South Shields

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Coordinates: 54°59′31″N 1°25′44″W / 54.992°N 1.429°W / 54.992; -1.429

South Shields
King Street, South Shields - geograph.org.uk - 406083.jpg
View of King Street which is South Shields' main shopping thoroughfare. The metro station is located above the street, on the bridge.
South Shields is located in Tyne and Wear
South Shields
South Shields
 South Shields shown within Tyne and Wear
Population 82,854 
OS grid reference NZ365665
Metropolitan borough South Tyneside
Metropolitan county Tyne and Wear
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SOUTH SHIELDS
Postcode district NE33, NE34
Dialling code 0191
Police Northumbria
Fire Tyne and Wear
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
UK Parliament South Shields
List of places
UK
England
Tyne and Wear

South Shields is a coastal town at the mouth of the River Tyne, England, about 4.84 miles (7.79 km) downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne. Historically in County Durham, the town has a population of 82,854,[1] the second largest in Tyneside after Newcastle. It is part of the metropolitan borough of South Tyneside which includes the towns of Jarrow and Hebburn. South Shields is represented in Parliament by Labour MP Emma Lewell-Buck.

History[edit]

Arbeia Roman Fort: ruins and reconstruction

The first evidence of a settlement within what is now the town of South Shields dates from pre-historic times. Stone Age arrow heads and an Iron Age round house have been discovered on the site of Arbeia Roman Fort. The Romans built a fort here around AD 160 and expanded it around AD 208 to help supply their soldiers along Hadrian's Wall. Divisions living at the fort included Tigris bargemen (from Persia / modern day Iraq), Spanish / French soldiers and Syrian archers / spearmen. The fort was abandoned as the Roman Empire declined in the 4th century AD. Many ruins still exist today and some structures have been rebuilt as part of a modern museum and popular tourist attraction.

There is evidence that the site was used in the early post-Roman period as a British settlement. It is believed it became a royal residence of King Oswald of Northumbria; records show that his son Oswin was born within 'Caer Urfa', by which name the fort is thought to be known after the Romans left. Furthermore, Bede records Oswin giving a parcel of land to St Hilda for the foundation of a monastery here in c.647; the present-day church of St Hilda, by the Market Place, is said to stand on the monastic site.

The Edwardian Town Hall, built at a time of industrial self-confidence.

In the 9th century, Scandinavian peoples made Viking raids on monasteries and settlements all along the coast, and later conquered the Saxon Kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. It is said in local folklore that a Viking ship was wrecked at Herd Sands in South Shields in its attempts to disembark at a cove nearby.

The current town was founded in 1245 and developed as a fishing port. The name South Shields developed from the 'Schele' or 'Shield', which was a small dwelling used by fishermen. Salt-panning expanded as an industry in the 15th century, polluting the air and surrounding land. In 1644 during the English Civil War, Parliament's Scottish Covenanter allies captured the town and its small fortification close to the site of the original Roman fort to aid their ongoing siege of Newcastle. This was in a bid to control the mouth of the River Tyne and caused the Royalist force to flee south, leading to the Battle of Boldon Hill.

In the 19th century, coal mining, alkaline production and glass making led to a boom in the town. The population increased from 12,000 in 1801 to 75,000 by the 1860s, bolstered by economic migration from Ireland, Scotland and other parts of England. These industries played a fundamental part in creating wealth both regionally and nationally. In 1832, with the Great Reform Act, South Shields and Gateshead were each given their own Member of Parliament and became boroughs, resulting in taxes being paid to the Government instead of the Bishops of Durham. However, the rapid growth in population brought on by the expansion of industry made sanitation a problem, as evident by Cholera outbreaks and the building of the now-listed Cleadon Water Tower to combat the problem. In the 1850s 'The Tyne Improvement Commission' began to develop the river, dredging it to make it deeper and building the large, impressive North and South Piers to help prevent silt build up within the channel. Shipbuilding (along with coal mining), previously a monopoly of the Freemen of Newcastle, became another prominent industry in the town, with John Readhead & Sons Shipyard the largest.

