|Su-35 / Su-27M|
|A modernized Su-35S of the Russian Air Force|
|National origin||Soviet Union
|Built by||Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO)|
|First flight||Su-27M: 28 June 1988
Su-35: 19 February 2008
|Status||In operational testing|
|Primary user||Russian Air Force|
|Number built||Su-27M: 17 (incl. an Su-35UB)
|Developed from||Sukhoi Su-27|
The Sukhoi Su-35 (Russian: Сухой Су-35; NATO reporting name: Flanker-E)[N 1] is a designation for two separate, heavily-upgraded derivatives of the Su-27 'Flanker'. They are single-seat, twin-engine supermaneuverable multirole fighters, designed by Sukhoi and built by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO).
The first variant was designed during the 1980s, when Sukhoi was seeking to upgrade its high-performance Su-27, and was initially known as the Su-27M. Later re-designated Su-35, this derivative incorporated aerodynamic refinements to increase manoeuvrability, enhanced avionics, longer range, and a more powerful engine. The first Su-35 prototype, converted from a Su-27, made its maiden flight in June 1988. More than a dozen of these were built, some of which were used by the Russian Knights aerobatic demonstration team. The first Su-35 design was later modified into the Su-37, which possessed thrust-vectoring engines and was used as a technology demonstrator. A sole Su-35UB two-seat trainer was built in the late 1990s that, despite its name, shares a strong resemblance to the Su-30MK family.
In 2003, Sukhoi embarked on a second modernization of the Su-27 to produce what the company calls a 4++ generation fighter that would serve as an interim fighter prior to the arrival of the Sukhoi PAK FA. This derivative, while omitting the canards and air brake, incorporates a reinforced airframe, improved avionics and radar, thrust-vectoring engines, and a reduced frontal radar signature. In 2008 the revamped variant, erroneously named the Su-35BM in the media, began its flight test programme that would involve four prototypes, one of which was lost in 2009.
The Russian Air Force has ordered 48 production units, designated Su-35S, of the newly revamped Su-35. Both Su-35 models marketed to many countries, including Brazil, China, India and South Korea, but so far have not attracted any export orders. Sukhoi originally projected that it would export more than 160 units of the second modernized Su-35 worldwide.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Operational history
- 3 Variants
- 4 Operators
- 5 Specifications (Su-35S)
- 6 See also
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Design and development
In the early 1980s, while the Su-27 was entering service with the Soviet Air Force, Sukhoi looked to develop a follow-on variant. Originally designated "Su-27M" and known internally as the "T10-M", it would be much more agile and feature greatly improved avionics compared to the aircraft considered to be the best contemporary fighter. It was also to carry more armament to improve its air-to-ground capabilities.
The improved variant, the development of which began in the early 1980s, featured a host of changes in aerodynamics, avionics, powerplants, and construction methods, as well as increasing payload capacity. High-strength composites and aluminium-lithium were used to reduce weight and boost internal fuel volume. One of the distinguishing features of this early design were the canards, which improved airflow over the wings, eliminating buffeting and allowing the aircraft to fly at an angle of attack of 120°. These canards were governed by a new digital fly-by-wire flight-control system. The aircraft was fitted with the Luylka AL-31FM turbofan engine which is larger, more reliable and, with a thrust of 125 kN (28,200 lbf), is more powerful than those found on the Su-27.
Also new was the fire-control system, at the heart of which is the N011 pulse-Doppler radar. The radar could track 15 aerial targets simultaneously and guide six missiles toward them; to exploit the improved radar, two additional underwing pylons were added. The tail "stinger" houses the Phazotron N-012 rear-facing radar for protection from attacks from behind. The aircraft could carry various bombs (including napalm, dumb and cluster bombs) and both air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles. The cockpit was modernized, equipped with multi-function colour LCD screens, and was fitted with a K-36DM ejection seat inclined at 30° to improve pilot g-force tolerance. Range was increased to 4,000 km (2,222 nmi), and with the fitting of an aerial refuelling probe, range can be further extended. The aircraft was characterized by its twin nose wheel – as a result of higher payload – and larger tail fins with carbon fibre square-topped tips.
