List of films in the public domain in the United States

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A number of films exist that certain cited sources believe are in the public domain in the United States. Being in the public domain refers to cinematic, dramatic, literary, musical and artistic works that no government, organization, or individual owns, and as such is common property.[1]

Note: Films in this list may incorporate elements from other works that are still under copyright, even though the film itself is out of copyright.

Copyrightable elements of a film[edit]

There is no official list of films (or other works) in the public domain. It is difficult to determine the public domain status of a film because it can incorporate any or all of the following copyrightable elements:

Film copyright involves the copyright status of multiple elements that make up the film.[4] A film can lose its copyright in some of those elements while retaining copyright in other elements.[4] Experts in the field of public domain sometimes differ in their opinions as to whether a particular film is in the public domain.

The use of music in a film can cause uncertainty with regard to copyright. As of 2010, it is not known whether the use of music in a movie constitutes publication of the music for the purpose of copyright.[5] Unpublished works are treated differently from published works under US copyright law.[6]

Judicial interpretation of public domain[edit]

Judges, too, differ in their interpretation of the laws governing copyright protection. The United States is a “patchwork quilt” of inconsistent copyright rules in different federal judicial districts. The courts of one jurisdiction are not obliged to follow the decisions of another.[7] The U.S. Supreme Court (which could resolve those inconsistencies) very seldom decides copyright cases, and then only when an important principle is involved.[citation needed]

Documenting public domain status[edit]

If a film appears on the list below, there is a high probability it has lost some or all of its United States copyright protection or in the case of U.S. government films, was never protected by copyright.

There is no single method for determining if a film, or parts of it, is in the public domain. There are several methods that can be used to document a film’s public domain status. These include the following:

Date of publication[edit]

All motion pictures made and exhibited before 1923 are indisputably in the public domain in the United States. Before the passage of the Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) in 1998, the term of copyright in the U.S. was a maximum of 75 years, with the work entering the public domain on January 1 of the 76th year from creation (so, for example, a film made in 1930 whose copyright was properly registered and renewed would enter the public domain on January 1, 2006). Although the CTEA added 20 years to the terms of all existing copyrights, it explicitly refused to revive any copyrights that had expired prior to its passage.

Work of the United States government[edit]

All copyrightable works made by United States government employees as part of their official duties are in the public domain from their creation. The status of works made by contractors is dependent on the terms of their contract. Note that this applies only to the federal government, and not to state or local governments, which may or may not claim copyright depending on state laws.[citation needed]

Determine copyright registration[edit]

Motion picture copyright registrations prior to 1978 were published in semi-annual Copyright Catalogs. The Library of Congress also published cumulative Copyright Catalogs of motion picture registrations for the periods

  • 1894–1912
  • 1913–1939
  • 1940–1949
  • 1950–1959
  • 1960–1969
  • 1970–1979
  • 1980–1989

All are out of print. However, the Film Superlist series is a complete reprint of all registrations in the Copyright Catalogs for 1894 through 1959. There is no cumulative Copyright Catalog for 1970–1977; the Copyright Office published 16 semi-annual Copyright Catalog booklets covering that eight-year period, but all are out of print and extremely rare. All copyright registrations from 1978 onward are online at the Library of Congress website.

Some decades of The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures include copyright registration information for feature films (not shorts) of United States origin. This can include a statement that research failed to disclose copyright registration for a particular film. Copyright registration information is given in the following:

The United States copyright website catalogs all the works prior to 1978 that have been renewed.[8] Several pieces of work have been renewed in the form of collections, thus giving the collection as a whole copyright protection.

Copyright renewal status[edit]

For films registered in 1923–1963 inclusive, it is essential to know the renewal status. The semi-annual Copyright Catalog booklets have virtually complete (at least 99.99%) lists of renewals for the films registered 28 years earlier. Those semi-annual booklets all are out of print. However, for 1923 through 1959, the Film Superlist books match copyright renewals with earlier registrations. Copyright registrations and renewals can be found in

In 1992, Congress changed the copyright law to make renewal automatic for copyrights registered in 1964 and later.

