Chocolate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation).
Chocolate
Chocolate.jpg
Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown color
Main ingredients Chocolate liquor
Cookbook:Chocolate  Chocolate
Paul Gavarni Woman Chocolate Vendor (1855–57)

Chocolate Listeni/ˈɒk(ə)lət/ is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste or in a block or used as a flavoring ingredient in other sweet foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mexico and Central America. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya, with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BC.[1] In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Mayans and Aztecs,[2] who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl /ʃoˈkolaːt͡ɬ/, a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor.

After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, pure chocolate in rough form. Because the cocoa mass is usually liquefied before being molded with or without other ingredients, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Unsweetened baking chocolate (bitter chocolate) contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or other fat, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk but no cocoa solids.

Cocoa solids are one of the richest sources of flavanol antioxidants.[3] They also contain alkaloids such as theobromine, phenethylamine and caffeine.[4] These have physiological effects on the body and are linked to serotonin levels in the brain. Some research has found that chocolate, eaten in moderation, can lower blood pressure.[5] The presence of theobromine renders chocolate toxic to some animals,[6] especially dogs and cats.

Chocolate has become one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and a vast number of foodstuffs involving chocolate have been created. Chocolate chip cookies have become very common, and very popular, in most parts of Europe and North America. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes have become traditional on certain holidays. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate.

Although cocoa originated in the Americas, today Western Africa produces almost two-thirds of the world's cocoa, with Côte d'Ivoire growing almost half of it.

European Union regulations require dark chocolate to have at least 60% cocoa solids, milk chocolate 25%, and white chocolate none.[citation needed]

Etymology

"Traités nouveaux & curieux du café du thé et du chocolate", by Philippe Sylvestre Dufour, 1685

The word "chocolate" entered the English language from Spanish.[7] How the word came into Spanish is less certain, and there are competing explanations. Perhaps the most cited explanation is that "chocolate" comes from Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs, from the word chocolātl, which many sources say derived from xocolātl /ʃokolaːtɬ/, combining xococ, sour or bitter, and ātl, water or drink.[7] However, as William Bright noted,[8] the word "chocolatl" does not occur in central Mexican colonial sources, making this an unlikely derivation. Santamaria[9] gives a derivation from the Yucatec Maya word chokol meaning hot, and the Nahuatl atl meaning water. Sophie and Michael D. Coe agree with this etymology.

Pointing to various sources dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, they identify cacahuatl (cacao water) as the original Nahuatl word for the cold beverage consumed by the Aztecs. Noting that using a word with caca in it to describe a thick brown beverage would not have gone over well with most speakers of Spanish because caca means faeces in Spanish, the Coes suggest that the Spanish colonisers combined the Nahuatl atl with the Yucatec Maya chocol, for, unlike the Aztec, the Maya tended to drink chocolate heated. The Spanish preferred the warm Mayan preparation of the beverage to the cold Aztec one, so the colonisers substituted chocol in place of the culturally unacceptable caca.[10]

More recently, Dakin and Wichmann derive it from another Nahuatl term, chicolatl from eastern Nahuatl, meaning "beaten drink". They derive this term from the word for the frothing stick, chicoli.[11] However, the Coes write that xicalli referred to the gourd out of which the beverage was consumed and that the use of a frothing stick (known as a molinillo) was a product of creolisation between the Spanish and Aztec; the original frothing method used by the indigenous people was simply pouring the drink from a height into another vessel.[10]

History

Aztec. Man Carrying a Cacao Pod, 1440-1521. Volcanic stone, traces of red pigment. Brooklyn Museum

Mesoamerican usage

A Mayan chief forbids a person to touch a jar of chocolate
Mayan writing referring to cocoa.

Chocolate has been prepared as a drink for nearly all of its history. For example, one vessel found at an Olmec archaeological site on the Gulf Coast of Veracruz, Mexico, dates chocolate's preparation by pre-Olmec peoples as early as 1750 BC.[12] On the Pacific coast of Chiapas, Mexico, a Mokaya archaeological site provides evidence of cacao beverages dating even earlier, to 1900 BC.[1][12] The residues and the kind of vessel in which they were found indicate the initial use of cacao was not simply as a beverage, but the white pulp around the cacao beans was likely used as a source of fermentable sugars for an alcoholic drink.[13]

An early Classic-period (460–480 AD) Mayan tomb from the site in Rio Azul had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink, suggests the Maya were drinking chocolate around 400 AD.[14] Documents in Maya hieroglyphs stated chocolate was used for ceremonial purposes, in addition to everyday life.[15] Mayans grew cacao trees in their backyards,[16] and used the cacao seeds the trees produced to make a frothy, bitter drink.[17]

By the 15th century, the Aztecs gained control of a large part of Mesoamerica and adopted cacao into their culture. They associated chocolate with Quetzalcoatl, who, according to one legend, was cast away by the other gods for sharing chocolate with humans,[18] and identified its extrication from the pod with the removal of the human heart in sacrifice.[19] In contrast to the Mayans, who liked their chocolate warm, the Aztecs drank it cold, seasoning it with a broad variety of additives, including the petals of the Cymbopetalum penduliflorum tree, chile pepper, allspice, vanilla, and honey.