During World War I, German Zeppelin airships bombed South Shields in 1915. Later during World War II, the German Luftwaffe repeatedly attacked the town and caused massive damage to industry and killed many residents. Gradually throughout the 20th century, coal and shipbuilding industries ceased, due to competitive pressures from more cost effective sources of energy and more efficient shipbuilding elsewhere in Europe and in Asia. In the 21st century, the local economy primarily includes port-related, ship repair and offshore industries, manufacturing, retail, the public sector and the ever increasing role of tourism.

Geography[edit]

Frenchman's Bay. Much of the South Shields' coastline is undeveloped, due in part to natural erosion
Sandhaven Beach

South Shields is situated in a peninsula setting, where the River Tyne meets the North Sea. It has six miles of coastline and three miles of river frontage, dominated by the massive North and South Piers at the mouth of the Tyne. These are best viewed from the Lawe Top, which also houses two replicas of cannon captured from the Russians during the Crimean War (the originals having been melted during World War II).

The town slopes gently from Cleadon Hills down to the river. Cleadon Hills are made conspicuous by the Victorian Cleadon Water Tower and pumping station (opened in 1860 to improve sanitation) and a now derelict windmill, both of which are listed and can be seen from many miles away and also out at sea.

South Shields boasts extensive beaches, sand dunes and coves, as well as dramatic Magnesian Limestone cliffs with grassy areas above known as The Leas, which cover three miles of the coastline and are a National Trust protected area. Marsden Bay, with its famous Marsden Rock and historic Grotto public house and restaurant set in the cliffs, is home to one of the largest seabird colonies in Britain.

One of the most historic parts of the town is the quaint and beautiful Westoe village, which consists of a quiet street of 1st grade and 2nd grade Georgian and Victorian houses, many of which had been built by business leaders from the coal and shipping industries in the town. Given its beautiful setting, parks and trees, this street was often the setting for a number of books by the novelist Catherine Cookson.[2] Westoe village was once a separate village about a mile from South Shields, but urban sprawl has now consumed it, along with the village of Harton to the south on the main route towards Cleadon and Sunderland.

Demography[edit]

Before 1820, South Shields was a predominantly sparse hamlet and village based rural economy with some small-scale shipbuilding, glass making and salt processing along the riverside. Beyond 1820 and into the Industrial Revolution, South Shields expanded into an urban settlement built around shipbuilding and coal mining. Migration came from up the River Tyne, with other migrants from rural County Durham, Northumberland, Scotland and Ireland. The majority of the people living in South Shields are descendants of those who migrated and settled in the area during the Industrial Revolution in order to work in expanding coalmines and shipyards. Towards the end of the 19th century, with the British Navy needing seamen, Yemeni British sailors settled in the town, this resulted in the first roots of the Yemeni British community in the town.

Yemeni community[edit]

South Shields has been home to a Yemeni British community since the 1890s. The main reason for the Yemeni arrival was the supply of seamen, such as engine room firemen, to British merchant vessels. Similar communities were founded in Hull, Liverpool and Cardiff.[3] In 1909, the first Arab Seamen's Boarding House opened in the Holborn riverside district of the town. At the time of the First World War there was a shortage of crews due to the demands of the fighting and many Yemenis were recruited to serve on British ships at the port of Aden, then under British protection. At the end of the war, the Yemeni population of South Shields had swelled to well over 3,000. Shields lost one of the largest proportions of Merchant Navy sailors. Approximately 1 in 4 of these men was of Yemeni background.

