Music theory

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Music theory is the study of how music is written and played. Music theory distills and analyzes the fundamental parameters or elements of musicrhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, and texture.

Fundamentals of music[edit]

Music has many different fundamentals or elements. These include but are not limited to: pitch, beat or pulse, rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, allocation of voices, timbre or color, expressive qualities (dynamics and articulation), and form or structure. In addition to these "fundamentals," other important concepts are employed in music both in Western and non-Western cultures, including "Scales and/or Modes" and "Consonance vs. Dissonance."

Pitch[edit]

Middle C (261.626 Hz) About this sound Play .

Pitch is a subjective sensation, reflecting generally the lowness (lower frequency sound wave) or highness (higher frequency sound wave) of a sound. Most people appear to possess relative pitch, which means they perceive each note relative to some reference pitch, or as some interval from the previous pitch. Significantly fewer people demonstrate absolute pitch (or perfect pitch), the ability to identify certain pitches without comparison to another pitch. Human perception of pitch can be comprehensively fooled to create auditory illusions. Despite these perceptual oddities, perceived pitch is nearly always closely connected with the fundamental frequency of a note, with a lesser connection to sound pressure level, harmonic content (complexity) of the sound, and to the immediately preceding history of notes heard.[1] In general, the higher the frequency of vibration, the higher the perceived pitch is, and lower the frequency, the lower the pitch.[2] However, even for tones of equal intensity, perceived pitch and measured frequency do not stand in a simple linear relationship.[3]

Below about 1,000 Hz, the perceived loudness of a tone gets lower as sound frequency decreases. Also above approximately 2,000 Hz, the perceived loudness increases as the sound's frequency increases.[4] This is due to the ear's natural sensitivity to higher pitched sound, as well as the ear's particular sensitivity to sound around the 2000–5000 Hz interval,[5] the frequency range most of the human voice occupies.[6] (See also: singers' formant.)

In Western music, there have long been several competing pitch standards defining tuning systems. Most made a particular key sonorous, with increasingly remote ones more and more problematic; the underlying problem is related to the physics of vibrations.

In addition, fixing notes to standard frequencies (required for instrument makers) has varied as well. Concert A was set at 435 Hz by France in 1859 while in England, concert A varied between 439 and 452 Hz. A frequency of 440 Hz was recommended as the standard in 1939, and in 1955 the International Organization for Standardization affirmed the choice.[7] A440 is now widely, though not exclusively, used as the A above middle C.

The difference in frequency between two pitches is called an interval. The most basic interval is the unison, which is simply two of the same pitch, followed by the slightly more complex octave, which indicates either a doubling or halving of the fundamental frequency.

Scales and modes[edit]

Pattern of whole and half steps in the Ionian mode or major scale on C About this sound Play .

Notes can be arranged into different scales and modes. Western music theory generally divides the octave into a series of 12 notes that might be included in a piece of music. This series of twelve notes is called a chromatic scale. In the chromatic scale, the interval between adjacent notes is called a half-step or semitone. Patterns of half and whole steps (2 half steps, or a tone) can make up a scale in that octave. The scales most commonly encountered are the seven toned major, the harmonic minor, the melodic minor, and the natural minor. Other examples of scales are the octatonic scale, and the pentatonic or five-toned scale, which is common in but not limited to folk music. There are scales that do not follow the chromatic 12-note pattern, for example in classical Ottoman, Persian, Indian and Arabic music. Arabic and Persian classical traditions often make use of quarter-tones, half the size of a semitone, as the name suggests.[citation needed]

In music written using the system of major-minor tonality, the key of a piece determines the scale used. (One way of showing how various keys relate to one another may be seen in the circle of fifths.) Transposing a piece from C major to D major will make all the notes two semitones (or one full step) higher. Even in modern equal temperament, changing the key can change the feel of a piece of music, because it changes the relationship of the composition's pitches to the pitch range of the instruments that play the piece. This often affects the music's timbre, as well as having technical implications for the performers.[citation needed] However, performing a piece in one key rather than another may go unrecognized by the casual listener, since changing the key does not change the relationship of the individual pitches to each other.

Consonance and dissonance[edit]

Consonance can be roughly defined as harmonies whose tones complement and increase each other's resonance, and dissonance as those that create more complex acoustical interactions (called 'beats'). A simplistic example is that of "pleasant" sounds versus "unpleasant" ones. Another manner of thinking about the relationship regards stability; dissonant harmonies are sometimes considered to be unstable and to "want to move" or "resolve" toward consonance. However, this is not to say that dissonance is undesirable.

Melody is often organized so as to interact with changing harmonies (sometimes called a chord progression) that accompany a piece, setting up consonance and dissonance. The art of melody writing depends heavily upon the choices of tones for the composer's nonharmonic or harmonic character.

