Music of Ireland

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The bodhrán, a traditional Irish drum.

Life in Ireland

Irish Music is music that has been created in various genres on the island of Ireland.

The indigenous music of the island is termed Irish traditional music. It has remained vibrant through the 20th, and into the 21st century, despite globalising cultural forces. In spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music influences from Britain and the United States, Irish music has kept many of its traditional aspects and has itself influenced many forms of music, such as country and roots music in the USA, which in turn have had some influence on modern rock music. It has occasionally been fused with rock and roll, punk and rock and other genres. Some of these fusion artists have attained mainstream success, at home and abroad.

In recent decades Irish music in many different genres has been very successful internationally. However, the most successful genres have been rock, popular and traditional fusion, with performers such as (in alphabetical order): Altan, Anúna, Ash, Aslan, The Bothy Band, B*Witched, Mary Black, Brendan Bowyer, Boyzone, Paul Brady, Chris de Burgh, Celtic Thunder, Celtic Woman, The Chieftains, The Clancy Brothers, Clannad, Rita Connolly, The Corrs, Phil Coulter, Nadine Coyle (of Girls Aloud), The Cranberries, Peter Cunnah (of D:Ream), Dana, De Dannan, Damien Dempsey, The Divine Comedy, Val Doonican, Ronnie Drew, The Dubliners, Duke Special, Enya, Bridie Gallagher, Rory Gallagher, Bob Geldof and The Boomtown Rats, Glen Hansard of The Frames, Niall James Horan (of One Direction), Horslips, The Hothouse Flowers, In Tua Nua, Andy Irvine, Siva Kaneswaran (of The Wanted), Luke Kelly, Kíla, James Kilbane, Johnny Logan, Dónal Lunny, Phil Lynott and Thin Lizzy, Tommy Makem, Christy Moore, Gary Moore, Van Morrison, Moving Hearts, Mundy, Ruby Murray, Sinéad O'Connor, Daniel O'Donnel, Gilbert O'Sullivan, Planxty, Damien Rice, Dickie Rock, The Saw Doctors, The Script, Snow Patrol, Something Happens, Davy Spillane, Stiff Little Fingers, Stockton's Wing, Therapy?, The Undertones, The Wolfe Tones, Two Door Cinema Club, U2, Westlife and Bill Whelan (of Riverdance fame) achieving success nationally and internationally.

Contemporary artists include Bell X1, The Blizzards, The Coronas, Cathy Davey, Joe Dolan, Mick Flannery, Fight Like Apes, Lisa Hannigan, Laura Izibor, Jape, Keywest, Imelda May, My Bloody Valentine, Declan Nerney, Picturehouse, Republic of Loose, and Villagers.

Early Irish music[edit]

A 16th century Irish Warpipe player

By the High and Late Medieval Era, the Irish annals were listing native musicians, such as the following:

Modern interpretation[edit]

Early Irish poetry and song has been translated into modern Irish and English by notable Irish poets, song collectors and musicians. The 6th century hymn Rop tú mo baile by Dallán Forgaill for example, was published in 1905 in English by Mary Elizabeth Byrne, and is widely known as Be Thou My Vision. The Blackbird of Belfast Lough (Old Irish: Int én bec; Irish: An t-éan beag) has been notably translated by poets such as Seamus Heaney, Ciaran Carson and Frank O'Connor. Notable recordings of Early Irish music include Pádraigín Ní Uallacháin's Songs of the Scribe, various music albums by choral group Anúna, and the recordings of Caitríona O'Leary with Dúlra and the eX Ensemble.[1] moi hei :3

Early Irish musicians abroad[edit]

Some musicians were acclaimed in places beyond Ireland. Cú Chuimne (died 747) lived much of his adult life in Gaelic Scotland, and composed at least one hymn. Foillan, who was alive in the seventh century, travelled through much of Britain and France; around 653 at the request of St. Gertrude of Brabant, taught psalmody to her nuns at Nievelle. Tuotilo (c.850–c. 915), who lived in Italy and Germany, was noted both as a musician and a composer.