The Aztecs were not able to grow cacao themselves, as their home in the Mexican highlands was unsuitable for it, so chocolate was a luxury imported into the empire.[18] Those who lived in areas ruled by the Aztecs were required to offer cacao seeds in payment of the tax they deemed "tribute".[18] Cocoa beans were often used as currency.[20] For example, the Aztecs used a system in which one turkey cost 100 cacao beans and one fresh avocado was worth three beans.[21]

European adaptation

Chocolate soon became a fashionable drink of the nobility after the discovery of the Americas. The morning chocolate by Pietro Longhi; Venice, 1775–1780

Until the 16th century, no European had ever heard of the popular drink from the Central and South American peoples.[18] Christopher Columbus and his son Ferdinand encountered the cacao bean on Columbus's fourth mission to the Americas on 15 August 1502, when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain cacao beans among other goods for trade.[22] Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés may have been the first European to encounter it, as the frothy drink was part of the after-dinner routine of Montezuma.[14][23] Jose de Acosta, a Spanish Jesuit missionary who lived in Peru and then Mexico in the later 16th century, wrote of its growing influence on the Spaniards:

Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth that is very unpleasant taste. Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, where with they feast noble men who pass through their country. The Spaniards, both men and women that are accustomed to the country are very greedy of this Chocolate. They say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some cold, and some temperate, and put therein much of that "chili"; yea, they make paste thereof, the which they say is good for the stomach and against the catarrh.[24]

While Columbus had taken cacao beans with him back to Spain,[22] chocolate made no impact until Spanish friars introduced it to the Spanish court.[18] After the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, chocolate was imported to Europe. There, it quickly became a court favorite. It was still served as a beverage, but the Spanish added sugar, as well as honey, to counteract the natural bitterness.[25] By 1602, chocolate had made its way from Spain to Austria.[26] By 1662, the bishop of Rome had declared that religious fasts were not broken by consuming chocolate drinks. Within about a hundred years, chocolate established a foothold throughout Europe.[18]

Silver chocolate pot with hinged finial to insert a molinet or swizzle stick, London 1714-15 (Victoria and Albert Museum)

The new craze for chocolate brought with it a thriving slave market, as between the early 1600s and late 1800s, the laborious and slow processing of the cacao bean was manual.[18] Cacao plantations spread, as the English, Dutch, and French colonized and planted. With the depletion of Mesoamerican workers, largely to disease, cacao production was often the work of poor wage laborers and African slaves. Wind-powered and horse-drawn mills were used to speed production, but chocolate would remain a treat for the elite and the wealthy until the arrival of the Industrial Revolution brought steam-powered engines to speed the processing of the bean.[25] The first steam-driven chocolate mill was created by a French inventor named Debuisson in the early 1700s.[18]

As the processes for chocolate making sped the production, new techniques and approaches revolutionized the texture and taste. In 1815, Dutch chemist Coenraad Van Houten introduced alkaline salts to chocolate, which reduced its bitterness.[18] A few years thereafter, in 1828, he created a press to remove about half the natural fat (cocoa butter or cacao butter) from chocolate liquor, which made chocolate both cheaper to produce and more consistent in quality. This innovation introduced the modern era of chocolate.[22] Known as "Dutch cocoa", this machine-pressed chocolate was instrumental in the transformation of chocolate to its solid form when, in 1847, Joseph Fry learned to make chocolate moldable by adding back melted cacao butter.[25] Milk had sometimes been used as an addition to chocolate beverages since the mid-17th century, but in 1875 Daniel Peter invented milk chocolate by mixing a powdered milk developed by Henri Nestlé with the liquor.[18][22] In 1879, the texture and taste of chocolate was further improved when Rudolphe Lindt invented the conching machine.[27]

Besides Nestlé, a number of notable chocolate companies had their start in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Cadbury was manufacturing boxed chocolates in England by 1868.[18] In 1893, Milton S. Hershey purchased chocolate processing equipment at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and soon began the career of Hershey's chocolates with chocolate-coated caramels.

Types

Main article: Types of chocolate
Chocolate is commonly used as a coating for various fruits such as cherries and/or fillings, such as liqueurs.
Disk of chocolate (about 4cm in diameter), as sold in Central America, for making hot cocoa. Note that the chocolate pictured here is soft, can easily be crumbled by hand, and already has sugar added.

Several types of chocolate can be distinguished. Pure, unsweetened chocolate contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, combining chocolate with sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. In the U.K. and Ireland, milk chocolate must contain a minimum of 20% total dry cocoa solids; in the rest of the European Union, the minimum is 25%.[28] "White chocolate" contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids. Chocolate contains alkaloids such as theobromine and phenethylamine, which have some physiological effects in humans and has been linked to serotonin levels in the brain, but the presence of theobromine renders it toxic to some animals, such as dogs and cats.[29] Dark chocolate has been promoted for unproven health benefits,[30] as it seems to possess substantial amounts of antioxidants that reduce the formation of free radicals.

White chocolate, although similar in texture to that of milk and dark chocolate, does not contain any cocoa solids. Because of this, many countries do not consider white chocolate as chocolate at all.[31] Although white chocolate was first introduced by Hebert Candies in 1955, Mars, Incorporated, was the first to produce it in the United States. Because it does not contain any cocoa solids, white chocolate does not contain any theobromine, so it can be consumed by animals.

Dark chocolate is produced by adding fat and sugar to the cacao mixture. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration calls this "sweet chocolate", and requires a 15% concentration of chocolate liquor. European rules specify a minimum of 35% cocoa solids.[28] Dark chocolate, with its high cocoa content, is a rich source of epicatechin and gallic acid, which are thought to possess cardioprotective properties. Dark chocolate has also been said to reduce the possibility of a heart attack when consumed regularly in small amounts.[32] Semisweet chocolate is a dark chocolate with a low sugar content. Bittersweet chocolate is chocolate liquor to which some sugar (typically a third), more cocoa butter, vanilla, and sometimes lecithin have been added. It has less sugar and more liquor than semisweet chocolate, but the two are interchangeable in baking.

Unsweetened chocolate is pure chocolate liquor, also known as bitter or baking chocolate. It is unadulterated chocolate: the pure, ground, roasted chocolate beans impart a strong, deep chocolate flavor.

