List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation

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This is an incomplete list of bacteria and fungi that are used in preparing food. Do not include species which are only involved in food spoilage. For the first column, always use the most up-to-date name for the microorganism (e.g. "Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii", not the older name "Propionibacterium shermanii"). For the food column, be as specific as possible (e.g. "cheese" or "yogurt" instead of "dairy" or "Emmental cheese" instead of "cheese"). Also, for each food create a new row so that the food column can be fully sortable. Whenever possible, cite your sources.

List of microorganisms used in food and beverage preparation[edit]

Microorganism Type of Microorganism Food or Beverage Reference(s)
Acetobacter aceti bacterium chocolate [1]
Acetobacter aceti bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter fabarum bacterium chocolate [2]
Acetobacter fabarum bacterium coffee [2]
Acetobacter lovaniensis bacterium vegetables [2]
Acetobacter malorum bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter orientalis bacterium vegetables [2]
Acetobacter pasteurianus bacterium chocolate [1][2]
Acetobacter pasteurianus bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter pomorum bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter syzygii bacterium chocolate [2]
Acetobacter syzygii bacterium vinegar [2]
Acetobacter tropicalis bacterium chocolate [2]
Acetobacter tropicalis bacterium coffee [2]
Arthrobacter arilaitensis bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][3]
Arthrobacter bergerei bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2]
Arthrobacter globiformis bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][3]
Arthrobacter nicotianae bacterium surface-ripened cheese [2][3]
Arthrobacter nicotianae bacterium Tilsit cheese [3]
Arthrobacter variabilis bacterium smear-ripened cheese [3]
Aspergillus acidus fungus tea [2]
Aspergillus niger fungus awamori [2]
Aspergillus fumigatus fungus chocolate [1]
Aspergillus oryzae fungus miso [2][4]
Aspergillus oryzae fungus sake [2]
Aspergillus oryzae fungus soy sauce [2][4][5]
Aspergillus sojae fungus miso [2]
Aspergillus sojae fungus soy sauce [2][5]
Bacillus cereus bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus coagulans bacterium chocolate [6]
Bacillus licheniformis bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus pumilus bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus sphaericus bacterium stinky tofu
Bacillus stearothermophilus bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus subtilis bacterium chocolate [1]
Bacillus subtilis bacterium natto [2]
Bifidobacterium adolescentis bacterium yogurt [2][7]
Bifidobacterium animalis bacterium dairy [2]
Bifidobacterium bifidum bacterium dairy [2][7]
Bifidobacterium breve bacterium dairy [2][7]
Bifidobacterium breve bacterium soy [2]
Bifidobacterium infantis bacterium dairy [7]
Bifidobacterium lactis bacterium dairy [7]
Bifidobacterium longum bacterium dairy [2][7]
Bifidobacterium pseudolongum bacterium dairy [2]
Bifidobacterium thermophilum bacterium dairy [2]
Brachybacterium alimentarium bacterium Beaufort cheese [8]
Brachybacterium alimentarium bacterium Gruyère cheese [8]
Brachybacterium tyrofermentans bacterium Beaufort cheese [8]
Brachybacterium tyrofermentans bacterium Gruyère cheese [8]
Brevibacterium aurantiacum bacterium cheese [2]
Brevibacterium casei bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][3]
Brevibacterium linens bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][4][5]
Candida colliculosa fungus cheese [2][3]
Candida colliculosa fungus kefir [2]
Candida exiguus fungus sourdough bread
Candida humicola fungus chocolate [1]
Candida kefyr fungus surface-ripened cheese [3]
Candida krusei fungus surface-ripened cheese [3]
Candida milleri fungus sourdough bread [5]
Candida mycoderma[9] fungus Limburger cheese [10]
Candida pelliculosa fungus chocolate [1]
Candida rugosa fungus chocolate [6]
Candida tropicalis fungus chocolate [1]
Candida utilis fungus cheese [3]
Candida valida[9] fungus sourdough [5]
Candida vini[9] fungus Reblochon cheese [3]
Candida zeylanoides fungus Reblochon cheese [3]
Carnobacterium divergens bacterium cheese [2]
Carnobacterium divergens bacterium fish [2]
Carnobacterium divergens bacterium meat [2]
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum bacterium dairy [2]
Carnobacterium piscicola bacterium meat [2]
Corynebacterium ammoniagenes bacterium cheese [2]
Corynebacterium casei bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][3]
Corynebacterium flavescens bacterium cheese [2]
Corynebacterium mooreparkense bacterium smear-ripened cheese
