Gefilte fish (/ /; from Yiddish: געפֿילטע פֿיש, "stuffed fish") is an Ashkenazi Jewish dish made from a poached mixture of ground boned fish, such as carp, whitefish or pike, which is typically eaten as an appetizer.
Although the dish historically consisted of a minced-fish forcemeat stuffed inside the fish skin, as its name implies, since the 19th century the skin has commonly been omitted and the seasoned fish is formed into patties similar to quenelles or fish balls. They are popular on Shabbat and Holidays such as Passover, although they may be consumed throughout the year.
Preparation and serving
Traditionally, carp, pike, mullet, or whitefish were used to make gefilte fish, but more recently other fish with white flesh such as Nile perch have been used, and there is a pink variation using salmon. There are even vegetarian variations.
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Ingredients require selecting a fish (preferably a fresh water fish such as carp or whitefish) that is preferably at least 3 kilograms (6.6 lb) in weight. Also required are 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of brown cooking onions, salt, pepper, and 3 to 5 eggs. Up to 200 millilitres (6.8 US fl oz) of vegetable oil (traditionally sunflower oil) may also be added if the fish is lean.
The fish is deboned and the flesh mixed with ingredients, including bread crumbs or matza meal, and fried onion. Cooking takes as much as 3 hours in traditional recipes, although in modern recipes the cooking time is often briefer. It's usually boiled in a stock made up of the heads of the fish and seasonings such as celery, carrot, onion. Often carrots are chopped fine and incorporated into the fishballs with matzoh meal, eggs, salt and pepper and eaten chilled.
Due to the previous general poverty of the Jewish population in Europe, the "economic" recipe for the above also may have included extra ground and soaked matza meal or bread crumbs, thus creating extra fish balls. This form of preparation eliminated the need for picking out fish bones at the table, and "stretched" the fish further, so that even poor, large, families could enjoy fish on Shabbat. Not only is picking bones religiously prohibited on the Sabbath, but many of the commonly used fish such as carp are exceptionally bony and difficult to eat easily in whole form.
Gefilte fish may be slightly sweet or savory. Preparation of gefilte fish with sugar or black pepper is considered an indicator of whether a Jewish community was Galitzianer (with sugar) or Litvak (with pepper), hence the boundary separating northern from southern East Yiddish has been dubbed "the Gefilte Fish Line".
The post-WW2 method of making gefilte fish commercially takes the form of patties or balls, or utilizes a wax paper casing around a "log" of ground fish, which is then poached or baked. This product is sold in cans and glass jars, and packed in jelly made from fish broth. Sodium is a relatively high 220–290 mg/serving. Low-salt, low-carb, low-cholesterol, sugar-free, and kosher varieties are available. The U.S. Patent #3,108,882 "Method for Preparing an Edible Fish Product" for this jelly, which allowed mass-market distribution of gefilte fish, was granted on October 29, 1963 to Monroe Nash and Erich G. Freudenstein. Gefilte fish are also sold frozen in "logs".
Among religiously observant Jews, gefilte fish has become a traditional Shabbat food to avoid borer, which is one of the 39 activities prohibited on Shabbat outlined in the Shulchan Aruch. Borer, literally "selection/choosing", would occur when one picks the bones out of the fish, taking "the chaff from within the food". This interpretation, and the solution to it, however, are of relatively recent origin. Jews had been eating fish at least since the first century CE, and there is no mention of fish-eating in the famous communal ordinances against laxity in Sabbath observance.
- Gefilte "Fish," Vegetarian Accessed November 10, 2010
- Попова, М. Ф., Секреты Одесской кухни, , Друк, Одесса, 2004, p.163 (Russian); Popova M.F., Secrets of Odessa kitchen, Druk, Odessa, 2004, p.163
- Bill Gladstone: This is no fish tale: Gefilte tastes tell story of ancestry. Jewish Telegraphic Agency, September 10, 1999. Accessed November 10, 2010
- Method of Preparing an Edible Fish Product. Accessed November 10, 2010
- Rabbi Zushe Blech: "The Fortunes of a Fish", Kashrut.com website. Accessed March 30, 2006.
- Haym Soloveitchik: Rupture and Reconstruction: The Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy Tradition, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Summer 1994).
- Gil Marks: "Something's fishy in the State of Israel", Orthodox Union website. Accessed March 30, 2006.
Media related to Gefilte fish at Wikimedia Commons
- Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett: "Food and Drink". In: The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, Yale University Press, New Haven 2008, p. 534, ISBN 978-0-300-11903-9.
- Tamara Mann: "Gefilte Fish in America. A history of the Jewish fish product". MyJewishLearning
- Claudia Roden: "Gefilte Fish and the Jews". Jewish Heritage Online Magazine
- Haym Soloveitchik: "Rupture and Reconstruction. The Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy". In: Tradition, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Summer 1994).