Raw chocolate, often referred to as raw cacao, is always dark and a minimum of 75% cacao. Because the act of processing results in the loss of certain vitamins and minerals (such as magnesium), some consider raw cacao to be a more nutritious form of chocolate.[33]

Chocolate may have whitish spots on the dark chocolate part, called chocolate bloom; it is an indication that sugar and/or fat has separated due to poor storage. It is not toxic.

Production

Chocolate is created from the cocoa bean. A cacao tree with fruit pods in various stages of ripening

Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in West Africa, with 43% sourced from Ivory Coast,[34] where child labor is a common practice to obtain the product.[35][36][37] According to the World Cocoa Foundation, some 50 million people around the world depend on cocoa as a source of livelihood.[38] In the UK, most chocolatiers purchase their chocolate from them, to melt, mold and package to their own design.[39] The WCF's report titled 'Cocoa Market Update (2012)'[40] the Ivory Coast is the largest producer of cocoa in the world.

Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solids content or by substituting cocoa butter with another fat. Cocoa growers object to allowing the resulting food to be called "chocolate", due to the risk of lower demand for their crops.[38] The sequencing in 2010 of the genome of the cacao tree may allow yields to be improved.[41]

The two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy are chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate (covering). Chocolatiers use the finished couverture to make chocolate candies (bars, truffles, etc.).[42]

Cacao varieties

Toasted cacao beans at a chocolate workshop at the La Chonita Hacienda in Tabasco

Chocolate is made from cocoa beans, the dried and partially fermented seeds of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao), a small (4– to 8-m-tall (15– to 26-ft-tall) evergreen tree native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. Recent genetic studies suggest the most common genotype of the plant originated in the Amazon basin and was gradually transported by humans throughout South and Central America. Early forms of another genotype have also been found in what is now Venezuela. The scientific name, Theobroma, means "food of the deities".[43] The fruit, called a cacao pod, is ovoid, 15–30 cm (or 6–12 in) long and 8–10 cm (3–4 in) wide, ripening yellow to orange, and weighing about 500 g (1 lb) when ripe.

Cacao trees are small, understory trees that need rich, well-drained soils. They naturally grow within 20° of either side of the equator because they need about 2000 mm of rainfall a year, and temperatures in the range of 21 to 32°C. Cacao trees cannot tolerate a temperature lower than 15°C (59°F).[44]

The three main varieties of cacao beans used in chocolate are criollo, forastero, and trinitario.

Criollo

Representing only 5% of all cocoa beans grown,[45] criollo is the rarest and most expensive cocoa on the market, and is native to Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern tier of South American states.[46] The genetic purity of cocoas sold today as criollo is disputed, as most populations have been exposed to the genetic influence of other varieties.

Criollos are particularly difficult to grow, as they are vulnerable to a variety of environmental threats and produce low yields of cocoa per tree. The flavor of criollo is described as delicate yet complex, low in classic chocolate flavor, but rich in "secondary" notes of long duration.[47]

Forastero

The most commonly grown bean is forastero,[45] a large group of wild and cultivated cacaos, most likely native to the Amazon basin. The African cocoa crop is entirely of the forastero variety. They are significantly hardier and of higher yield than criollo. The source of most chocolate marketed,[45] forastero cocoas are typically strong in classic "chocolate" flavor, but have a short duration and are unsupported by secondary flavors, producing "quite bland" chocolate.[45]

Trinitario

Trinitario is a natural hybrid of criollo and forastero. Trinitario originated in Trinidad after an introduction of forastero to the local criollo crop. Nearly all cacao produced over the past five decades is of the forastero or lower-grade trinitario varieties.[48]

Processing

Video of cacao beans being ground and mixed with other ingredients to make chocolate at a Mayordomo store in Oaxaca

Cacao pods are harvested by cutting them from the tree using a machete, or by knocking them off the tree using a stick. The beans with their surrounding pulp are removed from the pods and placed in piles or bins, allowing access to micro-organisms so fermentation of the pectin-containing material can begin. Yeasts produce ethanol, lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria produce acetic acid. The fermentation process, which takes up to seven days, also produces several flavor precursors, eventually resulting in the familiar chocolate taste.[49]

It is important to harvest the pods when they are fully ripe, because if the pod is unripe, the beans will have a low cocoa butter content, or sugars in the white pulp will be insufficient for fermentation, resulting in a weak flavor. After fermentation, the beans must be quickly dried to prevent mold growth. Climate and weather permitting, this is done by spreading the beans out in the sun from five to seven days.[50]

The dried beans are then transported to a chocolate manufacturing facility. The beans are cleaned (removing twigs, stones, and other debris), roasted, and graded. Next, the shell of each bean is removed to extract the nib. Finally, the nibs are ground and liquefied, resulting in pure chocolate in fluid form: chocolate liquor.[51] The liquor can be further processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter.[52]

Blending

Main article: Types of chocolate

Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couvertures. The basic blends of ingredients for the various types of chocolate (in order of highest quantity of cocoa liquor first), are:

Fountain chocolate is made with high levels of cocoa butter, allowing it to flow gently over a chocolate fountain to serve as dessert fondue.
  • Dark chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, and (sometimes) vanilla
  • Milk chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor, milk or milk powder, and vanilla
  • White chocolate: sugar, cocoa butter, milk or milk powder, and vanilla

Usually, an emulsifying agent, such as soy lecithin, is added, though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for purity reasons and to remain GMO-free, sometimes at the cost of a perfectly smooth texture. Some manufacturers are now using PGPR, an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel.

The texture is also heavily influenced by processing, specifically conching (see below). The more expensive chocolate tends to be processed longer and thus have a smoother texture and mouthfeel, regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added.

Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas, but varying proportions of the different constituents are used. The finest, plain dark chocolate couvertures contain at least 70% cocoa (both solids and butter), whereas milk chocolate usually contains up to 50%. High-quality white chocolate couvertures contain only about 35% cocoa butter.

Producers of high-quality, small-batch chocolate argue that mass production produces bad-quality chocolate.[45] Some mass-produced chocolate contains much less cocoa (as low as 7% in many cases), and fats other than cocoa butter. Vegetable oils and artificial vanilla flavor are often used in cheaper chocolate to mask poorly fermented and/or roasted beans.[45]

In 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association in the United States, whose members include Hershey, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, lobbied the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change the legal definition of chocolate to let them substitute partially hydrogenated vegetable oils for cocoa butter, in addition to using artificial sweeteners and milk substitutes.[53] Currently, the FDA does not allow a product to be referred to as "chocolate" if the product contains any of these ingredients.[54][55]

Conching

Main article: Conching
Chocolate melanger mixing raw ingredients

The penultimate process is called conching. A conche is a container filled with metal beads, which act as grinders. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept in a liquid state by frictional heat. Chocolate prior to conching has an uneven and gritty texture. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect, hence the smooth feel in the mouth. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours, and lesser grades about four to six hours. After the process is complete, the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to about 45–50°C (113–122°F) until final processing.[56]

Tempering

The final process is called tempering. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size, some or all large enough to be clearly seen with the naked eye. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte, and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken.[57] The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the result of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process.

The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization).[57][58] The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. The six different crystal forms have different properties.

Crystal Melting temp. Notes
I 17°C (63°F) Soft, crumbly, melts too easily
II 21°C (70 F) Soft, crumbly, melts too easily
III 26°C (79°F) Firm, poor snap, melts too easily
IV 28°C (82°F) Firm, good snap, melts too easily
V 34°C (93°F) Glossy, firm, best snap, melts near body temperature (37°C)
VI 36 °C (97 °F) Hard, takes weeks to form
Molten chocolate and a piece of a chocolate bar

As a solid piece of chocolate, the cocoa butter fat particles are in a crystalline rigid structure that gives the chocolate its solid appearance. Once heated, the crystals of the polymorphic cocoa butter are able to break apart from the rigid structure and allow the chocolate to obtain a more fluid consistency as the temperature increases - the melting process. When the heat is removed, the cocoa butter crystals become rigid again and come closer together, allowing the chocolate to solidify.[59]

The temperature in which the crystals obtain enough energy to break apart from their rigid conformation would depend on the milk fat content in the chocolate and the shape of the fat molecules, as well as the form of the cocoa butter fat. Chocolate with a higher fat content will melt at a lower temperature.[60]

Making chocolate considered "good" is about forming as many type V crystals as possible. This provides the best appearance and texture and creates the most stable crystals, so the texture and appearance will not degrade over time. To accomplish this, the temperature is carefully manipulated during the crystallization.

Generally, the chocolate is first heated to 45°C to melt all six forms of crystals.[57][58] Next, the chocolate is cooled to about 27°C, which will allow crystal types IV and V to form. At this temperature, the chocolate is agitated to create many small crystal "seeds" which will serve as nuclei to create small crystals in the chocolate. The chocolate is then heated to about 31°C to eliminate any type IV crystals, leaving just type V. After this point, any excessive heating of the chocolate will destroy the temper and this process will have to be repeated. However, other methods of chocolate tempering are used. The most common variant is introducing already tempered, solid "seed" chocolate. The temper of chocolate can be measured with a chocolate temper meter to ensure accuracy and consistency. A sample cup is filled with the chocolate and placed in the unit which then displays or prints the results.

Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are:

  • Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface, such as a stone slab, until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds"; the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature.
  • Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals (this method uses the already formed crystals of the solid chocolate to "seed" the molten chocolate).

Chocolate tempering machines (or temperers) with computer controls can be used for producing consistently tempered chocolate, particularly for large volume applications.

Storage

Packaged chocolate in the Ghirardelli Chocolate Company is stored in controlled conditions.

Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17°C (59 and 63°F), with a relative humidity of less than 50%. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly. Fat bloom is caused by storage temperature fluctuating or exceeding 24°C, while sugar bloom is caused by temperature below 15°C or excess humidity. To distinguish between different types of bloom, one can rub the surface of the chocolate lightly, and if the bloom disappears, it is fat bloom. One can get rid of bloom by retempering the chocolate or using it for any use that requires melting the chocolate.[61]

Chocolate is generally stored away from other foods, as it can absorb different aromas. Ideally, chocolates are packed or wrapped, and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature. Additionally, chocolate is frequently stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper.

If refrigerated or frozen without containment, chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration, the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. Moving chocolate from one temperature extreme to another, such as from a refrigerator on a hot day, can result in an oily texture. Although visually unappealing, chocolate suffering from bloom is perfectly safe for consumption.[62][63][64]