Helias of Cologne (died 1040), is held to be the first to introduce Roman chant to Cologne. His contemporary, Aaron Scotus (died 18 November 1052) was an acclaimed composer of Gregorian chant in Germany.

Donell Dubh Ó Cathail (c. 1560s-c.1660), was not only musician of Viscount Buttevant, but, with his uncle Donell Óge Ó Cathail, harper to Elizabeth I.

Early Modern times[edit]

Instrumental featuring viola da gamba and recorder, performed by Dancing Willow

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Up to the seventeenth century, harp musicians were patronised by the aristocracy in Ireland. This tradition died out in the eighteenth century with the collapse of Gaelic Ireland. Turlough Carolan (1670–1738) is the best known of those harpists,[2][3] and over 200 of his compositions are known. Some of his pieces use elements of contemporary baroque music, but his music has entered the tradition and is played by many folk musicians today. Edward Bunting collected some of the last-known Irish harp tunes at the Belfast Harp Festival in 1792. Other important collectors of Irish music include Francis O'Neill[4] and George Petrie.

Other notable Irish musicians of this era included Cearbhall Óg Ó Dálaigh (fl. c. 1630); Piaras Feiritéar (1600?–1653); William Connellan (fl. mid-17th century) and his brother, Thomas Connellan (c. 1640/1645–1698), composers; Dominic Ó Mongain (alive 18th century); Donnchadh Ó Hámsaigh (1695–1807); poet and songwriter Eoghan Rua Ó Súilleabháin (1748–1782); Arthur O'Neill (fl. 1792); Patrick Byrne (c.1794–1863); world-renowned piper Tarlach Mac Suibhne (c. 1831–1916); poet and songwriter Colm de Bhailís (1796–1906).

Traditional music[edit]

Main article: Folk music of Ireland
A traditional music session, known in Gaelic as a seisiún.

Irish traditional music includes many kinds of songs, including drinking songs, ballads and laments, sung unaccompanied or with accompaniment by a variety of instruments. Traditional dance music includes reels (4/4), hornpipes and jigs (the common double jig is in 6/8 time).[5] The polka arrived at the start of the nineteenth century, spread by itinerant dancing masters and mercenary soldiers, returning from Europe.[6] Set dancing may have arrived in the eighteenth century.[7] Later imported dance-signatures include the mazurka and the highlands (a sort of Irished version of the Scottish strathspey).[8] In the nineteenth century folk instruments would have included the flute the fiddle and the uilleann pipes.

A revival of Irish traditional music took place around the turn of the 20th century. The button accordion and the concertina were becoming common.[9] Irish stepdance was performed at céilís, organised competitions and at some country houses where local and itinerant musicians were welcome.[10] Irish dancing was supported by the educational system and patriotic organisations. An older style of singing called sean-nós ("in the old style"), which is a form of traditional Irish singing was still found, mainly for very poetic songs in the Irish language.[11]

From 1820 to 1920 over 4,400,000 Irish emigrated to the USA, creating an Irish diaspora in Chicago (see Francis O'Neill), Boston, New York and other cities.[12] Irish musicians who were successful in the USA made recordings which found their way around the world and re-invigorated musical styles back in the homeland.[13] For example American-based fiddlers like Michael Coleman, James Morrison and Paddy Killoran did much to popularise Irish music in the 1920s and 1930s.

After a lull in the 1940s and 1950s, when (except for Céilidh bands) traditional music was at a low ebb, Seán Ó Riada's Ceoltóirí Chualann, The Chieftains, The Clancy Brothers and Tommy Makem, The Irish Rovers, The Dubliners, Ryan's Fancy and Sweeney's Men were in large part responsible for a second wave of revitalisation of Irish folk music in the 1960s. Several of these were featured in the 2010 TV movie "My Music: When Irish Eyes are Smiling".[14] Sean O'Riada in particular was singled out as a force who did much to save Irish music from disappearing through programming on Radio Éireann in the late 1940s through the 1960s. During this time he worked to promote and encourage the performing of traditional Irish music, and his work as a promoter of music and performer led directly to the formation of the Chieftains. His work inspired the likes of Planxty, The Bothy Band and Clannad in the 70s. Later came such bands as Stockton's Wing, De Dannan, Altan, Arcady, Dervish and Patrick Street, along with a wealth of individual performers.[15]

More and more people play Irish music and many new bands emerge every year Téada, Gráda, The Bonny Men, Caladh Nua, Cran, Dervish, Lúnasa being some (to name a few).