Underlying rights[edit]

Many of the movies listed below are based on plays, novels, magazine stories or a combination of those sources. In some cases, a film’s copyright has lapsed because of non-renewal while the underlying literary or dramatic source is still protected by copyright. For example, the movie His Girl Friday (1940) became a public domain film in 1969 because it was not renewed, but it is based on the 1928 play The Front Page, which is still under copyright until 2024 and thus as a practical matter the film can't be used without permission.[4]

Studio and distributor abbreviations[edit]

Films[edit]

Any film that was first published before 1923 has been released already in the public domain in the United States for either expired copyright or failure to comply with copyright laws, such as omission of notice, failure to deposit a copy to the Copyright Office within demanded time, or no renewal registration. Therefore, it is not listed here. See Category:Films by year for pre-1923 films.

Note: This list is not comprehensive, rather only those films where a reliable secondary source is available to verify public domain status. Films without a reliable source in the "Reasons" column should be removed. Archive.org is not a reliable source (see talk page discussion).
Film title Release year Director Studio / Distributor Entered PD in (year) Reason for entering PD Note(s)
Africa Screams 1949 Charles Barton United Artists 1970s [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [9]
The Amazing Mr. X 1948 Bernard Vorhaus Eagle-Lion [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [10] Also known as The Spiritualist.
The Amazing Quest of Ernest Bliss 1936 Alfred Zeisler United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [11] Also known as The Amazing Adventure. This is a remake of the 1920 film The Amazing Quest of Mr. Ernest Bliss.
Angel and the Badman 1947 James Edward Grant Republic Pictures 1975 Failure to renew copyright.[12]
The Animal Kingdom 1932 Edward H. Griffith RKO Radio Pictures 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Algiers 1938 John Cromwell United Artists 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Attack of the Giant Leeches 1959 Bernard L. Kowalski American International Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [14]
At War with the Army 1950
(registered: 1951)
Hal Walker Paramount Pictures 1977 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [15] Despite the fact that the films copyright was registered on January 23, 1951(LP 679) and renewed on December 7, 1979 (RE43009) it still managed to lapse into the Public domain in 1977.[citation needed]
Bear Shooters 1930 Robert F. McGowan MGM [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [16]
Beat the Devil 1953 John Huston Briitsh Lion Films, United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [17]
Beau Brummel 1924 Harry Beaumont Warner Brothers 1952 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Beau Ideal 1931
(copyright notice: 1930)
Herbert Brenon RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Behind Office Doors 1931 Melville W. Brown RKO Radio Pictures 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Big Cat 1949 Phil Karlson Eagle-Lion 1976 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [19]
The Big Trees 1952 Felix E. Feist Warner Bros. [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [20]
The Big Wheel 1949 Edward Ludwig United Artists 1976 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [21]
Bird of Paradise 1932 King Vidor RKO Radio Pictures 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Blood on the Sun 1945 Frank Lloyd United Artists 1973 Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Bowery at Midnight 1942 Wallace Fox Monogram Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [22]
The Brain that Wouldn't Die 1962
(completed: 1959)
Joseph Green American International Pictures 1962 Missing copyright notice [23] Originally completed in 1959 under the title The Black Door or The Head that Wouldn't Die, it wasn't released until May 3, 1962 where failure to add the copyright notice resulted in the film entering the Public Domain.[23]
Brideless Groom 1947 Edward Bernds Columbia Pictures 1960s [24] Failure to renew copyright.[24]
Captain January 1936 David Butler 20th Century Fox [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] "a legal loophole"[25] The 1924 version distributed by Principal Pictures is still under copyright.
Carnival of Souls 1962 Herk Harvey Herts-Lion International Corp. 1962 Missing copyright notice [26]
Carnival Story 1954 Kurt Neumann RKO Radio Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [27]
Charade 1963 Stanley Donen Universal Pictures 1963 Missing full copyright notice.[28] Original music still in copyright.[29] Original story by Peter Stone still in copyright.[28][30] Film remade in 2006 as The Truth About Charlie.
Check and Double Check 1930 Melville W. Brown RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[31]