Disputes over jobs led to race riots - also called the Arab Riots - in 1919 and 1930. However, over time, attitudes to Yemenis in the town were softened and there was no significant recurrence of this violence.[4]

After World War II, the Yemeni population declined, partly due to migrations to other industrial areas such as Birmingham, Liverpool and Sheffield.[5] However, the main reason for the reduction in numbers was the end of the shipping industry and the need for sailors as coal burning ships decreased in numbers. Today, the Yemeni population of South Shields numbers around 1,000.[6] Many Yemeni sailors married local women and became integrated with the wider community, resulting with a migrant population less distinct than in other mixed communities across the UK. The Yemeni are the first, settled Muslim community in Britain and have been used to justify multi-culturalism.

There is a mosque at Laygate, including the Yemeni School, which was visited by American boxer Muhammed Ali in 1977. He had his marriage blessed at the Al-Ahzar Mosque, the first purpose-built in the UK. This story is covered in a documentary film, The King of South Shields film website. Throughout April and early May 2008, the BALTIC Arts Centre in Gateshead chronicled the Yemeni community of South Shields, including interviews with the last remaining survivors of the first Yemeni generation. The exhibition depicted the Yemeni story as an example of early successful multi-cultural integration in Britain, as well as showcasing the high-profile 1977 visit by Muhammed Ali.

In 2005 the Customs House commissioned author Peter Mortimer to write a play on the subject of the 1930 Yemeni Riot. The resultant play RIOT was staged at the venue in 2005 and 2008.[7]

In 2008, South Shields resident and filmmaker Tina Gharavi unveiled plans for a plaque to mark Ali's visit.[8]

In 2008, a critically acclaimed exhibition about the South Shields Yemeni community was held entitled The Last of the Dictionary Men – Stories from South Shields’Yemeni Sailors, was held at the Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art, Gateshead.[9]

In 2009, the detective series George Gently, based on the novels by Alan Hunter, portrayed the Yemeni integration in a 1960s setting.[10]

Economy[edit]

Abandoned docks in South Shields' harbour

The last shipbuilder, John Readhead & Sons, closed in 1984 and the last pit, Westoe Colliery, in 1993. Today, the town relies largely on service industries, whilst many residents commute to work in nearby Newcastle, Gateshead, North Tyneside and Sunderland.

Despite a skilled local workforce, for many years South Tyneside had the highest unemployment rate in mainland Britain,[11] although between December 2002 and December 2008 unemployment in South Shields fell by 17.8%,[11] and that of South Tyneside by 17.7%,[11] the best performance in the North East region over that time period.

In January 2011, the Guardian reported the unemployment rate at 6.5%. In October 2011 the Guardian reported the unemployment rate at 7.5%[12]

The Port of Tyne is one of the UK's most important and is further developing its freight and passenger activities. In 2007, it imported two million tonnes of coal. Manufacturing and ship repair/engineering are other significant sectors.

South Shields benefits from significant public and private sector investment. More recently this has included primarily the town centre, riverside and foreshore areas, given the decline of once-traditional heavy industries with the town's growing importance as a major commercial centre and tourist destination.

Landmarks and tourism[edit]

The Customs House Theatre
The Groyne lighthouse sits atop a short pier built to protect the Harbour Beach
"Tyne" lifeboat of 1833.

As well as being the oldest and largest town in South Tyneside, South Shields is also one of the region's most popular seaside resorts. The area markets itself as Catherine Cookson Country, which attracts many visitors. Further improvements and developments to the seafront are planned.[13]

The town and region include:

  • the reconstructed Roman Fort and excavations at Arbeia, which form part of the Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site
  • the town's museum & art gallery, including a permanent exhibition dedicated to the life and times of Catherine Cookson
  • the home to the Barbour headquarters, warehouse and factory
  • the Customs House theatre and arts venue and the historic Mill Dam riverside
  • traditional, continental and farmers' markets and high street shopping
  • seafront complete with promenade, parks, fairground and amusement arcades, crazy golf, skate complex, quasar laser, miniature steam railway and boating lake and live entertainment
  • coastal scenery, beaches and dunes at Littlehaven, Sandhaven and Marsden Bay
  • the National Trust-owned Souter Lighthouse and The Leas cliff tops
  • St Hilda's Church, reputedly built on the site of Hilda's own 7th-century chapel
  • Temple Park Leisure Centre
  • The combined Jubilee Clocktower and Wouldhave Memorial, which stands on Pier Parade alongside "Tyne", Britain's second-oldest preserved lifeboat.
  • an extensive network of cycle paths and trails, and
  • a newly refurbished multi-purpose family friendly complex at the seafront, including a bowling alley, a soft play area, a fully licensed bar, Italian restaurant and an arcade called Dunes Adventure Island.[14]
  • South Shields is also home of the oldest provincial newspaper in the UK, the Shields Gazette.