Classical music in Ireland[edit]

John Field, one of Ireland's foremost classical composers.

There is evidence of music in the "classical" tradition since the early 15th century when a polyphonic choir was established at Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, and "city musicians" were employed in the major cities and towns, who performed on festive occasions. In the 18th century, Dublin was known as the "Second City" of the British Isles, with an active musical life culminating in, among other events, the first performance of Handel's famous oratorio Messiah. The Ballad Opera trend, caused by the success of the Beggar's Opera, has left noticeable traces in Ireland, with many works that influenced the genre in England and on the continent, by musicians such as Charles Coffey and Kane O'Hara.

Composers of note[edit]

Apart from the harper-composers of the 16th century, composers in the 16th and 17th century usually came from a Protestant Anglo-Irish background, as due to the discrimination of Catholics no formal musical education was available to them. Composers were often associated with either Dublin Castle or one of the Dublin cathedrals (St Patrick's and Christ Church). These include immigrants such as Johann Sigismund Cousser, Matthew Dubourg, and Tommaso Giordani. Thomas Roseingrave and his brother Ralph were prominent Irish baroque composers. Among the next generation of composers were the Cork-born Philip Cogan (1750–1833), a prominent composer of piano music including concertos, John Stevenson (1761–1833), who is best known for his publications of Irish Melodies with poet Thomas Moore, who also wrote operas, religious music, catches, glees, odes, and songs. In the early 19th century Irish-born composers dominated English-language opera in England and Ireland, including Charles Thomas Carter (c.1735–1804), Michael Kelly (1762–1826), Thomas Simpson Cooke (1782–1848), William Henry Kearns (1794–1846), Joseph Augustine Wade (1801–1845) and, later in the century, Michael W. Balfe (1808–1870) and William Vincent Wallace (1812–1865). John Field (1782–1837) has been credited with the creation of the Nocturne form, which influenced Frédéric Chopin. John William Glover (1815–1899), Joseph Robinson (1815–1898) and Robert Prescott Stewart (1825–1894) kept Irish classical music in Dublin alive in the 19th century. Charles Villiers Stanford (1852–1924) and Hamilton Harty (1879–1941) were among the last emigrants in Irish music, combining a late romantic musical language with Irish folklorism. Their contemporary in Ireland was the Italian immigrant Michele Esposito (1855–1929), a figure of seminal importance in Irish music who arrived in Ireland in 1882. The years after Irish independence were a difficult period in which composers tried to find an identifiable Irish voice in an anti-British climate, which included ressentiments against classical music as such. The development of Irish broadcasting in the 1920s and the gradual enlargement of the Radio Éireann Orchestra in the late 1930s improved the situation. Important composers in these years were John F. Larchet (1884–1967), Ina Boyle (1889–1967), Arthur Duff (1899–1956), Aloys Fleischmann (1910–1992), Frederick May (1911–1985), Joan Trimble (1915–2000), and Brian Boydell (1917–2000). The middle decades of the 20th century were also shaped by A.J. Potter (1918–1980), Gerard Victory (1921–1995), James Wilson (1922–2005), Seán Ó Riada (1931–1971), John Kinsella (b. 1932), and Seóirse Bodley (b. 1933). Prominent names among the older generation of living composers in Ireland today are Frank Corcoran (b. 1944), Eric Sweeney (b. 1948), John Buckley (b. 1951), Gerald Barry (b. 1952), Raymond Deane (b. 1953), and Fergus Johnston (b. 1959).

