List of birds of India

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This is a list of the bird species recorded in India. The avifauna of India includes around 1314 species, of which forty-two are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and twenty-five are rare or accidental. Two species have been extirpated in India and eighty-two species are globally threatened. The Indian peacock (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India.[1]

One of the most recently discovered birds of India is the Bugun liocichla which was discovered in Arunachal Pradesh in 2006. Also, a few birds considered to be extinct, such as the Jerdon's courser, have been rediscovered. Some others have been elevated from subspecies to full species.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are broadly based on the International Ornithologists’ Union list (version 3.2). The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. The commonly occurring, native, species do not fit within any of these categories.

  • (A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in India
  • (E) Endemic - a species endemic to India
  • (I) Introduced - a species introduced to India as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions
  • (Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in India although populations exist elsewhere


Table of contents

Non-passerines: Megapodes • Pheasants and partridges • Ducks, geese and swans • Loons • Shearwaters and petrels • Storm petrels • Grebes • Flamingos • Tropicbirds • Storks • Ibises and spoonbills • Bitterns, herons and egrets • Pelicans • Frigatebirds • Boobies and gannets • Cormorants • Darters • Osprey • Hawks, kites and eagles • Falcons • Bustards • Finfoot • Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots • Cranes • Buttonquails • Stone-curlews • Oystercatchers • Crab plover • Ibisbill • Avocets and stilts • Plovers and lapwings • Painted snipe • Jacanas • Sandpipers and allies • Pratincoles and coursers • Gulls • Terns • Skimmers • Skuas • Sandgrouse • Pigeons and doves • Parrots and allies • Cuckoos • Barn owls • Typical owls • Frogmouths • Nightjars • Treeswifts • Swifts • Trogons • Typical rollers • Kingfishers • Bee-eaters • Hoopoes • Hornbills • Barbets • Honeyguides • Woodpeckers and allies

Passerines: Broadbills • Pittas • Woodshrikes • Woodswallows • Ioras • Cuckoo-shrikes • Whistlers and allies • Shrikes • Old World orioles • Drongos • Fantails • Monarch flycatchers • Crows, jays, ravens and magpies • Waxwings • Grey hypocolius • Fairy flycatchers • Titmice • Penduline tits • Long-tailed tits • Larks • Bulbuls • Swallows and martins • Long-tailed tits • Old World warblers • Cisticolas and allies • Babblers • Spotted elachura • Parrotbills • White-eyes • Fairy-bluebirds • Kinglets • Wrens • Nuthatches • Wallcreeper • Treecreepers • Starlings • Thrushes and allies • Old World flycatchers • Dippers • Leafbirds • Flowerpeckers • Sunbirds and spiderhunters • Sparrows • Weavers and allies • Waxbills and allies • Accentors • Wagtails and pipits • Buntings • Siskins, crossbills and allies

See also       References

Megapodes[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Megapodiidae

The Megapodiidae are stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet. All but the malleefowl occupy jungle habitats, and most have brown or black colouring. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species within India.

Pheasants and partridges[edit]

Order: Galliformes. Family: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowl, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 46 species which occur in India.

Ducks, geese and swans[edit]

Order: Anseriformes. Family: Anatidae

Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 45 species which occur in India.

Loons[edit]

Order: Gaviiformes. Family: Gaviidae

Loons, known as "divers", in Europe, are a group of aquatic birds found in northern North America and northern Eurasia. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resemble when swimming, but to which they are completely unrelated. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Shearwaters and petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterised by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.[3]

Storm petrels[edit]

Order: Procellariiformes. Family: Hydrobatidae

The storm petrels are relatives of the petrels and are the smallest seabirds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.[3]

Grebes[edit]

Order: Podicipediformes. Family: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Flamingos[edit]

Order: Phoenicopteriformes. Family: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 m) tall, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, uniquely, are used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Tropicbirds[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.[3]

Storks[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute, but bill-clattering is an important mode of communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

Ibises and spoonbills[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Threskiornithidae

Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Bitterns, herons and egrets[edit]

Order: Ciconiiformes. Family: Ardeidae

The Ardeidae family contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills. There are 61 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in India.

Pelicans[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Frigatebirds[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black-and-white or completely black, with long wings and deeply forked tails. The males have coloured inflatable throat pouches. They do not swim or walk and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan-to-body-weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.[3]

Boobies and gannets[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium to large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.[3]

Cormorants[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Phalacrocoracidae

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium to large coastal, fish-eating seabirds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies, with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black-and-white and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Darters[edit]

Order: Pelecaniformes. Family: Anhingidae

Darters are often called "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged. The males have black and dark-brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Osprey[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the osprey. The osprey is a medium-large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

Hawks, kites and eagles[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and includes hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 57 species which occur in India.