Colonel Effingham's Raid 1946 Irving Pichel 20th Century Fox 1973 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [32]
Conspiracy 1930 Christy Cabanne RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Courageous Dr. Christian 1940 Bernard Vorhaus Stephens-Lang Productions [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [33] Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[33]
The Dance of Life 1929 John Cromwell Paramount Pictures 1957 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Danger Lights 1930 George B. Seitz RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Darling, How Could You! 1951 Mitchell Leisen Paramount Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [34] Based on the James Barrie play Alice Sit-By-The-Fire.
The Deadly Companions 1961 Sam Peckinpah Pathé-America 1961 Missing copyright notice [35]
Delightfully Dangerous 1945 Arthur Lubin United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [36]
Dementia 13 1963 Francis Ford Coppola American International Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [14] Also Known as The Haunted and the Hunted.
Detour 1945 Edgar G. Ulmer Producers Releasing Corporation [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Failure to renew copyright.[37]
The Devil Bat 1940 Jean Yarbrough Producers Releasing Corporation [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [22]
Disorder in the Court 1936 Preston Black Columbia Pictures 1960s [24] Failure to renew copyright.[24]
The Divorce of Lady X 1938 Tim Whelan United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [38]
Dixiana 1930 Luther Reed RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[31]
D.O.A. 1950
(copyright notice: 1949)
Rudolph Maté United Artists 1977 Failure to renew copyright.[39] Remade in 1969 and 1988
Father's Little Dividend 1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Vincente Minnelli MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[40]
Farewell to Arms, AA Farewell to Arms 1932 Frank Borzage Paramount Pictures 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[41] Based on copyrighted (R177406) novel by Ernest Hemingway.
The Fight for the Sky 1946 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] Office of War Information 1946 Work of the United States Government [G]
The First Legion 1951 Douglas Sirk Sédif Productions 1978 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [42]
The General 1927 Clyde Bruckman
Buster Keaton
United Artists 1955 Failure to renew copyright.[43]
Glen or Glenda 1953 Ed Wood Columbia Classics [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [44]
God's Little Acre 1958 Anthony Mann United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [45] Based on the Novel of the same name by Erskine Caldwell. The black and white version is Public Domain, the colorized version is Copyright.[46]
The Gold Rush 1925 Charlie Chaplin United Artists 1953 Failure to renew copyright.[43] 1942 revised version in copyright. Original 1925 version possibly copyrighted.[47]
The Gorilla 1939 Allan Dwan 20th Century Fox Film Corporation 1976 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [48]
Go for Broke! 1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Robert Pirosh MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[40]
Gulliver's Travels 1939 Dave Fleischer Paramount Pictures 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[49][50]
Half Shot at Sunrise 1930 Paul Sloane RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Hemp for Victory 1942 Raymond Evans U.S. Department of Agriculture 1942 Work of the United States Government [G]
His Girl Friday 1940
(copyright date: 1939)
Howard Hawks Columbia Pictures 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[43] Source material (stage play The Front Page) rights copyright until 2024.[43]
Hook, Line and Sinker 1930 Edward F. Cline RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1923 Wallace Worsley Universal Pictures 1951 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Indestructible Man 1956 Jack Pollexfen Allied Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [51]
Inside the Lines 1930 Roy Pomeroy RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
It's a Wonderful Life 1946
(copyright notice: 1947)
Frank Capra Liberty Films
RKO Pictures
1975 Failure to renew copyright.[52] While the film images are public domain, under rulings of Stewart v. Abend, the film text (script) is based on the copyrighted short story "The Greatest Gift".[52][53][54] Republic also purchased exclusive rights to the movie’s copyrighted music to further shore up its rights.[55]
Kept Husbands 1931 Lloyd Bacon RKO Radio Productions 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Kit Carson 1940 George B. Seitz United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] "Reissued by PCR Pictures" [56]