Testing and demonstration
The Su-27M (T-10S-70) prototype first flew on 28 June 1988 piloted by Sukhoi chief test pilot Oleg Tsoi. The first prototype differed slightly from later examples in: retaining standard Su-27 vertical stabilizers without the cropped top; lacking a fire-control system; having a three-tone grey/blue camouflage scheme, along with minor differences. Designated T10M-1 to T10M-10, the first ten prototypes were built by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association (KnAAPO) in conjunction with Sukhoi (as the Soviet military-industrial structure separated the aircraft designer and manufacturer). They differed slightly, as four were converted from Su-27s, and the others were new-builds. The second prototype started flying in January 1989, while the third followed in mid-1992. The prototypes were used to validate the canards and new flight-control system.
In 1990, the first prototype was displayed to Ministry of Defence officials at Kubinka Air Base. The aircraft first aerial demonstration occurred on 13 February 1992, in front of CIS leaders in Machulishi, Minsk, before making its public debut at that year's Farnborough Airshow. The third prototype, T10M-3, appeared at the Dubai Airshow in 1993, by which time Sukhoi had re-designated its fighter the "Su-35". T10M-3 demonstrated its dogfight manoeuvres, including the Pugachev's Cobra, to potential export customers. Viktor Pugachyov subsequently piloted the prototype in a mock fight with an Su-30MK. The Su-35 performed at numerous air shows during the following years, including at the 1993 and 1995 MAKS Airshows and the 1994 ILA Berlin Air Show. In addition to Su-27 conversions, three production Su-35s were completed in 1996 and delivered to Russian Air Force (VVS) for testing.
Throughout the Su-35's flight test programme, active controls during manoeuvres such as the Pugachev's Cobra and tailslide could not be maintained. The eleventh Su-27M (T10M-11) was built by KnAAPO and delivered in 1995 for the installation of exclusive systems to give it thrust-vectoring capabilities. The resultant Su-37 technology demonstrator made its first flight in April 1996. A second Su-35 was modified into an Su-37 in the late 1990s.
In total, 15 airworthy Su-35s (Su-27M) were produced, including an Su-35UB two-seat prototype, along with two static test prototypes. The Su-35UB, powered by two modified AL-32FPs with thrust-vectoring nozzles, made its first flight on 7 August 2000. It was demonstrated to South Korea during that country's F-X replacement fighter tender, before becoming an avionics testbed. The original Su-35 never entered serial production due to a lack of funding, and the VVS continued to use its Su-27 fleet. The Su-35's automatic control of canards and the Su-37's thrust-vectoring technology were applied to the Sukhoi Su-30MKI. One of the Su-35s, T10M-10, served as a testbed for the AL-41F1A engine intended for Russia's upcoming fifth-generation jet fighter.
In 2003, even as Russia was looking to export the Su-27M, Sukhoi launched a project to produce a fighter that would bridge the gap between the upgraded variants of the Su-27 and Su-30MK, and Russia's fifth-generation Sukhoi PAK FA. The project's aim was to undertake a second modernization of the Su-27 airframe (hence its classification as a "4++ generation fighter") by incorporating several characteristics that would be implemented on the PAK FA. Additionally, the aircraft was to be an alternative to the Su-30 family on the export market. The design phase was to take place until 2007, when it would be available for sale. It was later reported that the programme was launched due to concerns that the PAK FA project would encounter funding shortages. Although the in-house designation for the project is T-10BM (Bolshaya Modernizatsiya, "Big Modernization"), the aircraft is marketed as the Su-35.[N 2]
Compared with the Su-27M, the new aircraft has been thoroughly overhauled with a particular emphasis on the airframe, avionics, and propulsion and weapons systems, while maintaining a strong superficial resemblance to the Su-27. Indeed, technological advancements have produced lighter and smaller hardware, as was the case with the radar, shifting the centre of gravity to the rear of the aircraft. These improvements negated the benefits of the canards and saw the abandonment of the "tandem triplane" design of many derivatives of the Su-27. Also omitted was the Su-27's dorsal airbrake, the functions of which were replaced by differentially deflecting the vertical stabilizers. Other less obvious aerodynamic refinements saw the reduction in height of the vertical stabilizers, smaller aft-cockpit hump, and shorter rearward-projecting "sting".