Falcons[edit]

Order: Falconiformes. Family: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their talons. There are 62 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Bustards[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Otididae

Bustards are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground. They walk steadily on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" wingtips and striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. There are 26 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in India.

Finfoot[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Heliornithidae

Heliornithidae is a small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Rails, crakes, gallinules and coots[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in India.

Cranes[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 5 species have been recorded from India.

The hooded crane, Grus monacha was included in many older lists but is considered as hypothetical by more recent workers.(Rasmussen and Anderton, 2005)

Buttonquails[edit]

Order: Gruiformes. Family: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails. The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Stone-curlews[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Burhinidae

Stone-curlews are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Oystercatchers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Crab plover[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Dromadidae

The crab plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black-and-white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.

Ibisbill[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Ibidorhynchidae

The ibisbill is related to the waders, but is sufficiently distinctive to be a family unto itself. The adult is grey with a white belly, red legs, a long down curved bill, and a black face and breast band.

Avocets and stilts[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Plovers and lapwings[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water. There are 66 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in India.

Painted snipe[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Jacanas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found throughout the tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Sandpipers and allies[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Scolopacidae

Scolopacidae is a large diverse family of small to medium-sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of these species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enables multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 43 species which occur in India.

Pratincoles and coursers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long, pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in India.

Gulls[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds, the gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and around 11 species which occur in India. The identity of some species earlier included under herring gull are now questioned.

Terns[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally medium to large seabirds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species known to live in excess of 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in India.

Skimmers[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Skuas[edit]

Order: Charadriiformes. Family: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.[3]

Sandgrouse[edit]

Order: Pterocliformes. Family: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dawn and dusk. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. There are 16 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India. India has the largest number of sandgrouse of any country.

Pigeons and doves[edit]

Order: Columbiformes. Family: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 29 species which occur in India.

Parrots and allies[edit]

Order: Psittaciformes. Family: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back. There are 335 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in India.

Cuckoos[edit]

Order: Cuculiformes. Family: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Many are brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in India.

Barn owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Typical owls[edit]

Order: Strigiformes. Family: Strigidae

The typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 33 species which occur in India.

Frogmouths[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Podargidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bill and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Nightjars[edit]

Order: Caprimulgiformes. Family: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds that usually nest on the ground. They have long wings, short legs and very short bills. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

Treeswifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Hemiprocnidae

The treeswifts, or crested swifts, are closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the other swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and softer plumage. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Swifts[edit]

Order: Apodiformes. Family: Apodidae

Swifts are small birds which spend the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings which resemble a crescent or boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in India.

Trogons[edit]

Order: Trogoniformes. Family: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Typical rollers[edit]

Indian roller

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Kingfishers[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long, pointed bills, short legs and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in India.

Bee-eaters[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colourful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in India.

Hoopoes[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Hornbills[edit]

Order: Coraciiformes. Family: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in India.

Barbets[edit]

Order: Piciformes. Family: Megalaimidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

Honeyguides[edit]

Order: Piciformes. Family: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey-hunters to bees' nests and, after the hunters have harvested the honey, feeds on the remaining contents of the hive. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Woodpeckers and allies[edit]

Order: Piciformes. Family: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium-sized birds with chisel-like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 33 species which occur in India.

Broadbills[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds, which feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Pittas[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, and stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many, but not all, are brightly coloured. They spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrates. There are 32 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in India.

Woodshrikes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tephrodornithidae

The woodshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Woodswallows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Artamidae

The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings. There are 11 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Ioras[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Aegithinidae

The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in colouration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens. There are 4 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Cuckoo-shrikes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Whistlers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Pachycephalidae

The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and crested bellbird. There are 57 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Shrikes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Laniidae Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in India.

Old World orioles[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Oriolidae

The Old World orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Drongos[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright when perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

Fantails[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Rhipiduridae

The fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders. There are 44 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.

Monarch flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Crows, jays, ravens and magpies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size among the Passeriformes, and some of the larger species show high levels of intelligence. There are 120 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in India.

Waxwings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of birds with soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Grey hypocolius[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hypocoliidae

The grey hypocolius is a small Middle Eastern bird with the shape and soft plumage of a waxwing. They are mainly a uniform grey colour except the males have a black triangular mask around their eyes.

Fairy flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Stenostiridae

Titmice[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are 59 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in India.

Penduline tits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in India.

Larks[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in India.

Bulbuls[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throats or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive-brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests. There are 130 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in India.