Performers of note[edit]

Performers of classical music of note include Catherine Hayes (1818–1861), Ireland's first great international prima donna and the first Irish woman to perform at La Scala in Milan; tenor John McCormack (1884–1945), the most celebrated tenor of his day; opera singer Margaret Burke-Sheridan (1889–1958); tenor Josef Locke (1917–1999) achieved global success and was the subject of the 1991 film Hear My Song; the concert flautist Sir James Galway and pianist Barry Douglas.[16] Douglas achieved fame in 1986 by claiming the International Tchaikovsky Competition gold medal. Mezzo-sopranos Bernadette Greevy and Ann Murray have also had success internationally.[17]

Choral music[edit]

Anúna.

Choral music has been practiced in Ireland for centuries, initially at the larger churches such as Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick's Cathedral, and St Mary's Pro-Cathedral, as well as the University of Dublin Choral Society (founded in 1837).

In the early 1990s, Anúna, known for their contribution to Riverdance, contributed significantly to popularising choral music. They have also been nominated for a Classical Brit Award in the UK and were invited to give the first ever Irish Prom at the BBC Proms series in the Royal Albert Hall in 1999. In 2012 they featured as the voices of Hell in the video game Diablo III.[18]

The Chamber Choir Ireland, formerly National Chamber Choir of Ireland, is principally funded by the Arts Council of Ireland. Their artistic director is Paul Hillier.[19] The choir has produced a number of CDs with international (including Irish) repertoire. There are many semi-professional choirs in Ireland at local level, too. Many perform and compete at the annual Cork International Choral Festival (since 1954).

Popular music[edit]

Enya fused traditional Irish elements with New Age to create a unique sound which has made her Ireland's second biggest-selling act of all time.

Early popular performers[edit]

Performers of popular music began appearing as early as the late 1940s; Delia Murphy popularised Irish folk songs that she recorded for HMV in 1949; Margaret Barry is also credited with bringing traditional songs to the fore; Donegal's Bridie Gallagher shot to fame in 1956 and is considered 'Ireland's first international pop star';[20] Belfast-born singer Ruby Murray achieved unprecedented chart success in the UK in the mid-1950s; The Bachelors were an all-male harmony group from Dublin who had hits in the UK, Europe, US, Australia and Russia; Mary O'Hara was a soprano and harpist who was successful on both sides of the Atlantic in the 1950s and early 1960s; Waterford crooner Val Doonican had a string of UK hits and presented his own TV show on the BBC from 1965 to 1986.

Showbands in Ireland[edit]

Main article: Irish showband

Irish Showbands were a major force in Irish popular music, particularly in rural areas, for twenty years from the mid-1950s. The showband played in dance halls and was loosely based on the six or seven piece Dixieland dance band. The basic showband repertoire included standard dance numbers, cover versions of pop music hits, ranging from rock and roll, country and western to jazz standards. Key to the showband's success was the ability to learn and perform songs currently in the record charts. They sometimes played Irish traditional or Céilidh music and a few included self-composed songs.[21]

Country and Irish[edit]

Main article: Country and Irish

With the rise in popularity of American country music, a new subgenre developed in Ireland known as 'Country and Irish'. It was formed by mixing American Country music with Irish influences, incorporating Irish folk music. This often resulted in traditional Irish songs being sung in a country music style. It is especially popular in the rural Midlands and North-West of the country. It also remains popular among Irish emigrants in Great Britain. Big Tom and The Mainliners were the first major contenders in this genre, having crossed over from the showband era of the 1960s. Other major artists were Philomena Begley and Margo, the latter even being bestowed the unofficial title of Queen of Country & Irish.[22][23] The most successful performer in the genre today is Daniel O'Donnell, who has garnered success in the UK, US and Australia.[24]

Fusion[edit]

Traditional music played a part in Irish popular music later in the century, with Clannad, Van Morrison, Hothouse Flowers and Sinéad O'Connor using traditional elements in popular songs. Enya achieved international success with New Age/Celtic fusions. The Afro-Celt Sound System achieved fame adding West African influences and electronic dance rhythms in the 1990s while bands such as Kíla fuse traditional Irish with rock and world music representing the Irish tradition at world music festivals across Europe and America. The most notable fusion band in Ireland was Horslips, who combined Irish themes and music with heavy rock.