A prominent landmark is the Edwardian Town Hall, built 1905-1910, a sumptuous building "the most convincing expression in the county of Edwardian prosperity".[15] The architect was E. E. Fetch of London. Ornamentation includes several references to the town's nautical heritage: Britannia and other sculpted figures in the pediment above the front entrance, a figure of Mercury atop a globe on the dome of the Council chamber, fountains and nymph lampholders in the forecourt alongside a statue of Queen Victoria. The 145-foot clock tower contains a Potts chiming clock and five bells, and is topped by a weathervane in the shape of a galleon.

The Old Town Hall, a handsome square building of 1768, provides the centerpiece of the Market Place and closes the vista along King Street. The ground floor is open with arches on each side (and a central pillar which predates the rest of the structure); the enclosed first floor has pitched roof, topped by a wooden bell turret. Originally built and used by the Dean and Chapter of Durham, it was sold by them to the town Corporation in 1855.[16]

There is a good choice of restaurants, cafes, public houses and nightlife as well as hotels, guest houses and caravan parks. South Shields plays host to an annual free summer festival and each autumn the town is the seaside finish to the world-famous Great North Run. South Shields is also home to Colmans, established in 1926, which is a multi-award winning Seafood Restaurant and Takeaway.

South Shields has also become the home of the South Tyneside magic festival,an annual event created by Martin Duffy,and supported by the local council,The Custom house theatre, local magic shop Magic box, and numerous local and national independent investors. The Festival was started in 2004 incorporates magic in the community - magicians perform in schools, libraries and Aged Persons Homes during the week as well as public gala shows at the Customs house. The culmination of the week is the Magic Convention - 3 days of lectures and shows by the Worlds best Magicians.[17]

Education[edit]

South Shields is home to South Tyneside College, one of the two leading maritime training centres in the UK, with facilities including a marine safety training centre and a simulated ship's bridge for the training of deck officers. The college was also home to the only planetarium in the region, and to an observatory; and in its time was a popular visitor attraction for local schools and visitors in general. The observatory was used for 20 years and in 2008 it was deemed redundant to the future curriculum needs of the college.[18] The college provides a wide range of other flexible vocational and training courses.[19]

Local schooling is generally regarded as being very good, which is reflected in continuing improvements to school results and independent inspections.

In 2007, Brinkburn Comprehensive and King George V Comprehensive merged forming South Shields Community School. The new school was built at a cost of £19 million on the King George V School site and was opened in September 2011.[20][21]

Regional identity[edit]

The 1998 sculpture Spirit of South Shields, by Irene Brown, embodies the town's maritime heritage. It overlooks the mouth of the Tyne.

People born in South Shields are considered to be Geordies, a term commonly associated with all residents of Tyneside.[22][23]

A less commonly used colloquial term is Sandancer. It is presumed to originate from the town's beach and history[citation needed].

Notable people[edit]

(1892–1915) John Simpson Kirkpatrick. Lost son of the Gallipoli campaign in WWI,[24] seen with his donkey; Ocean Road, South Shields, Sculpted by Robert Olley

A number of notable people have been associated with South Shields. They include:

Sport[edit]

Football[edit]

South Shields FC is the town's main football team. Originally formed during the first decade of the 20th century, the team played in the Football League during the 1920s. As of 2012, the club plays in the Northern League's first division. Most of the townsfolk support either Newcastle United or Sunderland AFC with approximately 50% of the town supporting each team.

