Le Plateau-Mont-Royal

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Le Plateau-Mont-Royal
Borough of Montreal
Mount Royal seen from Duluth Street in the Plateau.
Mount Royal seen from Duluth Street in the Plateau.
Le Plateau Mont-Royal's location in Montreal
Le Plateau Mont-Royal's location in Montreal
Coordinates: 45°31′18″N 73°34′32″W / 45.52167°N 73.57556°W / 45.52167; -73.57556
Country  Canada
Province  Quebec
City Montreal
Region Montréal
Borough established January 1, 2002
Electoral Districts
Federal

Laurier—Sainte-Marie
Outremont
Westmount—Ville-Marie
Provincial Mercier
Outremont
Sainte-Marie–Saint-Jacques
Hochelaga-Maisonneuve
Westmount–Saint-Louis
Government[1][2][3]
 • Type Borough
 • Mayor Luc Ferrandez (PM)
 • Federal MP(s)

Hélène Laverdière

(NDP)
Thomas Mulcair (NDP)
Marc Garneau (LIB)
 • Quebec MNA(s) Amir Khadir (QS)
Hélène David (PLQ)
Manon Massé (QS)
Carole Poirier (PQ)
Jacques Chagnon (PLQ)
Area[4][5]
 • Land 8.1 km2 (3.1 sq mi)
Population (2011)[5]
 • Total 100,390
 • Density 12,348.1/km2 (31,981/sq mi)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Area code(s) Area code 514/438
Access Routes[6] Route 335
Website www.ville.montreal.qc.ca/plateau

Le Plateau-Mont-Royal is a borough (arrondissement) of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The Plateau-Mont-Royal takes its name from its location on relatively flat terrain north of Sherbrooke Street and downtown, and east of Mont-Royal. The borough is bordered to the north and north-east by the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks; to the west by Hutchison (north of Mount Royal Avenue), Park Avenue (between Mount Royal and Pine Avenue) and University Street (south of Pine Avenue); and to the south by Sherbrooke Street. It is the most densely populated borough in Canada, with 101,054 people living in an 8.1 square kilometre area.

There is a difference between the borough, Plateau-Mont-Royal—a political division of the City of Montreal—and the neighbourhood referred to as "the Plateau". The borough includes not only the Plateau proper, but also the neighbourhoods of Mile End (bounded by Avenue du Mont-Royal to the south and the Avenue Henri-Julien to the east) and the McGill Ghetto (bounded by University, Sherbrooke, Saint-Laurent and Pine). Both neighbourhoods are generally considered distinct from the Plateau.

History[edit]

Typical residential street in the Plateau.

Starting in 1745, the urbanized area of Montreal began to extend beyond its fortifications. The Plateau Mont-Royal was born and when the Faubourg Saint-Laurent to the south, became the main line of development. In 1792, Montreal expanded to establish its official limits about two kilometers around the original fortifications. Therefore, Mount Royal and Duluth Street formed its boundaries. Farther from the center, especially to the west, English-speaking families of the era owned large houses surrounded by gardens and the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph owned a large field which would be the seat of the future Hôtel-Dieu. Further from the city are large country estates whose farms are owned by the Montreal bourgeoisie.

In 1850, a reservoir was installed in what is today the location of Saint-Louis Square. It had the function of supplying water to Côte-à-Baron residents, who lived on the downward slope below Sherbrooke Street. At that time a farm on the site of the current La Fontaine Park was converted into a field of military maneuvers. To the north, other cities were formed following new economic activity, giving rise to the village of Coteau-Saint-Louis in 1846. A chapel was built two years later to be replaced in 1857 by the Church of Saint-Enfant-Jésus du Mile-End. Nowadays, Mile End is a neighborhood adjacent to part of the Plateau Mont-Royal, but it was only in 1878 that the village of Saint-Louis-du-Mile-End was born. By the end of the century, the mountain was purchased by the City of Montreal which developed Mount Royal Park. La Fontaine Park took the place of the military field and the reservoir serving Côte-à-Baron gave way to St. Louis Square.

The village of Saint-Jean-Baptiste formed circa 1861. Its central point is also the location of the market (the first market was built in 1870 and replaced by a more modern market in 1933, which was demolished in 1966). The civic center was located at the intersection of Saint Lawrence Street (who later became the Saint Laurent Boulevard) and Rachel Street. The villages of Coteau-Saint-Louis and Saint-Jean-Baptiste merged into Montreal in 1893 and 1886 respectively. As for Saint-Louis-du-Mile-End and DeLorimier, they would be annexed to Montreal in 1910 and 1909 respectively. At that time, the population of Montreal spilled over east of Papineau Road (today Papineau Avenue), where elegant houses and avenues were located.