Health effects

Chocolate with various fillings.
Positive
Negative
  • Chocolate is believed to cause heartburn because of one of its constituents, theobromine, relaxes the oesophageal sphincter muscle, hence permitting stomach acidic contents to enter into the oesophagus.[77] Theobromine is also toxic to many animals because they are unable to metabolize it (see theobromine poisoning).[6]
  • The unconstrained consumption of large quantities of any energy-rich food, such as chocolate, without a corresponding increase in activity, increases the risk of obesity. Raw chocolate is high in cocoa butter, a fat which is removed during chocolate refining, then added back in varying proportions during the manufacturing process. Manufacturers may add other fats, sugars, and milk as well, all of which increase the caloric content of chocolate.
  • Chocolate and cocoa contain moderate to high amounts of oxalate,[78][79][80][81][82][83] which can cause some health concerns particularly for individuals at risk for kidney stones.[84]
  • Chocolate absorbs lead from the environment during production, and there is a slight concern of mild lead poisoning for some types of chocolate. In a study from Nigeria, the average lead concentration of cocoa beans was less than 0.5 ng/g, among the lowest reported values for a natural food, with lead concentrations ranging from 70–230 ng/g for raw and processed cocoa.[85] These measurements "are consistent with market-basket surveys that have repeatedly listed lead concentrations in chocolate products among the highest reported for all foods. One source of contamination of the finished products is tentatively attributed to atmospheric emissions of leaded gasoline, which is still being used in Nigeria."[85] The figures are still comparatively low when compared to 200,000 ng, which is the WHO tolerable daily limit for lead consumption.[86]
  • Research on elderly people showed chocolate might cause osteoporosis.[87]
  • A few studies have documented allergic reactions with chocolate in children.[77]
  • There is some evidence that chocolate may be addictive.[88][89]

Labeling

Some manufacturers provide the percentage of chocolate in a finished chocolate confection as a label quoting percentage of "cocoa" or "cacao". It should be noted that this refers to the combined percentage of both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in the bar, not just the percentage of cocoa solids.[90] The Belgian AMBAO certification mark indicates that no non-cocoa vegetable fats have been used in making the chocolate.[91][92]

Chocolates that are organic[93] or fair trade certified[94] carry labels accordingly.

In the United States, some large chocolate manufacturers lobbied the federal government to permit confections containing cheaper hydrogenated vegetable oil in place of cocoa butter to be sold as "chocolate". In June 2007, as a response to consumer concern after the proposed change, the FDA reiterated "Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of the product, will remain a principal component of standardized chocolate."[95]

Manufacturers

Chocolate manufacturers produce a range of products from chocolate bars to fudge. Large manufacturers of chocolate products include Cadbury (the world's largest confectionery manufacturer), Guylian, The Hershey Company, Lindt & Sprüngli, Mars, Incorporated, Milka, Neuhaus and Suchard.

Guylian is best known for its chocolate Sea Shells; Cadbury for its Dairy Milk and Creme Egg. The Hershey Company, the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America, produces the Hershey Bar and Hershey's Kisses.[96] Mars Incorporated, a large privately owned U.S. corporation, produces Mars Bar, Milky Way, M&M's, Twix, and Snickers. Lindt is known for its truffle balls and Gold Easter Bunnies.

Food conglomerates Nestlé SA and Kraft Foods both have chocolate brands. Nestlé acquired Rowntree's in 1988 and now markets chocolates under their own brand, including Smarties and Kit Kat; Kraft Foods through its 1990 acquisition of Jacobs Suchard, now owns Milka and Suchard. In February 2010, Kraft also acquired British-based Cadbury.;[97] Fry's, Trebor Basset, the fair-trade brand Green & Black's, also belongs to the group.

The chocolate industry

The chocolate industry, a steadily growing, $50 billion-a-year worldwide business centered on the sale and consumption of chocolate, is prevalent on five of the seven continents.[98] Europe accounts for 45% of the world's chocolate revenue.[99] Big Chocolate, as it is also called, is essentially an oligopoly between major international chocolate companies in Europe and the U.S. The U.S. companies, such as Mars and Hershey’s alone, generate $13 billion a year in chocolate sales and account for two-thirds of U.S. manufacturers.[100] Despite the expanding reach of the chocolate industry internationally, cocoa farmers and labourers in the Ivory Coast are unaware of the uses of the beans. The high cost of chocolate in the Ivory Coast also means that it is inaccessible to the majority of the population, who are unaware of what it tastes like.[101]

Slavery

In 2009, Salvation Army International Development (SAID) UK noted that 12,000 children have been trafficked on cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast of Africa, where half of the world's chocolate is made. SAID UK states that it is these child slaves who are likely to be working in "harsh and abusive" conditions for the production of chocolate,[102] and an increasing number of health-food[103] and anti-slavery[104] organisations are now highlighting and campaigning against the use of trafficking in the chocolate industry.

In popular culture

Religious and cultural links

Chocolatier preparing Easter eggs and rabbits
Chocolate coins

Chocolate is associated with festivals such as Easter, when moulded chocolate rabbits and eggs are traditionally given in Christian communities, and Hanukkah, when chocolate coins are given in Jewish communities. Chocolate hearts and chocolate in heart-shaped boxes are popular on Valentine's Day and are often presented along with flowers and a greeting card. Chocolate is an acceptable gift on other holidays and on occasions such as birthdays.

Many confectioners make holiday-specific chocolate candies. Chocolate Easter eggs or rabbits and Santa Claus figures are two examples. Such confections can be solid, hollow, or filled with sweets or fondant.

Books and film

Chocolate has been the center of several successful book and film adaptations. In 1964, Roald Dahl published a children's novel titled Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. The novel centers on a poor boy named Charlie Bucket who takes a tour through the greatest chocolate factory in the world, owned by Willy Wonka. Two film adaptations of the novel were produced. The first was Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory, a 1971 film which later became a cult classic, and spawned the real world Willy Wonka Candy Company, which produces chocolate products to this day. Thirty-four years later, a second film adaptation was produced, titled Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. The 2005 film was very well received by critics[105] and was one of the highest grossing films that year, earning over US$470,000,000 worldwide.[106] Charlie and the Chocolate Factory was also recognized at the 78th Academy Awards, where it was nominated for Best Costume Design for Gabriella Pesucci.[107]

Like Water for Chocolate (Como agua para chocolate), a 1989 love story by novelist Laura Esquivel, was adapted to film in 1992. The plot incorporates magical realism with Mexican cuisine, and the title is a double entendre in its native language, referring both to a recipe for hot chocolate and to an idiom that is a metaphor for sexual arousal. The film earned 11 Ariel Awards from the Academia Mexicana de Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas, including Best Picture.