The reinforced airframe sees extensive use of titanium alloys, increasing its durability to some 30 years or 6,000 service hours, and raising the maximum take-off weight to 34.5 tonnes. At the same time, the empty weight is comparable to that of Su-27's 16.5 tonnes.[N 3] Internal fuel capacity was increased by more than 20% to 11.5 tonnes, and could be raised to 14.5 tonnes with the addition of drop tanks; in-flight refueling can also be used to extend missions.
Sukhoi has overhauled the avionics suite, at the heart of which is the information management system that greatly enhances man-machine interaction. The system, which has two digital computers, collects and processes data from various tactical and flight-control systems and presents the relevant information to the pilot through the two main multi-function displays, which, together with three secondary MFDs, form the glass cockpit. The aircraft features many other upgrades to its avionics and electronic systems, including digital fly-by-wire flight-control system, and the pilot is equipped with a head-up display and night-vision goggles.
The Su-35 employs an Irbis-E passive electronically scanned array radar that constitutes an essential component of the aircraft's fire-control system. The radar is capable of detecting a 3-square-metre (32 sq ft) aerial target at a distance of 400 km (250 mi), and can track 30 airborne targets and engage eight of them at the same time. The radar can also map the ground using a variety of modes, including the synthetic aperture mode. The Irbis-E is complemented by an OLS-35 optoelectronic targeting system that provides laser ranging and TV and infrared detection. The Su-35 is compatible with a multitude of long- and short-range air-to-air missiles, precision and unguided air-to-ground weaponry that include missiles, fuel-air bombs and rockets. A maximum weapon payload of 8 tonnes can be carried on the fourteen hardpoints.
The most profound design alterations of the Su-35 are related to the engine. The aircraft is powered by two Product 117S (AL-41F1A) turbofan engines developed jointly by Sukhoi, NPO Saturn and UMPO. The engine is a heavily upgraded variant of the AL-31F that draws on the design of the AL-41FA intended for the fifth-generation PAK FA. The 117S's output is estimated at 142 kN (31,900 lbf), 20 kN (4,500 lbf) more than the AL-31F used on the Su-27M. It has a service life of 4,000 hours, compared to the AL-31F's 1,500, and to compensate for the loss of canards, has fully rotating thrust-vectoring capability. The Su-35S is the first non-US aircraft to have substantial supercruise ability (sustained cruising at supersonic speed without the use of afterburners), which would give it a crucial energy advantage against non-supercruising opponents. A layer of radar-absorbent material has been applied to the engine inlets and the front stages of the engine compressor, halving the Su-35's frontal radar cross-section (RCS). Other RCS-reducing measures include modifications to the canopy to reflect radar waves.
Production and flight testing
Design work on the Su-35 had been completed by 2007, paving the way for KnAAPO to construct the first prototype in the summer of 2007. Upon completion, Su-35-1 was ferried to the Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky Airfield before being placed on static display at that year's MAKS air show. At the time, Sukhoi General Designer Mikhail Pogosyan commented that the aircraft was in great demand abroad, saying Russia was negotiating with several prospective customers and that there were plans to export the aircraft starting in 2010.
Preparations began for the aircraft's maiden flight immediately following the air show. Particular efforts were made to debug the flight-control system and test the engine. By mid-February 2008, Su-35-1 had been rolled out to conduct taxiing tests. On 19 February, Sukhoi test pilot Sergey Bogdan took the aircraft aloft for its first flight from Zhukovsky, accompanied by an Su-30MK2 acting as a chase plane. During the 55-minute flight, the Su-35 reached a height of 5,000 metres (16,000 ft), and tests were carried out on its stability, constrollability and engines. The prototype was put on static display for President Vladimir Putin and Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev the following day.
Approximately 40 flights were conducted before the second prototype took to the air on 2 October from KnAAPO's Dzemgi Airport, again piloted by Sergey Bogdan. The Su-35 had earlier in July made its first demonstration flight in front of Defence Ministry and foreign officials. At the time, Sukhoi estimated that a total of 160 Su-35s would be supplied to customers worldwide, in particular those in Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. Domestically, the VVS Commander-in-Chief Colonel General Alexander Zelin stated that the service was seeking enough aircraft, estimated to be 24–36 units, to equip "at least two to three regiments".