Rhythm[edit]

Metric levels: beat level shown in middle with division levels above and multiple levels below.

Rhythm is the arrangement of sounds and silences in time. Meter animates time in regular pulse groupings, called measures or bars. The time signature or meter signature specifies how many beats are in a measure, and which value of written note is counted and felt as a single beat. Through increased stress and attack (and subtle variations in duration), particular tones may be accented. There are conventions in most musical traditions for a regular and hierarchical accentuation of beats to reinforce the meter. Syncopated rhythms are rhythms that accent unexpected parts of the beat. Playing simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature is called polymeter. See also polyrhythm.

In recent years, rhythm and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Bengt-Olov Palmqvist, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, and Jonathan Kramer.

Chord[edit]

A chord is the sounding of three or more different notes, usually but not always simultaneously. Triads are the most common types of chords, consisting of two stacked thirds and described with such names as C major and E minor. Seventh chords consist of a triad plus an additional note with the interval of a major seventh (in the case of major triads), minor seventh (in the case of diminished, minor, or major triads), or diminished seventh (only in the case of diminished triads) above the root. Chords may be inverted, extended, or altered. Dissonant chords, such as cluster chords, have been used by more contemporary composers and some non-Western cultures. In general, however, chords are one of the most distinctive features of Western music and appear much less often in music of other cultures.

Melody[edit]

A melody is a series of tones sounding in succession. The tones of a melody are typically created with respect to pitch systems such as scales or modes. Melody is typically divided into phrases within a larger overarching structure. The elements of a melody are pitch, duration, dynamics, and timbre.

Harmony[edit]

IV-V-I progression in C About this sound Play 

Harmony is the study of vertical sonorities in music. Vertical sonority refers to considering the relationships between pitches that occur together; usually this means at the same time, although harmony can also be implied by a melody that outlines a harmonic structure.

The relationship between two pitches is referred to as an interval. A larger structure involving more than two pitches is called a chord. In common practice and popular music, harmonies are generally tertian. This means that the interval of which the chords are composed is a third. Therefore, a root-position triad (with the root note in the lowest voice) consists of the root note, a note a third above, and a note a third above that (a fifth above the root). Seventh chords add a third above the top note of a triad (a seventh above the root). There are some notable exceptions. In 20th century classical music, many alternative types of harmonic structure were explored. One way to analyze harmony in common practice music is through a Roman numeral system; in popular music and jazz a system of chord symbols is used; and in post-tonal music, a variety of approaches are used, most frequently set theory.

Texture[edit]

Introduction to Sousa's "Washington Post March," m. 1-7About this sound Play  features octave doubling (Benward & Saker 2003, 133) and a homorhythmic texture.

Musical texture is the overall sound of a piece of music commonly described according to the number of and relationship between parts or lines of music: monophony, heterophony, polyphony, homophony, or monody. The perceived texture of a piece may also be affected by the timbre of the instruments, the number of instruments used, and the distance between each musical line, among other things.

Timbre[edit]

Timbre, sometimes called color, or tone color, is the quality or sound of a voice or instrument.[9] The quality of timbre varies widely from instrument to instrument, or from voice to voice. The timbre of some instruments can be changed by applying certain techniques while playing. For example, the timbre of a trumpet changes when a mute is inserted into the bell, or a voice can change its timbre by the way a performer manipulates the vocal apparatus, (e.g. the vocal cords, mouth and diaphragm). Generally, no common musical notation speaks specifically to a change in timbre, (as pianissimo indicates very soft for a change in dynamics).

Expressive qualities[edit]

Expressive qualities are those elements in music that create change in music not related to pitch, rhythm or timbre. They include dynamics and articulation.

Dynamics[edit]

Music hairpins.svg

In music, the term "dynamics" normally refers to the softness or loudness of a sound or note: e.g. pianissimo or fortissimo. Until recently, most dynamics in written form were done so in Italian, but recently are sometimes written or translated into English. Another sense of the word refers to any aspect of the execution of events in a given piece; either stylistic (staccato, legato etc.) or functional (velocity) are also known as dynamics. The term is also applied to the written or printed musical notation used to indicate dynamics.

Articulation[edit]

Examples of articulations. From left to right: staccato, staccatissimo, martellato, marcato, tenuto.