Swallows and martins[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is adapted to aerial feeding. They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Long-tailed tits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Aegithalidae

Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet which includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Old World warblers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. They mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent, Africa. Many species are difficult to identify by appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 90 species which occur in India.

Cisticolas and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Babblers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and colouration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 118 species which occur in India. India has the largest number of babblers of any country and this represents the largest bird family grouping in any country outside of South America.

Spotted elachura[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Elachuridae

Parrotbills[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Paradoxornithidae

The parrotbills are a group of birds native to East and Southeast Asia, though feral populations exist elsewhere. They are generally small, long-tailed birds which inhabit reed beds and similar habitats. There are 20 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

White-eyes[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and mostly undistinguished, their plumage above being generally some dull colour like greenish-olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Fairy-bluebirds[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Irenidae

The fairy-bluebirds are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Kinglets[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Regulidae

The kinglets, also called crests, are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in India.

Wrens[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and thin down-turned bills. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in India.

Nuthatches[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in India.

Wallcreeper[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Tichodromidae

The wallcreeper is a small bird related to the nuthatch family, which has stunning crimson, grey and black plumage.

Treecreepers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in India.

Starlings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in India.

Thrushes and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 34 species which occur in India.

Old World flycatchers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is highly varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 90 species which occur in India.

Dippers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in India.

Leafbirds[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Chloropseidae

The leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows. There are 9 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.

Flowerpeckers[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Dicaeidae

The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues. There are 44 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in India.

Sunbirds and spiderhunters[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in India.

Sparrows[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in India.

Weavers and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in India.

Waxbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have wide variation in plumage colours and patterns. There are 141 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in India.

Accentors[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in India.

Wagtails and pipits[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Motacillidae

Motacillidae is a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in India.

Buntings[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with distinctively shaped bills. In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in India.

Siskins, crossbills and allies[edit]