Riverdance is a musical and dancing interval act which originally starred Michael Flatley and Jean Butler and featuring the choir Anúna. It was performed during the Eurovision Song Contest 1994. Popular reaction to the act was so immense that an entire musical revue was built around the act.

Pop/Rock[edit]

Main article: Irish rock

The 1960s saw the emergence of major Irish rock bands and artists, such as Them, Van Morrison, Emmet Spiceland, Eire Apparent, Skid Row, Taste, Rory Gallagher, Dr. Strangely Strange, Thin Lizzy, Gary Moore, Mellow Candle.

Thin Lizzy in concert, 1981

In 1970 Dana put Ireland on the pop music map by winning Eurovision with her song All Kinds of Everything. She went to number one in the UK and all over Europe and paved the way for many Irish artists. Gilbert O'Sullivan went to the top of the charts in 1972 with a string of hits, and the all-sister line-up of The Nolans gained international chart success in the late 1970s.[25] Chris de Burgh achieved international acclaim with his 1986 hit "Lady in Red".

Groups who formed during the emergence of Punk rock in the mid-late 1970s included U2, Virgin Prunes, The Boomtown Rats, The Undertones, Aslan, Gavin Friday, and Stiff Little Fingers. Later in the 80s and into the 90s, Irish punk fractured into new styles of alternative rock, which included That Petrol Emotion, My Bloody Valentine and Ash.[26] In the 1990s, pop bands like the Corrs, B*Witched, Boyzone, Westlife and The Cranberries emerged. In the same decade, Ireland also contributed a subgenre of folk metal known as Celtic metal with exponents of the genre including Cruachan, Primordial, Geasa, and Waylander.[27]

Other artists well known as popular music performers include Paddy Casey, Jack L, Declan O'Rourke, Jerry Fish & The Mudbug Club, Phil Coulter, Dolores Keane, Damien Rice, Yasha Swag, Damien Dempsey, Eleanor McEvoy, Finbar Wright, Maura O'Connell, Frances Black, Sharon Shannon, Mary Black, The Frames, Stockton's Wing and Niall Horan from the British-Irish boy band One Direction.

Since the 2000s the music industry is continuing to grow with well established acts such as Snow Patrol, Villagers, The Coronas, Bell X1, Kíla, Julie Feeney, The Thrills, Gemma Hayes, The Script, Codes, The Blizzards, The Answer, The Cast of Cheers, Axis Of, Time Is A Thief, Kodaline and Keywest and Jedward.

Top 5 biggest selling Irish acts of all time[edit]

Irish acts Sold Genre Years active Notes
1. U2 170 Million + Rock 1976 – present (37 Years) [28]
2. Enya 80 Million + Celtic/new-age 1986 – present (27 Years) [29]
3. Van Morrison 55 Million + Soul 1967 – present (46 Years) [citation needed]
4. The Cranberries 50 Million + Rock 1990–2003, 2009 – present (17 Years) [30]
5. The Corrs 45 Million Pop 1995 – 2006 (11 Years) [31]

Top 5 'most standout' Irish acts of all time[edit]

In 2010, PRS for Music conducted research to show which five Irish musicians or bands the public considered to be the 'most standout'. U2 topped the list with sixty-eight percent[32][33] while Westlife, Van Morrison, Boyzone and The Cranberries came in 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th, respectively. The research also suggested that the 'top-five' had sold over 341 million albums up to March 2010.[34]

Irish act Percent Genre
1. U2 68 Rock
2. Westlife 10.5 Pop
3. Van Morrison 10 Soul
4. Boyzone 7.5 Pop
5. The Cranberries 4 Rock