The Lady Refuses 1931 George Archainbaud RKO Radio Productions 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Lady to Love, AA Lady to Love 1930 Victor Sjöström MGM 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[13] Based on the play They Knew What They Wanted. See also the film The Secret Hour (1928) based on the same play.[13]
Last Clear Chance 1959 Robert Carlisle Union Pacific Railroad 1959 Not registered for copyright.[57]
The Last Man on Earth 1964 Ubaldo Ragona, Sidney Salkow American International Pictures, 20th Century Fox 1992[58] Failure to renew copyright.[58]
The Last Time I Saw Paris 1954
(copyright notice: 1944)
Richard Brooks MGM 1972 Failure to renew copyright.[59] Music score still protected by copyright.[60]
Lawful Larceny 1930 Lowell Sherman RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Leathernecking 1930 Edward F. Cline RKO Radio Productions 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18] It is a lost film.
Letter of Introduction 1938 John M. Stahl Universal Pictures 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[61]
Life with Father 1947 Michael Curtiz Warner Bros. 1975 Failure to renew copyright.[62]
Little Men 1940 Norman Z. McLeod RKO Radio Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [63]
The Little Princess 1939 Walter Lang Twentieth Century Fox 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[52]
Little Shop of HorrorsThe Little Shop of Horrors 1960 Roger Corman Filmgroup 1988 Failure to renew copyright.[43][64]
Lonely Wives 1931 Russell Mack RKO Radio Pictures 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Love Affair 1939 Leo McCarey RKO Radio Pictures 1967 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Love Laughs at Andy Hardy 1946 Willis Goldbeck MGM 1974 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [65] Also known as Uncle Andy Hardy.
Malice in the Palace 1949 Jules White Columbia Pictures 1960s [24] Failure to renew copyright.[24]
Maniac 1934 Dwain Esper Roadshow Attractions [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [66] Also known as Sex Maniac.
The Man on the Eiffel Tower 1949 Burgess Meredith RKO Radio Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [67] Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[67]
The March Hare 1956 George More O'Ferrall B & A Productions [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [68]
March of the Wooden Soldiers 1948 Gus Meins MGM 1948 Failure to display copyright notice.[28] This is a later abridgement of Babes in Toyland (1934) which is still in copyright. Public domain status unclear.[28]
McLintock! 1963 Andrew V. McLaglen United Artists 1991 Failure to renew copyright.[69][70] Music score still under copyright.[69]
Meet John Doe 1941 Frank Capra Warner Bros. 1969 Failure to renew copyright.[52]
Millie 1931 John Francis Dillon RKO Radio Pictures 1959 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Mr. Imperium 1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Don Hartman MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[40]
My Dear Secretary 1949 Charles Martin United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [71]
My Favorite Brunette 1947 Elliott Nugent Paramount Pictures 1975 Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Night of the Living Dead 1968 George A. Romero Walter Reade 1968 Missing copyright notice and errors from the distributor[72] Remade in 1990 and 2006
Nothing Sacred 1937 William A. Wellman Selznick
United Artists
1965 Failure to renew copyright.[43]
Of Human Bondage 1934 John Cromwell RKO Radio Pictures 1962 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
The Outlaw 1943 Howard Hughes Howard Hughes Prod. 1971 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
The Painted Hills 1951 Harold F. Kress MGM 1979 Failure to renew copyright.[40]
The Pay-Off 1930 Lowell Sherman RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Penny Serenade 1941 George Stevens Columbia Pictures 1968 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [16] Though the film was released by Columbia Pictures, it was OWNED by Stevens production firm, putting its Public Domain status into question.[16]
The Phantom of the Opera 1925 Rupert Julian Universal Studios 1953 Failure to renew copyright.[64]
Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor 1936 Dave Fleischer Paramount Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [73] First of 3 Popeye Technicolor Two-Reel Specials.
Private Snafu Series 1943-1946 Various Warner Bros., MGM, UPA, Harman-Ising Studio 1943-1946 Work of the United States Government [G]
Rage at Dawn 1955 Tim Whelan RKO Radio Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [74]
Rain 1932 Lewis Milestone United Artists 1960 Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Reefer Madness 1936 Louis J. Gasnier Motion Picture Ventures 1936 Improper copyright notice.[75][76] Also called The Burning Question, Dope Addict, and Tell Your Children.
Roberta 1935 William A. Seiter RKO Radio Pictures Early 1980s [77] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [77]