Corynebacterium variabile bacterium cheese [2]
Cyberlindnera mrakii fungus wine [2]
Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum fungus cheese [2]
Debaryomyces hansenii fungus smear-ripened cheese [3]
Debaryomyces hansenii fungus Reblochon cheese [3]
Debaryomyces kloeckeri fungus Limburger cheese [10]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium cheese [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium cream
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium ham [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium miso [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium pickle [2]
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium sausage
Enterococcus faecalis bacterium soy sauce [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium Manchego cheese [11]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium ham [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium miso [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium pickle [2]
Enterococcus faecium bacterium soy sauce [2]
Fusarium domesticum fungus cheese [2]
Geotrichum candidum fungus cheese [2][5]
Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans bacterium chocolate [2]
Gluconacetobacter azotocaptans bacterium coffee [2]
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus bacterium chocolate [2]
Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus bacterium coffee [2]
Gluconacetobacter entanii bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter europaeus bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter hansenii bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter johannae bacterium chocolate [2]
Gluconacetobacter johannae bacterium coffee [2]
Gluconacetobacter oboediens bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconacetobacter xylinus bacterium vinegar [2]
Gluconobacter oxydans bacterium chocolate [1]
Hafnia alvei bacterium cheese [2]
Halomonas elongata bacterium meat [2]
Issatchenkia orientalis fungus kefir [2]
Kazachstania exigua fungus kefir [2]
Kazachstania unispora fungus kefir [2]
Kloeckera africana fungus chocolate [1]
Kloeckera apis fungus chocolate .[1]
Kloeckera javanica fungus chocolate [1]
Kluyveromyces lactis fungus cheese [2][3]
Kluyveromyces marxianus fungus cheese [2][3]
Kluyveromyces marxianus fungus chocolate [6]
Kocuria rhizophila bacterium cheese [2]
Kocuria rhizophila bacterium meat [2]
Kocuria varians bacterium dairy [2]
Kocuria varians bacterium sausage [2]
Lactobacillus acetotolerans bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus acetotolerans bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus acidifarinae bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus acidipiscis bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus acidipiscis bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus acidophilus bacterium yogurt [2]
Lactobacillus alimentarius bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus alimentarius bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus brevis bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [11]
Lactobacillus brevis bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus brevis ssp. linens bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus bucheri bacterium bread [2]
Lactobacillus bucheri bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus cacaonum bacterium chocolate [2]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium Idiazabal cheese [11]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium Manchego cheese [11]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium Roncal cheese [11]
Lactobacillus casei bacterium yogurt [2][4]
Lactobacillus casei ssp. pseudoplantarum bacterium Grana Padano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus casei ssp. pseudoplantarum bacterium Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus cellobiosus bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactobacillus collinoides bacterium cider [2]
Lactobacillus composti bacterium shōchū [2]
Lactobacillus coryniformis bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus crispatus bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Cacio di Fossa cheese [11]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [11]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium Pecorino Sardo cheese [11]
Lactobacillus curvatus bacterium sausage [2][4]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus bacterium cheese [2][4]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus bacterium yogurt [2][4]
Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus dextrinicus bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus diolivorans bacterium chicha [2]