Articulation is the manner in which the performer applies their technique to execute the sounds or notes—for example, staccato or legato. Articulation is often described rather than quantified, therefore there is room to interpret how to execute precisely each articulation. For example, staccato is often referred to as "separated" or "detached" rather than having a defined, or numbered amount by which the separation or detachment is to take place. Often the manner in which a performer decides to execute a given articulation is done so by the context of the piece or phrase. Also, the type or style of articulation will depend on the instrument and musical period, e.g. the classical period, but there is a generally recognized set of articulations that most all instruments (and voices) have in common. They are, in order of long to short: legato ("smooth, connected"); tenuto ("pressed", "lengthened but detached"); marcato (heavily accented and detached); staccato ("separated", "detached"); "martelé" (or "rooftop accent" or "teepee accent") for its written shape (short and hard). Any of these may be combined to create certain "in-between" articulations. For example, portato is the combination of tenuto and staccato. Some instruments have unique methods by which to produce sounds, such as spicatto for strings, where the bow bounces off the string.

Form or structure[edit]

Form is a facet of music theory that explores the concept of musical syntax, on a local and global level. The syntax is often explained in terms of phrases and periods (for the local level) or sections or genre (for the global scale). Examples of common forms of Western music include the fugue, the invention, sonata-allegro, canon, strophic, theme and variations, and rondo. Popular Music often makes use of strophic form many times in conjunction with Twelve bar blues.

Theories of harmonization[edit]

Four-part writing [edit]

Four-voice texture in the Genevan psalter: Old 124th.[10] About this sound Play 

Four-part chorale writing is used to teach and analyze the basic conventions of Common-Practice Period music, the time period lasting from approximately 1650 to 1900.[11] In the German musicology tradition referred to as functional harmony.[citation needed] Johann Sebastian Bach's four-voice chorales written for liturgical purposes serve as a model for students. These chorales exhibit a fusion of linear and vertical thinking.[citation needed] In analysis, the harmonic function and rhythm are analyzed as well as the shape and implications of each of the four lines. Students are then instructed to compose chorales, often using given melodies (as Bach would have done), over a given bass line, or to compose within a chord progression, following rules of voice leading.[citation needed] Though traditionally conceived as a vocal exercise for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, other common four-part writings could consist of a brass quartet (two Trumpets, French Horn, and Trombone) or a string quartet (including violin I, violin II, viola and cello).

There are seven chords used in four-part writing that are based upon each note of the scale. The chords are usually given Roman Numerals I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII to refer to triadic (three-note) chords based on each successive note of the major or minor scale the piece is in. Chords may be analyzed in two ways. Case-sensitive harmonic analysis would state that major-mode chords (I, IV, V7, etc.), including augmented (for example, VII+), would be notated with upper-case Roman numerals, and minor-mode chords, including diminished (ii, iii, vi, and the diminished vii chord, viio), would be notated with lower-case Roman numerals. When a scale degree other than the root of the chord is in the bass, the chord is said to be in inversion, and this is indicated by numbers written above the roman numeral. With triads a 6 indicates first inversion, and 6 4 indicates second inversion. With seventh chords, 6 5 indicates first inversion, 4 3 indicates second inversion, and 4 2 indicates third inversion. ( I6, IV4/3,V 4/2 , etc.) Schenkerian harmonic analysis, patterned after the theories of Heinrich Schenker, would state that the mode does not matter in the final analysis, and thus all harmonies are notated in upper-case.

The skill in harmonizing a Bach chorale lies in being able to begin a phrase in one key and to modulate to another key either at the end of the first phrase, the beginning of the next one, or perhaps by the end of the second phrase. Each chorale often has the ability to modulate to various tonally related areas: the relative major (III) or minor (vi), the Dominant (V) or its relative minor (iii), the Sub-Dominant (IV) or its relative minor (ii). Other chromatic chords may be used, like the diminished seventh (made up of minor thirds piled on top of each other) or the Secondary dominant (the Dominant's Dominant – a kind of major version of chord II). Certain standard cadences are observed, most notably IIb7 – V7 – I. The standard collection of J. S. Bach's chorales was edited by Albert Riemenschneider and this collection is readily available, e.g. here.

Music perception and cognition[edit]

Serial composition and set theory[edit]

Tone row from Alban Berg's Lyric Suite, mov. I. About this sound Play 

Musical semiotics[edit]

Music subjects[edit]

Notation[edit]

Tibetan musical score from the 19th century.

Musical notation is the symbolic representation of music (not to be confused with audio recording). Historically, and in the narrow sense, this is achieved with graphic symbols. Computer file formats have become important as well.[12] Spoken language and hand signs are also used to symbolically represent music, primarily in teaching.

In standard Western music notation, music is represented graphically by notes placed on a staff or staves with the vertical axis roughly corresponding to pitch and the horizontal axis roughly corresponding to time. Note head shapes, stems, flags, and ties are used to indicate duration. Additional symbols represent key, tempo, dynamics, accents, rests, etc.