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Boydell, Barra: A History of Music at Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2004).
  • Boydell, Brian: A Dublin Musical Calendar, 1700-1760 (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1988).
  • Boydell, Brian: Rotunda Music in Eighteenth-Century Dublin (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1992).
  • Breathnach, Breandán: Folk Music and Dances of Ireland (Cork: Mercier Press, 1971).
  • Breathnach, Breandán: Ceól Rince na hÉireann (Dublin: Oifig an tSoláthair, 1963 (vol. 1), 1976 (vol. 2), vol. 3 (1985)).
  • Clayton-Lea, Tony & Taylor, Rogan: Irish Rock. Where it’s Come From, Where it’s At, Where it’s Going (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1992).
  • Daly, Kieran Anthony: Catholic Church Music in Ireland, 1878-1903. The Cecilian Reform Movement (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995).
  • Fitzgerald, Mark & O’Flynn, John (ed.): Music and Identity in Ireland and Beyond (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2014).
  • Fleischmann, Aloys (ed.): Music in Ireland. A Symposium (Cork: Cork University Press, 1952).
  • Grindle, William Henry: Irish Cathedral Music. A History of Music at the Cathedrals of the Church of Ireland (Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, Queen’s University of Belfast, 1989).
  • Hast, Dorothea & Scott, Stanley: Music in Ireland. Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  • Hogan, Ita M.: Anglo-Irish Music, 1780-1830 (Cork: Cork University Press, 1966).
  • Klein, Axel: Die Musik Irlands im 20. Jahrhundert (Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1996).
  • Klein, Axel: Irish Classical Recordings. A Discography of Irish Art Music (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001).
  • McCarthy, Marie: Passing it on. The Transmission of Music in Irish Culture (Cork: Cork University Press, 1999).
  • Ó Canainn, Tomás: Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978; new ed. Cork: Ossian Publications, 1993).
  • O'Connor, Nuala: Bringing it all back home. The Influence of Irish Music (London: BBC Books, 1991; rev. ed. Dublin: Merlin Publications, 2001).
  • O’Dwyer, Simon: Prehistoric Music of Ireland (Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus Publishing, 2004).
  • Pine, Richard: Music and Broadcasting in Ireland (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005).
  • Pine, Richard & Acton, Charles (eds.): To Talent Alone. The Royal Irish Academy of Music, 1848-1998 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1998).
  • Porter, James: The Traditional Music of Britain and Ireland: A Select Bibliography and Research Guide (New York: Garland Publishing, 1989).
  • Power, Vincent: Send ‘Em Home Sweatin’. The Showband Story (Cork: Mercier Press, 1990; rev. ed. 2000).
  • Prendergast, Mark J.: Irish Rock. Roots, Personalities, Directions (Dublin: O’Brien Press, 1987).
  • Shields, Hugh: Narrative Singing in Ireland (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1993).
  • Smith, Thérèse: Ancestral Imprints. Histories of Irish Traditional Music and Dance (Cork: Cork University Press, 2012).
  • Smyth, Gerry: Noisy Island. A Short History of Irish Popular Music (Cork: Cork University Press, 2005).
  • Smyth, Gerry & Campbell, Seán: Beautiful Day. Forty Years of Irish Rock' (Cork: Atrium Press, 2005).
  • Vallely, Fintan: The Companion to Irish Traditional Music (Cork: Cork University Press 1999), ISBN 1-85918-148-1.
  • Wallis, Geoff & Wilson, Sue: The Rough Guide to Irish Music. ISBN 1-85828-642-5.
  • Walsh, Basil: Michael W. Balfe. A Unique Victorian Composer (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2008), ISBN 978-0-7165-2947-7.
  • Walsh, Basil: Catherine Hayes, The Hibernian Prima Donna(Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2000), ISBN 0-7165-2662-X.
  • Walsh, T.J.: Opera in Dublin, 1705-1797. The Social Scene (Dublin: Allen Figgis, 1973).
  • Walsh, T.J.: Opera in Dublin, 1798-1820. Frederick Jones and the Crow Street Theatre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993).
  • White, Harry: The Keeper’s Recital. Music and Cultural History in Ireland, 1770-1970 (Cork: Cork University Press, 1998).
  • White, Harry & Boydell, Barra: The Encyclopaedia of Music in Ireland (Dublin: UCD Press, 2013).
  • Zimmermann, Georges-Denis: Songs of Irish Rebellion. Political Street Ballads and Rebel Songs, 1780-1900 (Dublin: Allen Figgis, 1967; 2nd ed. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2002).