Rugby[edit]

South Shields is the home of two rugby clubs, Westoe RFC and South Tyneside College RUFC.

South Tyneside College RUFC[36] have been playing at Grosvenor Road since they were formed.

Westoe RFC, formed in 1875, still play at their original ground, Wood Terrace.[37][38] In 2005 they had an Intermediate Cup run and got to Twickenham but were beaten by Morley R.F.C. from Yorkshire.[38][39]

Politics[edit]

South Shields is a safe Labour Party Parliamentary seat,[40] the only constituency in existence since the Great Reform Act of 1832 never to have elected a Conservative MP.[41] It is currently held by Emma Lewell-Buck who won the seat in a by-election held on May 3, 2013 which had been triggered by the retirement from politics of the previous incumbent David Miliband, who had served as Foreign Secretary in the government of Gordon Brown.[42]

The local authority (South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council) is also controlled by Labour.

The town has a local independent political party, the Progressive Party. This broadly centre-right party was formed in the 1950s to address hostility towards the Conservative Party. The Progressives have no representation beyond South Shields. Having controlled the old County Borough of South Shields council until 1974, they still hold several seats on the borough council and have experienced a resurgence in recent years, sitting in alliance with independent members of the council.[43]

Public transport[edit]

South Shields is bounded by the A19 trunk road to the West and situated close to the Tyne Tunnel at Jarrow. The town is well connected to other areas of Tyne & Wear and to the strategic road network - the A194(M) motorway provides a direct link between the Borough and the A1/A1(M).

The Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system was introduced in the 1980s and replaced British Rail services over the same route. The Metro network serves South Tyneside, Gateshead, Newcastle, North Tyneside, Sunderland and Newcastle Airport. The platform at South Shields Metro Station is situated on a bridge directly above King Street - the town's main shopping area. When Metro services were introduced, the railway line at the former High Shields LNER station at Laygate was re-routed eastwards to the then-new Chichester Metro and bus interchange. The former South Shields LNER station was also closed and the Victorian buildings survived as a secondary entrance to the Metro station until they were demolished in 1998. There are other Metro stations at Tyne Dock and Brockley Whins, while a new station at Simonside opened in early 2008. Long-term plans by Nexus to re-open the former Sunderland to South Shields line between Tyne Dock, Brockley Whins and East Boldon would create a direct rail service between South Shields and Sunderland, without the need for passengers to change trains at Pelaw in Gateshead.

There is a frequent pedestrian ferry service to North Shields on the opposite bank of the Tyne. The Shields Ferry carries tens of thousands of commuters and pleasure trippers each year. There has been a cross-river ferry service between the two towns since 1377.[44]

The Port of Tyne headquarters and international freight terminal are located at Tyne Dock in South Shields. The Port has a freight rail connection.

Local bus routes are operated by Stagecoach North East and Go North East, which are planned to integrate with Metro services.

There is a National Express coach service direct to London.

The town's extensive network of strategic footpaths and cycle routes includes the Sea to Sea Cycle Route and National Cycle Route 1.

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild dfferences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[45]

Climate data for South Shields
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 7
(45)
8
(46)
9
(48)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
18
(64)
18
(64)
16
(61)
13
(55)
9
(48)
7
(45)
11.9
(53.3)
Average low °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
4
(39)
5
(41)
8
(46)
10
(50)
13
(55)
13
(55)
10
(50)
8
(46)
5
(41)
3
(37)
7.1
(44.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
30
(1.2)
43
(1.7)
48
(1.9)
43
(1.7)
38
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
48
(1.9)
53
(2.1)
53
(2.1)
50
(2)
520
(20.6)
Source: Weatherbase [46]

List of Bus Services[edit]

The following are the bus services currently using South Shields Interchange, correct to 11 November 2012. .[47] [48]

