paul L. Maier, "Herod and the Infants of Bethlehem", in Chronos, Kairos, Christos II, Mercer University Press (1998), 171; Geza Vermes, The Nativity: History and Legend, London, Penguin, 2006, p22; E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, 1993, p.85; Aaron Michael Adair, "Science, Scholarship and Bethlehem's Starry Night", Sky and Telescope, Dec. 2007, pp. 26–29 (reviewing astronomical theories).
  8. ^ a b c John, Mosley. "Common Errors in 'Star of Bethlehem' Planetarium Shows". Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  9. ^ Ratti, John, First Sunday after the Epiphany, retrieved 2008-06-05 
  10. ^ Brown, Raymond Edward (1988). An Adult Christ at Christmas: Essays on the Three Biblical Christmas Stories, Liturgical Press, p. 11 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2; Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Eerdmans (2000), p. 844.
  11. ^ a b Matthew 2:2. New Revised Standard Version.
  12. ^ Matthew 2:1–4 New King James Version (1982).
  13. ^ Thomas G. Long, Matthew (Westminster John Knox Press, 1997), page 18.
  14. ^ Matthew 2:4.
  15. ^ Matthew 2:8.
  16. ^ Matthew 2:7–10.
  17. ^ a b Matthew 2:11
  18. ^ Matthew 2:12.
  19. ^ Matthew 2:13–14
  20. ^ Matthew 2:15 The original is from Hosea 11:1.
  21. ^ "An Exodus motif prevails in the entire chapter." (Kennedy, Joel (2008), Recapitulation of Israel, Mohr Siebeck, p. 132, ISBN 978-3-16-149825-1, retrieved 2009-07-04 )
  22. ^ Matthew 2:10–21
  23. ^ Matthew 2:23
  24. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1993), The Birth of the Messiah, Anchor Bible Reference Library, p. 188 
  25. ^ Markus Bockmuehl, This Jesus (Continuum International, 2004), page 28; Vermes, Géza (2006-11-02), The Nativity: History and Legend, Penguin Books Ltd, p. 22, ISBN 0-14-102446-1 ; Sanders, Ed Parish (1993), The Historical Figure of Jesus, London: Allen Lane, p. 85, ISBN 0-7139-9059-7 ; Believable Christianity: A lecture in the annual October series on Radical Christian Faith at Carrs Lane URC Church, Birmingham, October 5, 2006
  26. ^ Witherington, Ben (2001), The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary, Eerdmans, p. 8 
    France, R. T. (2002), The Gospel of Mark: A Commentary on the Greek Text, Eerdmans, p. 16 
    Head, Peter M. (1997), Christology and the Synoptic Problem: An Argument for Markan priority, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, ISBN 0-521-58488-4, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  27. ^ Mark 6:1–4
  28. ^ See John 1:46, John 7:41–42, and John 7:52.
  29. ^ In Greek, Nazarēnos (Nazarene) or Nazōraios (Nazorean).
  30. ^ Nikkos Kokkinos, "The Relative Chronology of the Nativity in Tertullian", in Ray Summers, Jerry Vardaman and others, eds., Chronos, Kairos, Christos II, Mercer University Press (1998), page 125–6.
    Funk, Robert W. and the Jesus Seminar, The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus, HarperSanFrancisco, 1999, ISBN 0-06-062979-7. pp. 499, 521, 533.
    Paul L. Maier, "Herod and the Infants of Bethlehem", in Chronos, Kairos, Christos II, Mercer University Press (1998), 171.
    For Micah's prophecy, see Micah 5:2.
  31. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, Jesus: apocalyptic prophet of the new millennium, Oxford University Press 1999, page 38.
  32. ^ Nolland, p. 110.
    Pliny the Elder, Natural History, II vi 28.
  33. ^ a b c Jenkins, R.M. (June 2004). "The Star of Bethlehem and the Comet of AD 66". Journal of the British Astronomy Association (114). pp. 336–43. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  34. ^ Matthew 2:12
  35. ^ Vermes, Geza (December 2006), "The First Christmas", History Today 56 (12): 23–29, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  36. ^ Numbers 24:17
  37. ^ Josephus, Flavius, The Wars of the Jews, retrieved 2008-06-07  Translated by: William Whiston.
    Lendering, Jona, Messianic claimants, retrieved 2008-06-05 
  38. ^ Adamantius, Origen. "Contra Celsum". Retrieved 2008-06-05. , Book I, Chapter LIX.
  39. ^ a b Adamantius, Origen. "Contra Celsum". . Book I, Chapter LX.
  40. ^ France, R.T., The Gospel according to Matthew: an introduction and commentary, p. 84. See Isaiah 60:1–7 and Psalms 72:10.