In the early twentieth century, it was working class neighbourhood. Over the years, spurred by economic growth, the working class population gradually deserted the area. By 1900, Coteau-Saint-Louis had become very cosmopolitan, and counted several Protestant churches and synagogues. Several Protestant traders opened shop on St. Lawrence Street (renamed St. Lawrence Boulevard in 1905). St. Lawrence was the linguistic border between the French-speaking east, and English-speaking west. At that time, Saint Joseph Boulevard became the first tree-lined street in the city.

In the 1930s, the Great Depression slowed construction in the district, although some work resulted in the funding for the landscaping of Sir Wilfrid Laurier Park. The Université de Montréal moved to the northern slope of Mount Royal in 1943, resulting in the relocation of both the English and French bourgeoisie to this neighborhood. Immigrants settled increasingly in the neighbourhood in the post-war period. Jews operated several boutiques on St. Lawrence Boulevard and moved into the adjacent neighborhoods to the west. Schwartz's Montreal Hebrew Delicatessen, established in 1928, is still one of the most famous shops in Montreal, famous for its Montreal-style smoked meat sandwiches. Greek Canadians set up many businesses in the decades that followed, particularly along Park Avenue and contributed to the local art of baking and pastry. More recently, Vietnamese and Portuguese settled in the area, as evidenced, for the latter, by Little Portugal.

In the 1980s, the area's bohemian aura and proximity to McGill University attracted gentrification. As rents increased, many of its traditional residents and businesses were dispersed to other parts of the city. The neighbourhood continues to gentrify, and it is now home to many upscale restaurants and nightclubs, and several trendy clothing stores are located along St. Laurent Blvd. and St. Denis St.

Geography[edit]

Victorian homes on Saint Louis Square.

The borough is located northeast of downtown, and was part of the City of Montreal prior to the 2002 municipal mergers.

It is bordered to the south by Ville-Marie, to the west by Outremont, and to the north and east by Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie. Clockwise from the south, it is bounded by Sherbrooke St., University St., Pine Ave. (av. des Pins), Park Ave. (Avenue du Parc), the southward projection of Hutchison St., Hutchison St., Mount Royal Ave (av. Mont-Royal), and the CP railroad tracks.

Arts and culture[edit]

The Plateau was formerly a working-class neighbourhood, with the Eastern part being largely Québécois, and the Western part multicultural. The neighbourhood was the childhood home of Quebec writers Michel Tremblay and Mordecai Richler and both have set many stories in the Plateau of the 1950s and 60s.

The Plateau is characterized by brightly coloured houses, cafés, book shops, and a laissez-faire attitude. It's the location of some famous attractions on Saint Laurent Boulevard, including Schwartz's Deli (famous for its Montreal smoked meat), and a weekend street fair during the summer that sees extremely crowded streets. In 1997, Utne Reader rated it one of the 15 "hippest" neighbourhoods in North America.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop.   ±%  
1966 176,090 —    
1971 158,585 −9.9%
1976 135,490 −14.6%
1981 113,866 −16.0%
1986 106,569 −6.4%
1991 100,375 −5.8%
1996 99,575 −0.8%
2001 101,364 +1.8%
2006 101,054 −0.3%
2011 100,390 −0.7%
[8]

Government[edit]

Borough council[edit]

As of the November 3, 2013 Montreal municipal election, the current borough council consists of the following councillors:

District Position Name   Party
Borough mayor
City councillor
Luc Ferrandez   Projet Montréal
DeLorimier City councillor Louise Mainville   Projet Montréal
Borough councillor Marianne Giguère   Projet Montréal
Jeanne-Mance City councillor Alex Norris   Projet Montréal
Borough councillor Christine Gosselin   Projet Montréal
Mile-End City councillor Richard Ryan   Projet Montréal
Borough councillor Marie Plourde   Projet Montréal

Federal and provincial[edit]

The borough is divided among the following federal ridings:

It is divided among the following provincial electoral districts:

  • Outremont
  • Mercier
  • Hochelaga-Maisonneuve (a small southeastern corner)
  • Sainte-Marie–Saint-Jacques
  • Westmount–Saint-Louis

Features[edit]

Overlooked by the eastern face of Mount Royal, the borough is served by part of the orange line of the Montreal metro, including Sherbrooke, Mont-Royal, and Laurier stations.

Important features of the borough include the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, Lafontaine Park, and Jeanne Mance Park.

The borough is largely composed of the well-known Plateau neighbourhood, famous for its bohemian reputation and characteristic architecture. The neighbourhoods of Mile End, Côte Saint-Louis, and Milton-Parc (including the McGill Ghetto) are also located in the borough.

Montreal's Little Portugal neighbourhood is situated in the western portion of the borough.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°31′18″N 73°34′32″W / 45.521646°N 73.57545°W / 45.521646; -73.57545