Rock, Rock, Rock! 1956 Will Price Distributors Corporation of America 1984 Failure to renew copyright.[64] The Chuck Berry soundtrack may not be in the public domain.
The Royal Bed 1931
(copyright notice: 1930)
Lowell Sherman RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Royal Wedding 1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Stanley Donen MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[40]
Santa Claus Conquers the Martians 1964 Nicholas Webster Embassy Pictures Corporation [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [78]
Santa Fe Trail 1940 Michael Curtiz Warner Bros. 1968 Failure to renew copyright.[79][80]
The Screaming Skull 1958 Alex Nicol American International Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [14]
Second Chorus 1940 H.C. Potter Paramount Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [81]
The Secret Hour 1928 Rowland V. Lee Paramount Pictures 1956 Failure to renew copyright.[13] Based on the play They Knew What They Wanted. See also the film A Lady to Love (1930) based on the same play.[13]
Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon 1942 Roy William Neill Universal Studios 1969 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [82]
The Silver Horde 1930 George Archainbaud RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Sin Takes a Holiday 1930 Paul L. Stein RKO Radio Pictures 1958 Failure to renew copyright.[18]
Sing a Song of Six Pants 1947 Jules White Columbia Pictures 1960s [24] Failure to renew copyright.[24]
Sinners in Paradise 1938 James Whale Universal Pictures 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[61]
Slightly Honorable 1939 Tay Garnett United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [83] Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[83]
Smouldering Fires 1925 Clarence Brown Universal Pictures 1953 Failure to renew copyright.[64]
Star Is Born, AA Star Is Born 1937 William A. Wellman SIP
United Artists
1965 Failure to renew copyright.[41][43] Re-made in 1954 and 1976
The Stork Club 1945 Hal Walker B.G. Desylva Productions Inc. 1982 [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [84]
The Strange Love of Martha Ivers 1946 Lewis Milestone Paramount Pictures 1974 Failure to renew copyright.[12]
Street Scene 1931 King Vidor United Artists Early 1980s [85] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [85]
Suddenly 1954 Lewis Allen United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [86] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [86]
Superman (1940s cartoons) 1941-1942 Dave Fleischer, Various Paramount Pictures [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [87] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [87] Although all entries are in the public domain, ancillary rights such as merchandising contract rights, as well as the original 35mm master elements, are owned today by Warner Bros. Animation. Warner has owned Superman publisher DC Comics since 1969.
Swing High, Swing Low 1937 Mitchell Leisen Paramount Pictures 1965 Failure to renew copyright.[13]
Target for Today 1941 William Keighley First Motion Picture Unit 1941 Work of the United States Government [G]
Teenagers from Outer Space 1959 Tom Graeff Warner Bros. 1987 Failed to renew copyright.[43]
Terror by Night 1946 Roy William Neill Universal Studios [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [88]
The Terror 1963 Roger Corman American International Pictures, Filmgroup 1963 Missing copyright registration [89] In the early 90's, Corman asked Mark Griffiths to shoot 12 minutes of additional footage starring Dick Miller, thus making a new film titled The Return of the Terror (1991) so Corman could claim his copyright.[90]
This is the Army 1943 Michael Curtiz Warner Bros. Mid-1970s [91] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [91]
Three Came Home 1950 Jean Negulesco 20th Century Fox 1977 Failure to renew copyright.[92]
Three Guys Named Mike 1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Charles Walters MGM 1978 Failed to renew copyright.[40]
Till the Clouds Roll By 1946 Richard Whorf MGM 1974 Failed to renew copyright.[40]
Topper Returns 1941 Roy Del Ruth United Artists 1969 Failure to renew copyright.[64]
Tulsa 1949 Stuart Heisler Walter Wanger Productions [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [93] Despite the fact that the film is available on Public Domain Video, it may or may not be in the Public Domain itself.[93]
Vengeance Valley 1951
(copyright notice: 1950)
Richard Thorpe MGM 1978 Failure to renew copyright.[40]
Waldo's Last Stand 1940 Edward L. Cahn MGM [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [16]
White Zombie 1932 Victor Halperin United Artists [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [Data unknown/missing. You can help!] [94] Source material in the film may not be in the public domain.[95]
Why We Fight 1942–1944 Frank Capra United States Army Pictorial Services 1942–44 Work of the United States Government [G]