Chocolat, a 1999 novel by Joanne Harris, tells the story of Vianne Rocher, a young mother, whose confections change the lives of the townspeople. The 2000 film adaptation, Chocolat, also proved successful, grossing over US$150,000,000 worldwide,[108] and receiving Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for Best Picture, Best Actress, and Best Original Score.[109][110]

See also

Main article: Outline of chocolate

Notes

  1. ^ a b Watson, Traci (22 January 2013). "Earliest Evidence of Chocolate in North America". Science. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Justin Kerr. "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 1200—1521 – Obtaining Cacao". Field Museum. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Kenneth B. Miller, William Jeffery Hurst, Mark J. Payne, David A. Stuart, Joan Apgar, Daniel S. Sweigart and Boxin Ou. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (18), pp 8527–8533 DOI: 10.1021/jf801670p Publication Date (Web): 19 August 2008. Impact of Alkalization on the Antioxidant and Flavanol Content of Commercial Cocoa Powders. Retrieved: 2 April 2014.
  4. ^ "Caffeine". New South Wales Government. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Taubert, Dirk; Renate Roesen; Clara Lehmann; Norma Jung; Edgar Schömig (4 July 2007). "Effects of Low Habitual Cocoa Intake on Blood Pressure and Bioactive Nitric Oxide". The Journal of the American Medical Association 298 (1): 49–60. doi:10.1001/jama.298.1.49. PMID 17609490. Retrieved 12 January 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "Veterinary Q & A: Chocolate Toxicity". About.com. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  7. ^ a b "The American Heritage Dictionary". Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2009. 
  8. ^ Campbell, Lyle. Quichean Linguistic Prehistory; University of California Publications in Linguistics No. 81. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 104. 
  9. ^ Santamaria, Francisco. Diccionario de Mejicanismos. Mexico: Editorial Porrúa S. A. pp. 412–413. 
  10. ^ a b Coe, Michael D.; Coe, Sophie D. (1996). The True History of Chocolate. London: Thames & Hudson, Ltd. pp. 115–121. ISBN 0-500-28229-3. 
  11. ^ Dakin, Karen; Wichmann, Søren (2000). "Cacao and Chocolate: A Uto-Aztecan perspective". Ancient Mesoamerica 11: 55–75. doi:10.1017/S0956536100111058. 
  12. ^ a b Terry G. Powis, W. Jeffrey Hurst, María del Carmen Rodríguez, Ponciano Ortíz C., Michael Blake, David Cheetham, Michael D. Coe & John G. Hodgson (December 2007). "Oldest chocolate in the New World". Antiquity 81 (314). ISSN 0003-598X. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  13. ^ "New Chemical Analyses Take Confirmation Back 500 Years and Reveal that the Impetus for Cacao Cultivation was an Alcoholic Beverage". Penn Museum. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2007. 
  14. ^ a b Burleigh, Robert (2002). Chocolate: Riches from the Rainforest. Harry N. Abrams, Ins., Publishers. ISBN 0-8109-5734-5. 
  15. ^ "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. (A.D.) Using Chocolate". Field Museum. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. (A.D.) – Obtaining Cacao". Field Museum. Retrieved 2 June 2008. 
  17. ^ "Chocolate: A Mesoamerican Luxury 250–900 C.E. (A.D.) – Making Chocolate". Field Museum. Retrieved 2 June 2008. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kerr, Justin (2007). "History of Chocolate". Field Museum. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  19. ^ "Aztecs and Cacao: the bittersweet past of chocolate". Telegraph. 15 September 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  20. ^ Peniche Rivero, Piedad (1990). "When cocoa was used as currency – pre-Columbian America – The Fortunes of Money". UNESCO Courier. Retrieved 26 June 2008. 
  21. ^ Buford, Bill. "Notes of a Gastronome: Extreme Chocolate: Reporting & Essays: The New Yorker". The New Yorker. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  22. ^ a b c d Spadaccini, Jim. "The Sweet Lure of Chocolate". Exploratorium. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  23. ^ Solís y Ribadeneyra, Antonio de (1685 original [1724 trans.]). "Book III Chapter XV". The History of the Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards, done into English by Thomas Townsend (in original in Spanish). Trans. Thomas Townsend. London. pp. 336–38. 
  24. ^ History of Chocolate
  25. ^ a b c Bensen, Amanda (1 March 2008). "A Brief History of Chocolate". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  26. ^ Szogyi, Alex (1 January 1997). Chocolate: Food of the Gods. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-313-30506-1. 
  27. ^ Klein, Christopher (14 February 2014). "The Sweet History of Chocolate". History. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  28. ^ a b "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 June 2000 relating to cocoa and chocolate products intended for human consumption". Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  29. ^ Crosby, Janet Tobiassen. "Chocolate Toxicity". Veterinary Q & A. About.com. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  30. ^ "Heart-Health Benefits of Chocolate Unveiled". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  31. ^ "US Federal Register – White Chocolate; Establishment of a Standard of Identity". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2008. 
  32. ^ Ross, Emma (30 August 2004). "Dark Chocolate Could Help Hearts". CBS News. Retrieved 29 May 2008. 
  33. ^ The Raw Food Lifestyle: The Philosophy and Nutrition Behind Raw and Live Foods – Ruthann Russo. Google Books. 20 October 2009. ISBN 9781556439490. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  34. ^ Ariyoshi, Rita. "The Rarest Chocolate in the World – Surprise: It’s made in Hawai‘i". Spirit of Aloha. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2007. 
  35. ^ Hawksley, Humphrey (13 June 2002). "Africa | Meeting the 'chocolate slaves'". BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  36. ^ "Chocolate and Slavery". .american.edu. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  37. ^ McKenzie, David and Swails, Brent (19 January 2012) Slavery in Cocoa fields: a horrible "normal". CNN.