Lactobacillus fabifermentans bacterium chocolate [2]
Lactobacillus farciminis bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus farciminis bacterium soy [2]
Lactobacillus fermentum bacterium chocolate [1][2]
Lactobacillus fermentum bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus fermentum bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus fructivorans bacterium [2]
Lactobacillus frumeti bacterium [2]
Lactobacillus gasseri bacterium dairy [7]
Lactobacillus gasseri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus ghanensis bacterium chocolate [2]
Lactobacillus hammesii bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus harbinensis bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus helveticus bacterium cheese [2][4]
Lactobacillus helveticus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus hilgardii bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactobacillus hilgardii bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus homohiochii bacterium sake [2]
Lactobacillus homohiochii bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus hordei bacterium [2]
Lactobacillus jensenii bacterium bread [2]
Lactobacillus johnsonii bacterium dairy [7]
Lactobacillus johnsonii bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus kefiri bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus kimchii bacterium kimchi [2]
Lactobacillus kisonensis bacterium pickle [2]
Lactobacillus kunkeei bacterium wine [12]
Lactobacillus mali bacterium cider [12]
Lactobacillus mali bacterium rum [12]
Lactobacillus mali bacterium wine [12]
Lactobacillus manihotivorans bacterium cassava [12]
Lactobacillus mindensis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus mucosae bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus nagelii bacterium wine [12]
Lactobacillus namuresis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus nantesis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus nodensis bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus oeni bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus otakiensis bacterium pickle [2]
Lactobacillus panis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus parabrevis bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus parabrevis bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus parabrevis bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus parabuchneri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus paracasei bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus paracasei bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei bacterium Cacio di Fossa cheese [11]
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [11]
Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei bacterium Pecorino Sardo cheese [11]
Lactobacillus parakefiri bacterium kefir [2]
Lactobacillus paralimentarius bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus paraplantarum bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus paraplantarum bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [11]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium fish [2]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus pentosus bacterium wine [2]
Lactobacillus perolens bacterium cheese [2]
Lactobacillus perolens bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Cacio di Fossa cheese [11]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Canestrato Pugliese cheese [11]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Idiazabal cheese [11]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Manchego cheese [11]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Pecorino Romano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium Roncal cheese [11]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium sausage [4]
Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium vegetables [2][4]
Lactobacillus pobuzihii bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus pontis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus rapi bacterium pickle
Lactobacillus rapi bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus reuteri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium Grana Padano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese [11]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium meat [2]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus rossiae bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus sakei bacterium sake [2]
Lactobacillus sakei bacterium sausage [2][4]
Lactobacillus salivarius bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis bacterium sourdough bread [2][4]
Lactobacillus satsumensis bacterium shōchū [2]
Lactobacillus secaliphilus bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus senmaizukei bacterium pickles [2]