Wives Under Suspicion 1938 James Whale Universal Pictures 1966 Failure to renew copyright.[61]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "An Introduction to Films and Motion Pictures" at RoyaltyFreeMusic.com Retrieved August 4, 2009
  2. ^ Rich, Lloyd L. (1998). "Protection of Graphic Characters". The Publishing Law Center. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 
  3. ^ Adler, Kenneth A. (1999-10-01). "Using Dramatic Characters in Multimedia Works – Avoiding the Pitfalls". Thelen LLP. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  4. ^ a b c Fishman, Stephen (2010), pg.180
  5. ^ Fishman, Stephen (2010), pg.181
  6. ^ Hirtle, Peter B. (2010-10-04). "Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States". Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  7. ^ Film Superlist: Motion Pictures in the U.S. Public Domain (1940–1949), page xii.
  8. ^ "United States Copyright Office Public Catalog". Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  9. ^ John M. Miller, "Africa Screams, Home Video Reviews", Turner Classic Movies 
  10. ^ Sullivan, Monica (1998). VideoHound's independent film guide. Visible Ink Press. pp. 12–13. 
  11. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Amazing Adventure Overview", New York Times 
  12. ^ a b c d e Pierce, David (2001)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pierce, David (2007), pp.131–34
  14. ^ a b c Smith, Gary A. (2009). The American International Pictures video guide. McFarland & Company. p. 8. 
  15. ^ Hal Erickson, "At War with the Army Overview", New York Times 
  16. ^ a b c d Hal Erickson, "Bear Shooters Overview", New York Times 
  17. ^ Hal Erickson, "Beat the Devil Overview", New York Times 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Pierce, David (2007), "Notes", pp. 140–43
  19. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Big Cat Overview", New York Times 
  20. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Big Trees Overview", New York Times 
  21. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Big Wheel Overview", New York Times 
  22. ^ a b Lennig, Arthur (2003). The Immortal Count: The Life and Films of Bela Lugosi. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 465. 
  23. ^ a b Nathaniel Thompson, "Cult Movies, The Brain that Wouldn't Die", Turner Classic Movies 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Hogan, David (2011). Three Stooges FAQ: Everything Left to Know about the Eye-Poking, Face-Slapping Head-Thumping Geniuses. Applause Theatre and Cinema Books. 
  25. ^ Hal Erickson, "Captain January Overview", New York Times 
  26. ^ Blake, Marc (2013). Writing the Horror Movie. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. p. 91. 
  27. ^ Hal Erickson, "Carnival Story Overview", New York Times 
  28. ^ a b c d Pierce, David (2007), p.130
  29. ^ Online search results for keywords "Henry Mancini Charade", from US Copyright Office.
  30. ^ The original story basis for Charade is 'The Unsuspecting Wife' by Peter Stone and Marc Behm, which appeared in the July 1961 issue of Redbook magazine. The copyright in the story was renewed by Stone in 1989 (see source: David Pierce (2007), Note #20, pg. 141).
  31. ^ a b Pierce, David (2007), pg.137
  32. ^ Hal Erickson, "Colonel Effingham's Raid Overview", New York Times 
  33. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "The Courageous Dr. Christan Overview", New York Times 
  34. ^ Hal Erickson, "Darling, How Could You! Overview", New York Times 
  35. ^ Hal Erickson, "New DVDs, Peckinpah's Deadly Companions and Major Dundee", New York Times 
  36. ^ Hal Erickson, "Delightfully Dangerous Overview", New York Times 
  37. ^ Herzogenrath, Bernd (2009). The Films of Edward G. Ulmer. Scarecrow Press. p. 151. 
  38. ^ Hal Erickson. "The Divorce of Lady X Overview". New York Times. 
  39. ^ Researching the Copyright Status of a Work from Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Pierce, David (2007), pp.138–39
  41. ^ a b Pierce, David (2007), pp.134–37
  42. ^ "The First Legion Overview", New York Times 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h Fishman, Stephen (2010), pp.174–180
  44. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group. 
  45. ^ Hal Erickson, "God's Little Acre Overview", New York Times 
  46. ^ "Public Domain Trouble Spots". Copyright Overview. Stanford University. Retrieved November 30, 2013. 
  47. ^ [1]
  48. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Gorilla Overview", New York Times 
  49. ^ John M. Miller, "Mr. Bug Goes to Town aka Hoppity Goes to Town", Turner Classic Movies 
  50. ^ David Kehr (March 6, 2009). "Classics From Disney and a Lilliputian Competitor". New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2013. 
  51. ^ Nathaniel Thompson, "The Indestructible Man, Cult Movies", Turner Classic Movies 
  52. ^ a b c d Pierce, David (2007), p.126
  53. ^ Cox, Stephen. It's a Wonderful Life: A Memory Book. Nashville, Tennessee: Cumberland House, 2003. 115. Print. ISBN 1-58182-337-1. Copyright of short story, The Greatest Gift, expires after 2038, 95 years after publication.