Key

  • Bus interchange - Route serves a Bus/Coach station.
  • Tyne and Wear Metro - Route serves a Tyne & Wear Metro station.
  • National Rail - Route serves a Railway station.
Route To Via Operator Days of Operation
(if not 7 days)
1 Circular Service Horsley Hill, Biddick Hall & Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields Sat/Sun morning.
2 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro Biddick Hall & Horsley Hill Stagecoach in South Shields Sat/Sun morning.
3 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Biddick Hall & Harton Nook Stagecoach in South Shields
4 Circular Service Harton Nook, Biddick Hall & Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields
5 Jarrow Bus Station Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Whiteleas & Fellgate Tyne and Wear Metro Go North East
7 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Marsden & Westoe Stagecoach in South Shields
8 Circular Service Westoe, Marsden & Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields
10 Jarrow Bus Station Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Horsley Hill, Whiteleas & Simonside Tyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields One-Way.
12 The Lonnen Laygate, West Harton & Harton Nook Stagecoach in South Shields
South Shields Mile End Road
12A The Lonnen Watson Avenue Laygate, West Harton & Harton Nook Stagecoach in South Shields Mon-Sat daytime.
South Shields Mile End Road
Note - Sat service terminates at Harton Nook.
17 Circular Service Laygate, Whiteleas & West Harton Stagecoach in South Shields
18 Circular Service Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, West Harton & Brockley Whins Stagecoach in South Shields
27 Newcastle Market Street Jarrow Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro, Heworth Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail & Gateshead Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Go North East "The Crusader".
30 Boldon Colliery Westoe, Cleadon & East Boldon Stagecoach in South Shields
35 Low Moorsley Sunderland Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail, Silksworth & Houghton-le-Spring Go North East "The Laser", Mon-Sat daytime.
35A Rainton Bridge Industrial Estate Sunderland Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail, Silksworth & Herrington Burn Go North East "The Laser", Mon-Sat daytime.
35B Low Moorsley Sunderland Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail, Silksworth & Houghton-le-Spring Go North East "The Laser", Mon-Sat evening
& all-day Sunday.
35C South Hetton Grasmere Terrace Sunderland Bus interchangeTyne and Wear MetroNational Rail, Silksworth & Houghton-le-Spring Go North East "The Laser", Mon-Sat evening
& all-day Sunday.
50 Durham Bus Station Bus interchange West Boldon, Washington Bus interchange & Chester-le-Street Go North East Mon-Sat daytime.
50A Chester-le-Street Whiteleas, Sulgrave & Washington Bus interchange Go North East Mon-Sat evenings & all-day Sun.
Note - Sun daytime service extended to Durham Bus Station Bus interchange.
88 Lukes Lane Estate Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, South Leam & Jarrow Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Go North East "South Tyne", daytime.
88A Lukes Lane Estate Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, South Leam & Jarrow Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Go North East "South Tyne",
Mon-Sat daytime.
516 South Tyneside General Hospital Pier Head, Marsden & Harton Nook Nexus Mon-Sat daytime.
E1 Sunderland Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Bents Park, Marsden & Roker Stagecoach in South Shields
E2 Sunderland Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Marsden & Fulwell Grange Stagecoach in South Shields
E6 Sunderland Interchange Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Marsden & Roker Stagecoach in South Shields
TB503 Low Simonside Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Simonside Tyne and Wear Metro & Primrose Nexus Taxibus, Mon-Sat daytime.
TB504 Horsley Hill Square Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Tyne Dock & S.Tyneside Gen.Hosp. Nexus Taxibus, Mon-Sat evening &
all-day Sun.
X20 Fellgate Tyne and Wear Metro Chichester Tyne and Wear Metro, Simonside & Primrose Stagecoach in South Shields
X34 Newcastle Pilgrim Street Harton Nook, Boldon & Gateshead Bus interchangeTyne and Wear Metro Stagecoach in South Shields Mon-Sat daytime.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Urban Areas : Table KS01 : Usual Resident Population Retrieved 2009-08-26