  38. ^ a b Bridges, Andrew. "Sides square off in chocolate fight". Pantagraph. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  39. ^ Dillon, Sheila (23 December 2007). "The Food Programme" (RealAudio). BBC Radio 4. 
  40. ^ "Cocoa Market Update (2012) - World Cocoa Foundation". World Cocoa Foundation. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  41. ^ "Chocolate industry avoids collapse as genome published". BBC. 14 November 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2010. 
  42. ^ "What's Noka Worth? An investigation in high-priced chocolate". Dallas Food. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2006. 
  43. ^ "Cacao". Botanica.com. 1995–2008. Retrieved 27 June 2008. 
  44. ^ "All About Chocolate: The Cacao Tree". Xocoatl. Retrieved 20 December 2007. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f Kowalchuk, Kristine. "Cuckoo for Cocoa". Westworld Alberta. Retrieved 1 February 2008. 
  46. ^ "Criollo Chocolate: Efficient Food of the Gods". MetaEfficient. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  47. ^ "Sensational Chocolates: Discover the Intense Robust flavor of 100% "Grand Cru" Chocolate". Sensational Chocolates. Archived from the original on 28 March 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  48. ^ "What are the varieties of cocoa?". International Cocoa Organization. 21 July 1998. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 27 June 2006. 
  49. ^ Schwan, R.; Wheals, A. (2004). "The Microbiology of Cocoa Fermentation and its Role in Chocolate Quality". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 44 (4): 205–221. doi:10.1080/10408690490464104. PMID 15462126.  edit
  50. ^ "Harvesting the seeds". Xocoatl. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  51. ^ "Making Chocolate from Scratch". Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  52. ^ "At the chocolate factory". The Cocoa Tree. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  53. ^ Bragg, Lynn (2007). "Letter to CMA from President (pdf)" (PDF). Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007. 
  54. ^ "Adopt Regulations of General Applicability to all Food Standards that would Permit, within Stated Boundaries, Deviations from the Requirements of the Individual Food Standards of Identity". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 9 June 2007. 
  55. ^ "2007P-0085 Appendix C Changes Allowed to Modernize Food Standards While Retaining The Basic Nature and Essential Characteristics of Standardized Food" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 9 June 2007. 
  56. ^ Zonis, Stephanie. "Conching: Crucial Step in Chocolate’s Flavor and Texture?". Sally's Place. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  57. ^ a b c LaBau, Elizabeth. "How To Temper Chocolate". About.com. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  58. ^ a b Loisel C, Keller G, Lecq G, Bourgaux C, Ollivon M (1998). "Phase Transitions and Polymorphism of Cocoa Butter". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 75 (4): 425–439. doi:10.1007/s11746-998-0245-y. "See Table 2 page 426 for tempering temperatures" 
  59. ^ National Confectioner's Association. "The Sweet Truth about Cocoa Butter". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  60. ^ The Royal Institution of Great Britain. "Why Chocolate Melts and Jet Planes Don't". The Royal Institution of Great Britain. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  61. ^ Frederic Bau (Ed.) (2011) Cooking With Chocolate: Essential Recipes and Techniques, Paris: Flammarion, S.A., p. 147. ISBN 978-2-08-020081-5.
  62. ^ "Tips for Chocolate Care". Ghirardelli. Retrieved 16 April 2007. 
  63. ^ Miller, Teresa. "Milkfat Fractions Help Beat Blooming Chocolate". College of Agricultural Life and Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2007. 
  64. ^ "How to Store Chocolate". CocoaBella. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2007. 
  65. ^ DeNoon, Daniel J. "Dark Chocolate Is Healthy Chocolate". WebMD. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  66. ^ a b Grassi, D.; Desideri, G.; Necozione, S.; Lippi, C.; Casale, R.; Properzi, G.; Blumberg, J. B.; Ferri, C. (2008). "Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate". The Journal of nutrition 138 (9): 1671–1676. PMID 18716168.  edit
  67. ^ Eating high levels of chocolate could be associated with a significant reduction in the risk of certain cardiovascular disorders, reveals Cambridge research published in the British Medical Journal this week. Cambridge Research Publication
  68. ^ Buitrago-Lopez, A.; Sanderson, J.; Johnson, L.; Warnakula, S.; Wood, A.; Di Angelantonio, E.; Franco, O. H. (2011). "Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ 343: d4488. doi:10.1136/bmj.d4488. PMC 3163382. PMID 21875885.  edit
  69. ^ Nurk, Eha et al.; Refsum, H.; Drevon, C. A.; Tell, G. S.; Nygaard, H. A.; Engedal, K.; Smith, A. D.; Vollset, SE; Refsum, H (2009). "Intake of Flavonoid-Rich Wine, Tea, and Chocolate by Elderly Men and Women Is Associated with Better Cognitive Test Performance". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (3): 738–746. doi:10.3945/jn.108.095182. PMID 19056649. 
  70. ^ Allen, R. R.; Carson, L.; Kwik-Uribe, C.; Evans, E. M.; Erdman Jr, J. W. (2008). "Daily consumption of a dark chocolate containing flavanols and added sterol esters affects cardiovascular risk factors in a normotensive population with elevated cholesterol". The Journal of nutrition 138 (4): 725–731. PMID 18356327.  hi edit
  71. ^ Robbins, John (22 February 2011). "Chocolate's Startling Health Benefits". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 
  72. ^ Khawaja O, Gaziano JM, Djoussé L (2011). "Chocolate and coronary heart disease: a systematic review". Curr Atheroscler Rep 13 (6): 447–52. doi:10.1007/s11883-011-0203-2. PMID 21894553. 
  73. ^ Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, Kroon PA, Cohn JS, Rimm EB, Cassidy A (2012). "Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials". Am J Clin Nutr 95 (3): 740–51. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.023457. PMID 22301923. 