Lactobacillus siliginis bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus similis bacterium rum [2]
Lactobacillus spicheri bacterium sourdough bread [2]
Lactobacillus suebicus bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus spp. bacterium butter [5]
Lactobacillus spp. bacterium olive [5]
Lactobacillus sunkii bacterium pickle [2]
Lactobacillus tucceti bacterium dairy [2]
Lactobacillus tucceti bacterium sausage [2]
Lactobacillus vaccinostercus bacterium fruit [2]
Lactobacillus vaccinostercus bacterium vegetables [2]
Lactobacillus versmoldesis bacterium sausage [2]
Lactobacillus yamanashiensis bacterium cider [2]
Lactobacillus yamanashiensis bacterium wine [2]
Lactococcus lactis bacterium buttermilk [2]
Lactococcus lactis bacterium chocolate [1]
Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris bacterium Cheddar cheese [11]
Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis bacterium cheese [4][5]
Lactococcus raffinolactis bacterium cheese [2]
Lactococcus spp. bacterium butter [5]
Lecanicillium lecanii fungus cheese [2]
Leuconostoc carnosum bacterium meat [2]
Leuconostoc citreum bacterium cheese [2]
Leuconostoc citreum bacterium fish [2]
Leuconostoc fallax bacterium sauerkraut [2]
Leuconostoc holzapfelii bacterium coffee [2]
Leuconostoc inhae bacterium kimchi [2]
Leuconostoc kimchii bacterium kimchi [2]
Leuconostoc lactis bacterium cheese [2][4][7]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacterium chocolate [1]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacterium vegetables [2]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris bacterium cheese [2][4][7]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris bacterium vegetables [2][4]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium butter [2][7]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium Idiazabal cheese [11]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium pickle
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum bacterium Roncal cheese [11]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides bacterium Idiazabal cheese [11]
Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides bacterium Roncal cheese [11]
Leuconostoc palmae bacterium palm wine [2]
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacterium butter [2][7]
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacterium buttermilk [2][7]
Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides bacterium sour cream [2][7]
Leuconostoc spp. bacterium butter [5]
Leuconostoc spp. bacterium olive [5]
Leuconostoc spp. bacterium wine [5]
Macrococcus caseolyticus bacterium cheese [2]
Macrococcus caseolyticus bacterium sausage [2]
Microbacterium foliorum bacterium surface-ripened cheese
Microbacterium gubbeenense bacteria Limburger cheese [3]
Microbacterium gubbeenense bacterium smear-ripened cheese [2][3]
Microbacterium gubbeenense bacteria Tilsit cheese [3]
Micrococcus luteus bacterium cheese [2]
Micrococcus lylae bacterium sausage [2][4]
Mucor hiemalis fungus soy bean curd [2]
Mucor plumbeus fungus cheese [2]
Mucor racemosus fungus cheese [2]
Mucor racemosus fungus chocolate [1]
Oenococcus oeni bacterium wine [2][4][5]
Pediococcus acidilactici bacterium sausage [2][4][5]
Pediococcus acidilactici bacterium vegetables [4][5]
Pediococcus pentosaceus bacterium sausage [2][4][5]
Penicillium album fungus farmhouse cheeses [3]
Penicillium camemberti fungus cheese [2][4] v
Penicillium caseifulvum fungus cheese [2]
Penicillium chrysogenum fungus cheese [2]
Penicillium chrysogenum fungus sausage [4]
Penicillium commune fungus surface-ripened cheese [2][3]
Penicillium nalgiovense fungus cheese [2]
Penicillium nalgiovense fungus ham
Penicillium nalgiovense fungus sausage [5]
Penicillium roqueforti fungus cheese [2][4][5]
Penicillium solitum fungus meat [2]
Pichia fermentans fungus dairy [2]
Pichia fermentans fungus kefir [2]
Pichia fermentans fungus wine [2]
Propionibacterium acidipropionici bacterium cheese [2]
Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii bacterium dairy [2][5]
Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii bacterium Emmental cheese [2][4][5]
Propionibacterium jensenii bacterium cheese [2]
Propionibacterium thoenii bacterium cheese [2]
Proteus vulgaris bacterium surface-ripened cheese
Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterium yogurt
Psychrobacter celer bacterium cheese
Rhizopus microsporus ssp. oligosporus fungus oncom [5]
Rhizopus microsporus ssp. oligosporus fungus tempeh [2][4][5]
Rhodosporidium infirmominiatum fungus cheese [3]
Rhodotorula glutinis fungus chocolate [1]
Rhodotorula minuta fungus smear-ripened cheese [3]
Rhodotorula rubra fungus chocolate [1]
Saccharomyces bayanus fungus beer [2]