  41. ^ Isaiah 60:6
  42. ^ Isaiah 60:6 (Septuagint)
  43. ^ Schaff, Philip (1886), St. Chrysostom: Homilies on the Gospel of Saint Matthew, New York: Christian Literature Publishing Co., p. 36, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  44. ^ Matthew 2:2
  45. ^ Nolland, John (2005), The Gospel of Matthew: A Commentary on the Greek Text, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, p. 109, ISBN 0-8028-2389-0 
  46. ^ Roberts, Courtney (2007), The Star of the Magi, Career Press, pp. 120–121, ISBN 1564149625 
  47. ^ Adair, Aaron (2013), The Star of Bethlehem: A Skeptical View (Kindle Edition - location 1304), Onus Books, ISBN 0956694861 
  48. ^ a b c d e Mark, Kidger. "Chinese and Babylonian Observations". Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  49. ^ Minnesota Astronomy Review Volume 18 – Fall 2003/2004 "The Star of Bethlehem by Karlis Kaufmanis". 
  50. ^ Audio Version of Star of Bethlehem by Karlis Kaufmanis "The Star of Bethlehem by Karlis Kaufmanis". 
  51. ^ Colin Humphreys, 'The Star of Bethlehem', in Science and Christian Belief 5 (1995), 83–101.
  52. ^ Mark Kidger, Astronomical Enigmas: Life on Mars, the Star of Bethlehem, and Other Milky Way Mysteries, (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), page 61.
  53. ^ Kidger, Mark (2005), Astronomical Enigmas: Life on Mars, the Star of Bethlehem, and Other Milky Way Mysteries, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 60 
  54. ^ Tipler, F.J.,The Star of Bethlehem: a Type Ia/Ic Supernova in the Andromeda Galaxy. Dept. of Mathematics and Dept. of Physics, Tulane University; New Orleans, LA 70118. 20 March 2005.
  55. ^ Raymond Edward Brown, An Adult Christ at Christmas: Essays on the Three Biblical Christmas Stories, Liturgical Press (1988), p. 11.
  56. ^ S. J. Tester, A History of Western Astrology, (Boydell & Brewer, 1987), page 111–112.
  57. ^ Sinnott, Roger, "Thoughts on the Star of Bethlehem", Sky and Telescope, December 1968, pp. 384–386.
  58. ^ Simo Parpola, "The Magi and the Star," Bible Review, December 2001, pp. 16-23, 52, and 54.
  59. ^ Kidger, Mark (2005), Astronomical Enigmas: Life on Mars, the Star of Bethlehem, and Other Milky Way Mysteries, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 63, ISBN 0-8018-8026-2 
  60. ^ a b Molnar, Michael R. (1999), The Star of Bethlehem: The Legacy of the Magi, Rutgers University Press, pp. 86, 89, 106–107, ISBN 0-8135-2701-5, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  61. ^ For a similar interpretation, see Minnesota Astronomy Review Volume 18 – Fall 2003/2004 "The Star of Bethlehem by Karlis Kaufmanis". 
  62. ^ Stenger, Richard (December 27, 2001), "Was Christmas star a double eclipse of Jupiter?", CNN, retrieved 2009-07-04 
  63. ^ Kidger, Mark (December 5, 2001), "The Star of Bethlehem", Cambridge Conference Correspondence, retrieved 2007-07-04 
  64. ^ {{cite web
    | title = Hymns of the Feast
    | url = http://www.goarch.org/special/listen_learn_share/nativity
    | work = Feast of the Nativity of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ
    | publisher = Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
    | year = 2009}}
  65. ^ Smith, Paul Thomas (December 1997), "Birth of the Messiah", Ensign 
  66. ^ Helaman 14:5; 3 Nephi 1:21
  67. ^ Awake! July 8, 1994, pp.6-7; The Greatest Man who ever lived, ch.7 / www.watchtower.org
  68. ^ Desire of Ages, pp. 60. http://text.egwwritings.org/publication.php?pubtype=Book&bookCode=DA&lang=en&collection=2&section=4&pagenumber=60&QUERY=company+of+shining+angels&resultId=1
  69. ^ Matthew 2:1
    Luke 2:2
  70. ^ Josephus, Antiquities XVII:7:4.
  71. ^ Timothy David Barnes, “The Date of Herod’s Death,” Journal of Theological Studies ns 19 (1968), 204–19.
    P. M. Bernegger, “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.,” Journal of Theological Studies ns 34 (1983), 526–31.
    Steinmann, Andrew E., "When Did Herod the Great Reign?", Novum Testamentum, Volume 51, Number 1, 2009 , pp. 1-29(29). Steinmann concludes that Herod most likely reigned until 1 BC.
  72. ^ "Jesus Christ." Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago, 2010.
  73. ^ Luke 2:2.

External links[edit]

Star of Bethlehem
Life of Jesus: The Nativity
Preceded by
Infant Jesus at the Temple
   New Testament   
Events
Followed by
Adoration of the Wise Men