Mathematics[edit]

In music history, mathematics were the foundation of the first understanding of tones, intervals, and scales developed by the Greeks between 530 and 500 BC. This discovery was based upon shortening a harp’s string by a half, creating an octave. Further, separating the same string into two-thirds or four equal parts produced intervals known as fifths and fourths, respectively.[citation needed]

Analysis[edit]

Bass prolongation: I–IV–V–I About this sound Play  as elaboration of I–V–I About this sound Play .

Analysis is the effort to describe and explain music. Analysis at once is a catch-all term describing the process of describing any portion of the music, as well as a specific field of formal analysis or the field of stylistic analysis. Formal analysis attempts to answer questions of hierarchy and form, and stylistic analysis attempts to describe the style of the piece. These two distinct sub-fields often coincide.

Analysis of harmonic structures is typically presented through a roman numeral analysis. However, over the years, as music and the theory of music have both grown, a multitude of methods of analyzing music have presented themselves. Two very popular methods, Schenkerian analysis and Neo-Riemannian analysis, have dominated much of the field. Schenkerian analysis attempts to "reduce" music through layers of foreground, middleground, and, eventually and importantly, the background. Neo-Riemannian (or Transformational) analysis began as an extension of Hugo Riemann's theories of music, and then expanding Riemann's concepts of pitch and transformation into a mathematically rich language of analysis. While both theories originated as methods of analysis for tonal music, both have been extended to use in non-tonal music as well.

Ear training[edit]

Aural skills – the ability to identify musical patterns by ear, as opposed to by the reading of notation – form a key part of a musician's craft and are usually taught alongside music theory. Most aural skills courses train the perception of relative pitch (the ability to determine pitch in an established context) and rhythm. Sight-singing – the ability to sing unfamiliar music without assistance – is generally an important component of aural skills courses. Absolute pitch or perfect pitch describes the ability to recognize a particular audio frequency as a given musical note without any prior reference.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Lloyd and Boyle 1978, 142.
  2. ^ Benade 1960, 31.
  3. ^ Stevens, Volkmann, and Newman 1937, 185; Josephs 1967, 53–54.
  4. ^ Olson 1967, 248–51.
  5. ^ Agamemnon Despopoulos and Stefan Silbernagl (2003). Color Atlas of Physiology fifth edition, p. 362. New York, Stuttgart: Thieme. ISBN 3-13-545005-8
  6. ^ http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/maxsens.html
  7. ^ Cavanagh (1999).
  8. ^ Kliewer 1975,[page needed].
  9. ^ Harnsberger 1997.
  10. ^ Benward & Saker (2003), p.159.
  11. ^ Kostka and Payne 2004,[page needed].
  12. ^ Castan 2009.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Apel, Willi, and Ralph T. Daniel (1960). The Harvard Brief Dictionary of Music. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc. ISBN 0-671-73747-3
  • Baur, John (2014). Practical Music Theory. Dubuque: Kendall-Hunt Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-4652-1790-5
  • Benward, Bruce, Barbara Garvey Jackson, and Bruce R. Jackson. (2000). Practical Beginning Theory: A Fundamentals Worktext, 8th edition, Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-697-34397-9. [First edition 1963]
  • Brown, James Murray (1967). A Handbook of Musical Knowledge, 2 vols. London: Trinity College of Music.
  • Chase, Wayne (2006). How Music REALLY Works!, second edition. Vancouver, Canada: Roedy Black Publishing. ISBN 1-897311-55-9 (book)
  • Hewitt, Michael (2008). Music Theory for Computer Musicians. USA: Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-59863-503-4.
  • Lawn, Richard J., and Jeffrey L. Hellmer (1996). Jazz Theory and Practice. [N.p.]: Alfred Publishing Co. ISBN 0-88284-722-8.
  • Miguel, Roig-Francoli (2011). Harmony in Context, Second edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 0073137944
  • Owen, Harold (2000). Music Theory Resource Book. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511539-2.
  • Seashore, Carl (1933). Approaches to the Science of Music and Speech. Iowa City: The University.
  • Seashore, Carl (1938). Psychology of Music, New York, London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
  • Sorce, Richard (1995). Music Theory for the Music Professional. [N.p.]: Ardsley House. ISBN 1-880157-20-9.
  • Taylor, Eric (1989). AB Guide to Music Theory, Part 1. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. ISBN 1-85472-446-0
  • Taylor, Eric (1991). AB Guide to Music Theory, Part 2. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. ISBN 1-85472-447-9
  • Yamaguchi, Masaya (2006). The Complete Thesaurus of Musical Scales, revised edition. New York: Masaya Music Services. ISBN 0-9676353-0-6.

External links[edit]