  54. ^ "Renewal Registrations, p. 1614." Catalog of Copyright Entries, January–June 1971, U.S. Copyright Office. Retrieved: November 8, 2010.
  55. ^ Nesi, Ted. "Why You Can't Watch It's A Wonderful Life on Demand". WPRI.com. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  56. ^ Hal Erickson, "Kit Carson Overview", New York Times 
  57. ^ Prelinger, Rick (2006). The field guide to sponsored films. National Film Preservation Foundation. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-9747099-3-2. 
  58. ^ a b Jonathan Malcolm Lampley (2010). Women in the Horror Films of Vincent Price. McFarland. p. 98. 
  59. ^ Copyright Registration and Renewal Information Chart and Web Site
  60. ^ Online results from keyword search: "Last Time I Saw Paris Conrad Salinger" in United States Copyright Office. Retrieved June 17, 2012.
  61. ^ a b c Pierce, David (2007), pg.138
  62. ^ Hal Erickson, "Life with Father Overview", New York Times 
  63. ^ Hal Erickson, "Little Men Overview", New York Times 
  64. ^ a b c d e Pierce, David (2007), p.128
  65. ^ Hal Erickson, "Love Laughs at Andy Hardy Overview", New York Times 
  66. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group. 
  67. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "The Man on the Eiffel Tower Overview", New York Times 
  68. ^ Hal Erickson, "The March Hare Overview", New York Times 
  69. ^ a b "Court Rules for 'Goodtimes' in McLintock! Case", in Billboard, May 14, 1994,pg. 73 & 82
  70. ^ Fishman, Stephen (2010), pp.337
  71. ^ Hal Erickson, "My Dear Secretary Overview", New York Times 
  72. ^ Night of the Living Dead entered the public domain because the original theatrical distributor, the Walter Reade Organization, neglected to place a copyright indication on the prints. In 1968, United States copyright law required a proper notice for a work to maintain a copyright. See U.S. Copyright Office, Circular 92, Copyright Law of the United States of America, Chapter 4: Copyright Notice, Deposit, and Registration, Omission of notice on certain copies and phonorecords. Image Ten displayed such a notice on the title frames of the film beneath the original title, Night of the Flesh Eaters but the distributor removed the statement when it changed the title. See Boluk, Stephanie; Lenz, Wylie (June 16, 2011). "Introduction: Generation Z, the Age of Apocalypse". In Boluk, Stephanie; Lenz, Wylie. Generation Zombie: Essays on the Living Dead in Modern Culture. Jefferson, North Carolina, US: McFarland & Company. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7864-6140-0. Retrieved August 26, 2011. 
  73. ^ Grandinetti, Fred (2004). Popeye: an illustrated cultural history. McFarland & Company. p. 125. 
  74. ^ Hal Erickson, "Rage at Dawn Overview", New York Times 
  75. ^ Shaye, Robert (May 22, 2003). "Graduation 2003". 
  76. ^ Anderson, Patrick (1981). High in America: the true story behind NORML and the politics of marijuana. The Viking Press. p. 101. 
  77. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Roberta Overview", New York Times 
  78. ^ Wilson, John (2005). The Official Razzie Movie Guide: Enjoying the Best of Hollywoods Worst. Hachette Book Group. 
  79. ^ Filmmakers Newsletter Volume 7, Suncraft International Incorporated, 1973 
  80. ^ Segrave, Kerry. Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry. 
  81. ^ Hal Erickson, "Second Chorus Overview", New York Times 
  82. ^ Hal Erickson, "Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Weapon Overview", New York Times 
  83. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Slightly Honorable Overview", New York Times 
  84. ^ Hal Erickson, "The Stork Club Overview", New York Times 
  85. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Street Scene Overview", New York Times 
  86. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Suddenly Overview", New York Times 
  87. ^ a b Rossen, Jake (2008). Superman Vs. Hollywood: How Fiendish Producers, Devious Directors, and Warring Writers Grounded an American Icon. Chicago Review Press. 
  88. ^ Hal Erickson, "Terror by Night Overview", New York Times 
  89. ^ Ray, Fred Olen (1991). The New Poverty Row: Independent Filmmakers as Distributors. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 51. 
  90. ^ Stevens, Brad (2003). Monte Hellman: His Life and Films. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 34. 
  91. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "This is the Army Overview", New York Times 
  92. ^ Hal Erickson, "Three Came Home Overview", New York Times 
  93. ^ a b Hal Erickson, "Tulsa Overview", New York Times 
  94. ^ Rhodes, Gary D. (2001). White Zombie: Anatomy of a Horror Film. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 280. 
  95. ^ Ryan Turek (July 6, 2010). "What Happened to Tobe Hooper's White Zombie?". shocktillyoudrop.com. Retrieved August 23, 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]