References[edit]

  1. ^ O'Leary on the Beethovenfest Bonn website
  2. ^ Sawyers, June Skinner (2002), The Complete Guide to Celtic Music, London: Aurum , p 28.
  3. ^ Yeats, Gráinne, The Rediscovery of Carolan, Harpspectrum.com, retrieved 25 April 2008 
  4. ^ Haggerty Bridget, Francis O'Neill – The Man Who Saved Our Music, Irishcultureandcustoms.com, retrieved 25 April 2008 
  5. ^ "Whistle Workshop". Whistle Workshop. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Sawyers, June Skinner (2002), The Complete Guide to Celtic Music, London: Aurum , p 48-49.
  7. ^ "Inside Ireland". Inside Ireland. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  8. ^ Sawyers, June Skinner (2002), The Complete Guide to Celtic Music, London: Aurum , p 48.
  9. ^ "Concertinas in Ireland". Concertina.com. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  10. ^ "Country House music". Setdancingnews.net. 14 January 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  11. ^ "Sean nos". Mustrad.org.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "Irish emigration". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  13. ^ Clarke, Gerry (2006), Oldtime Records Vol 1, Galway: Oldtime Records , Liner notes to CD.
  14. ^ My Music: When Irish Eyes Are Smiling
  15. ^ Geoff Wallis: Rough Guide to Irish Music
  16. ^ Niall O'Loughlin/Richard Wigmore, 'Galway, Sir James', Grove Music Online, [1]. Retrieved 12 August 2007.
  17. ^ The Irish Times, "A remarkable voice of remarkable longevity", 30 September 2008
  18. ^ Destructoid News
  19. ^ National Chamber Choir website
  20. ^ "Bridie Gallagher: Ireland's 'first international pop star'". BBC News. 9 January 2012. 
  21. ^ Finbar O'Keefe (2002), Goodnight, God Bless and Safe Home – The Golden Showband Era, The O'Brien Press, ISBN 0-86278-777-7 
  22. ^ Advertiser.ie (8 August 2008). "Emotional anniversary for Margo, the 'Queen of Country and Irish' in Castlebar". Advertiser.ie. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  23. ^ "The queen of Country and Irish". The Irish Times. 11 November 1998. 
  24. ^ "COUNTRY 'N’ BESTERN Daniel O'Donnell, Popular Irish Singer and Performer from Donegal, Ireland, writes about music, life and more for the Sunday World". Sundayworld.com. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  25. ^ Kerr, Paula. "Me and my school photo: Coleen Nolan remembers the 'vile bully' and the exams she never sat". Daily Mail (London). 
  26. ^ http://irishrockers.com/IrishRockHistory.php
  27. ^ Bowar, Chad, What Is Heavy Metal?, About.com, retrieved 25 April 2008 
  28. ^ Vallely, Paul (13 May 2006), Bono: The Missionary, London: Independent.co.uk, retrieved 25 April 2008 
  29. ^ "FAQ". Enya.sk. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  30. ^ "The Cranberries' Dolores O'Riordan on surviving success and finding new happiness – 3am & Mirror Online". Mirror.co.uk. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  31. ^ http://www.whatson-north.co.uk/Whats-On/Music/Sharon-Corr-makes-Ironworks-appearance-11062014.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ "News from Northern Ireland". U.TV. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  33. ^ "New survey reveals best Irish band! – Men's Room". Supanet.com. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  34. ^ "Music: Top 5 sell over 341 million albums". Funkyfogey.net. 16 March 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 

External links[edit]