Order: Passeriformes. Family: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have twelve tail feathers and nine primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 45 species which occur in India.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Govt. of India. "National bird of India". National bird. Govt. of India. Retrieved 2 December 2007. 
  2. ^ Lewis, ES (1938). "Bewick's Swan (Cygnus bewickii Yarrell) near Delhi". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 40 (2): 333. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Praveen J.; Jayapal, R.; Pittie, A. (2013). "Notes on Indian rarities—1: Seabirds". Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 113–125. 
  4. ^ Giri, P.; Dey, A.; Sen, S. K. (2013). "Short-tailed Shearwater Ardenna tenuirostris from Namkhana, West Bengal: A first record for India.". Indian BIRDS 8 (6): 131. 
  5. ^ Praveen J.; Palot, M. J..; Karuthedathu, D. (2013). "Recovery of a Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris borealis from Thaikadapuram beach, Kasaragod district, Kerala.". Indian BIRDS 8 (6): 152–153. 
  6. ^ Gaston, AJ; Pandey, S (1987). "Sighting of Rednecked Grebes (Podiceps grisegena) on the Pong Dam Lake, Himachal Pradesh". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 84 (3): 676–677. 
  7. ^ Mundkur, Taej; Pravez, Rishad (1989). "Sight record of Rednecked Grebe Podiceps griseigena near Rajkot, Gujarat". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 86 (3): 440. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Delany, S.; Garbutt, D.; Williams, C.; Sulston, C.; Norton, J.; & Denby, C. (2014). "The Southampton University Ladakh Expeditions 1976–1982: Full details of nine species previously unrecorded in India and four second records". Indian BIRDS 9 (1): 1–13. 
  9. ^ International Crane Foundation - Siberian Crane
  10. ^ Holt, P (1999) Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus at Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India: a new species for the Indian subcontinent. Forktail 15:95 PDF
  11. ^ Dutta S. (2013). "Sighting of Mongolian Gull Larus [vegae / smithsonianus] mongolicus at Chilka, Odisha.". Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 132. 
  12. ^ Sreenivasan P. P., Praveen J.,Prince,M. & Karuthedathu, D. (2013). "Sabine’s Gull Xema sabini from Puthankadapuram, Kerala, India: a first record for South Asia". Indian BIRDS 8 (4): 99–100. 
  13. ^ Jayson E. A., Babu S., & Govind, S. K., 2013. Recovery of White Tern Gygis alba at Athirapilly, Kerala, India. Indian BIRDS 8 (6): 163
  14. ^ a b Singh, A. P., 2013. Lord Derby’s Parakeet Psittacula derbiana, and Black-headed Greenfinch Carduelis ambigua in Arunachal Pradesh, India.Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 133
  15. ^ Chatterjee, S., Mangrove Pitta Pitta megarhyncha fro Sundarbans, West Bengal, India. Indian BIRDS 8 (6): 160–161
  16. ^ Karuthedathu, D., Das, V., Praveen J., Ramachandran, V., Shurpali, S., & Nair, M. V., 2014. Some significant avian records from Odisha. Indian BIRDS 9 (1): 14–18
  17. ^ Manchi, S. S., & Kumar, J. S., 2014. Sighting of the Blue-winged Pitta Pitta moluccensis on Narcondam Island, India. Indian BIRDS 9 (1): 23–24
  18. ^ Nandgaonkar, P. S., 2013. Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator from Alibaug, Maharashtra: A first record for India. Indian BIRDS 8 (6): 164
  19. ^ Jønsson, K.A., Bowie, R.C.K., Moyle, R.G., Irestedt, M., Christidis, L., Norman, J.A. & Fjeldså, J. (2010). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Oriolidae (Aves: Passeriformes)". Ecography 33: 232–241. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06167.x. 
  20. ^ Packert, Martin; Jochen Martens, Siegfried Eck, Alexander A Nazarenko, Olga P. Valchuk, Bernd Petri, Michael Veith (2005) The great tit (Parus major) – a misclassified ring species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 86(2):153-174
  21. ^ Rasmussen, P. C. & J. C.and Anderton 2005 introduce this split
  22. ^ Sangha, H. S., Sharma, M., & Jain, A., 2013. The Black-browed Tit Aegithalos bonvaloti in Arunachal Pradesh: A new species for the Indian Subcontinent. Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 137–139
  23. ^ Das, S., 2014. Asian Stubtail Urosphena squameiceps in Rabindrasarobar, Kolkata: A first record for India. Indian BIRDS 9 (1): 26–27
  24. ^ Silke Fregin, Martin Haase, Urban Olsson, Per Alström (2009). "Multi-locus phylogeny of the family Acrocephalidae (Aves: Passeriformes) – The traditional taxonomy overthrown". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (3): 866–878. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.006. PMID 19393746. 
  25. ^ Sangha, H. S., Naoroji, R. & Sharma, M. 2007. The Crested Tit-warbler Leptopoecile elegans in north-west Arunachal Pradesh. An addition to the Indian avifauna. Indian Birds 3 (1): 23–25. [1]
  26. ^ a b Dalvi, S., 2013. Elliot’s Laughingthrush Trochalopteron elliotii and Black-headed Greenfinch Chloris ambigua from Anini, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 130.
  27. ^ Athreya, R. 2006. A new species of Liocichla (Aves: Timaliidae) from Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Indian Birds 2(4): 82-94. [2]
  28. ^ http://www.hbw.com/news/yunnan-nuthatch-first-record-india
  29. ^ Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Martens, Jochen & Sun, Yue-Hua (2006): Molecular phylogeny of treecreepers (Certhia) detects hidden diversity. Ibis 148(3): 477-488 doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2006.00547.x (HTML abstract)
  30. ^ Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Jochen Martens, Yue-Hua Sun, Martin Paeckert (2008). "Evolutionary history of treecreeper vocalisations(Aves: Certhia)". Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 8 (4): 305–324. doi:10.1016/j.ode.2008.05.001. 
  31. ^ a b c d Lovette, I., McCleery, B., Talaba, A., & Rubenstein, D. (2008). "A complete species-level molecular phylogeny for the 'Eurasian' starlings (Sturnidae: Sturnus, Acridotheres, and allies): Recent diversification in a highly social and dispersive avian group.". Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 47 (1): 251-260. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.01.020.
  32. ^ Kelsey, M. (2013). "Rock Sparrow Petronia petronia: A first record for Ladakh.". Indian Birds 8 (5): 136–137. 
  33. ^ Poonia, S.S., Sharma, M. & Sangha, H.S. (2012). "Pale Rock Sparrow Carpospiza brachydactyla in Gopalpura Hills, Tal Chhapar(Churu district, Rajasthan): a new species for the Indian Subcontinent.". Indian Birds 7 (6): 159–160. 
  34. ^ Tiwari, J.K. (2012). "Pale Rock Sparrow Carpospiza brachydactyla: a new species for India". BirdingASIA 17. 
  35. ^ Sharma, M., Abhinav, C., & Dhadwal, D. S., 2013. Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, Brambling F. montifringilla, and Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella in Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian BIRDS 8 (6): 156–157
  36. ^ a b Gode, N., 2013. Birding in Lohit Valley, Arunachal Pradesh. Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 126-127
  37. ^ Naniwadekar, R., Viswanathan, A., Kumar, R., & Dalvi, S., 2013. First record of Tristram’s Bunting Emberiza tristrami from India. Indian BIRDS 8 (5): 134–135.

References[edit]