  74. ^ Golomb, Beatrice A.; Sabrina Koperski; Halbert L. White (26 March 2012). "Association Between More Frequent Chocolate Consumption and Lower Body Mass Index". Arch Intern Med. 172 (6): 519–521. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2100. PMID 22450943. 
  75. ^ Ingall, Marjorie. "Chocolate can do good things for your heart, skin and brain". CNN Health. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
  76. ^ "Dark chocolate helps diarrhea". Children's Hospital & Research Center at Oakland. Retrieved 2 May 2007. 
  77. ^ a b Latif, R (March 2013). "Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review". Neth J Med 71 (2): 63–8. PMID 23462053. 
  78. ^ Schroder, Theresa; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P. (2011). "Oxalate content in commercially produced cocoa and dark chocolate". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24 (7): 916. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2011.03.008. 
  79. ^ Zarembski, PM; Hodgkinson, A (1962). "The oxalic acid content of English diets". The British journal of nutrition 16: 627–34. doi:10.1079/bjn19620061. PMID 14003270. 
  80. ^ Weissberger, W.; Kavanagh, T. E.; Keeney, P. G. (1971). "Identification and Quantitation of Several Nonvolatile Organic Acids of Cocoa Beans". Journal of Food Science 36 (6): 877. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1971.tb15550.x. 
  81. ^ Kasidas, GP; Rose, GA (1980). "Oxalate content of some common foods: Determination by an enzymatic method". Journal of human nutrition 34 (4): 255–66. doi:10.3109/09637488009143446. PMID 7410821. 
  82. ^ Y. Ogawa, S. Takahashi, R. Kitagawa (1984). "Oxalate content in common foods". Acta Urologica Japoinica 30 (3): 305–310. 
  83. ^ Aremu, CY; Agiang, MA; Ayatse, JO (1995). "Nutrient and antinutrient profiles of raw and fermented cocoa beans". Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 48 (3): 217–23. doi:10.1007/bf01088443. PMID 8833428. 
  84. ^ "Kidney Stones: Overview from the Nephrology Department". Cleveland Clinic. 
  85. ^ a b Rankin, Charley W.; Jerome O. Nriagu; Jugdeep K. Aggarwal; Toyin A. Arowolo; Kola Adebayo; A. Russell Flegal (October 2005). "Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination". Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (10): 1344–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.8009. PMC 1281277. PMID 16203244. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  86. ^ "Lead Content of Soil, Plants, Foods, Air, and Chinese Herb Formulas". Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  87. ^ Hodgson, J.; Devine, A.; Burke, V.; Dick, I.; Prince, R. (2008). "Chocolate consumption and bone density in older women". The American journal of clinical nutrition 87 (1): 175–180. PMID 18175753.  edit
  88. ^ Miller, Michael Craig (14 February 2013). "Can you become addicted to chocolate?". Harvard Health Blog. Harvard University. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  89. ^ "Chocoholic? Now for the science part". Wales Online. 18 April 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  90. ^ Stevens, Molly. "Sorting Out Chocolate". Taunton. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  91. ^ "Chocolate Country". New York Times. 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  92. ^ "BELGIUM: Government encourages chocolate producers to support international quality label". just-food.com. 21 December 2000. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  93. ^ "National Organic Program". USDA Agricultural Marketing Service. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  94. ^ "Selling Labelled Products". Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  95. ^ "FDA's Standards for High Quality Foods". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 17 May 2008. 
  96. ^ Duncan, Andrew. "Hershey Kisses Potential Buyers Goodbye". Book Sense. Retrieved 30 June 2006. 
  97. ^ Jones, Sarah (9 April 2009). "U.K. Stocks Fluctuate as Mining Shares Rally; Cadbury Declines". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 April 2009. 
  98. ^ "About Chocolate- History". Chocolatesource.com. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  99. ^ "Report: The Global Market for Chocolate to 2006". The-infoshop.com. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  100. ^ "The Chocolate Industry: Abusive Child Labor and Poverty Behind the Sweetness". Globalexchange.org. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  101. ^ "First taste of chocolate in Ivory Coast". Metropolis TV [NL]. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  102. ^ "International Development: Human Trafficking". Salvation Army. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  103. ^ "Slavery in the chocolate industry". Food Empowerment Project. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  104. ^ "Act now to end child slavery in the chocolate industry". Anti-slavery: Today's fight for tomorrow's freedom. Retrieved 16 July 2014. 
  105. ^ "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory at Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 29 May 2008. 
  106. ^ "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory at Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 29 May 2008. 
  107. ^ "Nominees and Winners – 78th Annual Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  108. ^ "Chocolat at Box Office Mojo". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 29 May 2008. 
  109. ^ "Chocolat at the Academy Awards database". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 30 May 2008. 
  110. ^ "Chocolat at the Golden Globes database". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 30 May 2008. 

[1][2]

Further reading

Books
Bibliographies
  • Siegel, A., & Borg, A. (2012). "Chocolate". Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History. 

External links

  1. ^ "Cocoa Market Update (2012) - World Cocoa Foundation". World Cocoa Foundation: Reports. World Cocoa Foundation. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "First taste of chocolate in Ivory Coast". Metropolis TV. Metropolis TV. 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.