  2. ^ "Dame Catherine Cookson". Retrieved 2007-12-22. "4. Sir William Fox Hotel, Westoe village, South Shields. The village is a conservation area and was the setting for many of her books including Katie Mulholland and Kate Hannigan." 
  3. ^ "The British Yemeni Society". Al-bab.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  4. ^ "The North East's Yemeni Race Riots". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  5. ^ American Institute for Yemeni Studies[dead link]
  6. ^ "David Miliband MP - Maiden Speech to Parliament". Davidmiliband.info. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  7. ^ "Plays". Peter Mortimer. 1930-08-02. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  8. ^ Reed, Angela (2008-08-08). "MP backs moves to mark Muhammad Ali's South Shields visit". South Shields Gazette. Retrieved 2008-08-16. "Ms Gharavi, from South Shields, creative director of Bridge + Tunnel Productions in Newcastle, said: "Mr Miliband's support for the plaque project is exciting and has brought momentum to the campaign. "I'm sure the people of South Shields will be glad to hear that it is another step closer to reality." 
  9. ^ "British-Yemeni Society: From South Shields to Sheffield: A photographic journey". Al-bab.com. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  10. ^ "Inspector George Gently is back for four new single dramas for BBC One – Gently In The Blood". bbc.co.uk. 2009-04-07. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  11. ^ a b c "Version 5, Change in Claimant Count / Unemployment rate in the borough". southtyneside.info. 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2008-08-30. [dead link]
  12. ^ "CLAIMANTS, OCTOBER 2011". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  13. ^ "Foreshore set for big revamp". South Shields Gazette. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  14. ^ "Dunes Adventure Island". 
  15. ^ Pevsner, The Buildings of England - County Durham, 1953, 1983.
  16. ^ "South Tyneside council: building description". Southtyneside.info. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  17. ^ Duffy, Martin. "South Tyneside magic festival". Retrieved 2013-03-19. 
  18. ^ Reed, Angela (2008-07-21). "Planetarium's future saved - with move out of town!". South Shields Gazette. Retrieved 2008-08-21. "THE future of South Tyneside College's planetarium and observatory has been secured – with a move outside the borough." 
  19. ^ "College Info - Courses by Subject". South Tyneside College. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  20. ^ "ANY QUESTIONS?". South Shields Gazette. 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  21. ^ Shaw, Leah (2007-02-10). "Parents meet to discuss concerns over superschool". The South Shields Gazette. Retrieved 2008-01-19. "King George V and Brinkburn schools will merge on April 16 to form South Shields Community School on split sites in Nevinson Avenue and McAnany Avenue. "Pupils will then move to Brinkburn School's buildings while a new £19m superschool, due to open in 2009 at the earliest…" 
  22. ^ "AskOxford.com". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  23. ^ Dickens, Jnr, Charles (1872). All the Year Round. new ser.:v.8. Charles Dickens. p. 487. "the engineer, a brawny Geordie from South Shields, imbued with a thoroughly English contempt for every thing foreign;" 
  24. ^ "Not Only A Hero, An Illustrated Life of Simpson, the Man with the Donkey". Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  25. ^ "Director Ridley Scott quizzed". BBC News. 2001-03-26. Retrieved 2013-08-16. 
  26. ^ "Eric Idle Biography". Flmreference.com. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  27. ^ "Philosopher John Grey: We are not facing our problems". London: Independent.co.uk. 11 April 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  28. ^ "Sir Frank Williams - Formula 1". VisitSouthShields.com. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  29. ^ http://www.visitsouthtyneside.co.uk/article/12667/people
  30. ^ a b c The Independent (London) http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/sarah-millican-gossip-girl-6281196.html |url= missing title (help). 
  31. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/505834/Dame-Flora-Robson
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  33. ^ http://robert-olley.myshopify.com/pages/about-robert-olley
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