Saccharomyces bayanus fungus cider [2]
Saccharomyces bayanus fungus wine [2]
Saccharomyces carlsbergensis fungus lager beer [5]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus ale beer [2][4]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus bread [2][4]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus cider [2]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus cheese [2][3]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus chocolate [1]
Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungus wine [2][4]
Saccharomyces pastorianus fungus lager beer [4]
Saccharomyces rouzii fungus miso
Saccharomyces uvarum fungus lager beer [5]
Staphylococcus carnosus bacterium cheese [3]
Staphylococcus carnosus ssp. carnosus bacterium sausage [2][4]
Staphylococcus condimenti bacterium soy [2]
Staphylococcus equorum bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus equorum ssp. linens bacterium cheese [2][3]
Staphylococcus fleurettii bacterium cheese [2]
Staphylococcus piscifermentans bacterium fish [2]
Staphylococcus saphrophyticus bacterium Harzer cheese [3]
Staphylococcus sciuri ssp. carnaticus bacterium cheese [2]
Staphylococcus simulans bacterium sausage
Staphylococcus succinus bacterium dairy [2]
Staphylococcus succinus bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus vitulinus bacterium cheese [2]
Staphylococcus vitulinus bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus warneri bacterium meat [2]
Staphylococcus xylosus bacterium cheese [2][3]
Staphylococcus xylosus bacterium sausage
Streptococcus gallolyticus bacterium dairy [2]
Streptococcus salivarius bacterium yogurt
Streptococcus thermophilus bacterium cheese [2][4]
Streptococcus thermophilus bacterium yogurt [4][5]
Streptomyces griseus bacterium meat
Tetragenococcus halophilus bacterium miso [2]
Tetragenococcus halophilus bacterium soy sauce [2][4]
Tetragenococcus koreensis bacterium kimchi [2]
Torulaspora delbrueckii fungus smear-ripened cheese [3]
Torulopsis versatilis fungus miso
Thrichosporon beigelii fungus smear-ripened cheese [3]
Verticillium lecanii fungus Tomme cheese [3]
Weissella beninensis bacterium cassava [2]
Weissella cibaria bacterium kimchi [2]
Weissella fabaria bacterium chocolate [2]
Weissella ghanesis bacterium chocolate [2]
Weissella koreensis bacterium kimchi [2]
Weissella paramesenteroides bacterium sausage [2]
Weissella thailandesis bacterium fish [2]
Yarrowia lipolytica fungus Raclette cheese [3]
Yarrowia lipolytica fungus smear-ripened cheese [3]
Yarrowia lipolytica fungus dairy [2]
Zygotorulaspora florentina fungus kefir [2]
Zymomonas mobilis bacterium palm wine [2]
Zymomonas mobilis bacterium pulque [2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Microbe Wiki, "Chocolate"
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc Egon Bech Hansen, "Microorganisms with technologically beneficial use." presented at the IDF World Dairy Summit 2011
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Barry A. Law and Adnan Tamime, (2011) Technology of Cheesemaking. John Wiley & Sons, pp. Google Books preview
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Robert Wayne Hutkins, (2006) Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 75–76. Google Books preview
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Arthur P. Riley, (2005) New Developments in Food Policy, Control and Research. Nova Publishers, p. 35. Google Books preview
  6. ^ a b c Christine L. Case, The Microbiology of Chocolate, Skyline College.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kalidas Shetty, (2006) Food biotechnology. CRC Press, pp. 222, 226, 229. Google Books preview
  8. ^ a b c d Schubert, K. et al. (1996) "Two coryneform bacteria isolated from the surface of French Gruyère and Beaufort cheeses are new species of the genus Brachybacterium: Brachybacterium alimentarium sp. nov. and Brachybacterium tyrofermentans sp. nov." Int J Syst Bacteriol. 46 (1): 81-7. PMID 8573524
  9. ^ a b c NOTE: Candida mycoderma, Candida valida, and/or Candida vini are sometimes listed as a starter culture for wine, but this is not true. They only cause 'flowers of wine', a type of wine spoilage.
  10. ^ a b Hosono, A. and Tokita, F. (1970) "The lipolytic properties of Candida mycoderma and Debaryomyces kloeckeri isolated from Limburger cheese and some properties of the lipases produced by these yeasts." Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 41 (10): 519–527.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad P. F. Fox, (2004) Cheese: Major Cheese Groups. Academic Press, p. 59, 74. Google Books preview
  12. ^ a b c d e f David Hendricks Bergey and David R. Boone, (2009) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes. Springer–Verlag, p. 502 Google Books preview