On 26 April 2009, the fourth Su-35 prototype was destroyed at Dzemgi Airport during a taxi run. The aircraft crashed into a barrier at the end of the runway, burned, and was written off. The pilot, Yevgeny Frolov, ejected and was taken to hospital with burns and other injuries. The aircraft was expected to be the third flying prototype, with its first flight scheduled on 24 April, but which was rescheduled for 27 April. A commission was opened to investigate the crash, but several sources initially speculated that the incident had been the result of a brake failure or a faulty fuel pump.
During the 2009 MAKS air show, the Russian Defence Ministry signed a US$2.5 billion contract for 64 jet fighters, which consisted of a 48-aircraft launch order for the Su-35S ("Serial"). The Russian government promised to provide Sukhoi an additional US$100 million in capital, with additional financial assistance from Sberbank and Vnesheconombank, the latter of which was contracted to provide US$109 million to start the production programme. The Su-35S's estimated price was $40 million each, and the 64-aircraft contract was the largest aircraft order after the collapse of the Soviet Union. All are expected to be delivered by 2015.
KnAAPO started manufacturing the first serial aircraft in November 2009, with Sukhoi estimating that the annual production rate would be at 24 to 30 aircraft from 2010 to 2020. On 11 October 2010, Sukhoi announced that the first production Su-35S had completed general assembly and that the aircraft was planned to be delivered to the Defence Ministry before the end of 2010. The preliminary flight test programme had by now logged 350 flight hours during 270 flights using the two remaining flying prototypes. Sukhoi confirmed that the aircraft has fully met all design specifications, including maximum speed, height, radar detection range and maneuverability parameters. Following preliminary tests, the Defence Ministry was expected to initiate state joint tests that would involve six Su-35s to further scrutinize systems such as weapons. The first Su-35S took its maiden flight in May 2011. The plan was to deliver two Su-35S units in 2011, eight in 2012, twelve in 2013 and 2014, and fourteen in 2015.
Three production Su-27Ms were completed and delivered to VVS in 1996 for testing. They were operated by 929th State Flight Test Center (abbreviated as GLITS in Russian) at Vladimirovka air base, Akhtubinsk, performing weapons trials. During one such flights, a weapon pylon, to which a bomb and rocket were attached, fell into a village in Ryazan; nobody was hurt. In 2001, the Air Force decided that the aerobatics team Russian Knights would receive several Su-27Ms, presumably from GLITS and Sukhoi. After pilots from the team undertook conversion course at Vladimirovka AB, the first of five aircraft was delivered to the team in July 2003. It was expected that the Su-27Ms would enhance the flying repertoire of their new owners, but due to various reasons, they were used as a source of spare parts for other aircraft in the demonstration fleet.
In late May 2011, Sukhoi flew the first Su-35S to the Defence Ministry's 929th State Flight Test Centre at Akhtubinsk prior to states joint tests conducted to prepare the aircraft for operational service with the VVS. Official trials commenced in mid-August with the two Su-35 prototypes, before being joined by production aircraft. As of March 2012, four Su-35S units were involved in such tests, operating alongside the two flying prototypes. These Su-35s had by April and August 2012, completed 500 and 650 test flights, respectively.
On 28 December 2012, Sukhoi delivered a batch of six serial production Su-35S fighters to the VVS. Defence Ministry officials accepted the aircraft at KnAAPO's manufacturing plant in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia. Five of the six Su-35S delivered in December went to the Gromov Flight Research Institute, where in February 2013 an eighteen-month programme began to test the Su-35's ability to conduct highly maneuverable short-range combat. The programme consists of three components, which are dogfights; the use of weapons and the ability to evade enemy fire; and the ability to destroy helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. State-acceptance trials would conclude in 2015, by which time a second 48-aircraft order is expected to have been signed with the VVS.
In December 2012, Russian officials commented that the Swifts and Russian Knights aerobatics teams would receive new aircraft to replace the Mikoyan MiG-29 and Su-27, respectively. The Swifts was expected to receive the Su-30SM and the Russian Knights, Su-35. Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin commented the upgrade was to "show to the world not only the inimitable skill of our pilots, but also the talent of our aircraft designers who despite all the problems of the past decades, are willing to give us new reasons to be proud of their country."
Since the early 1990s, an extensive sales arrangement of the Su-35 to China has been discussed. Sukhoi officials, in 1995, announced their proposal to co-produce the Su-35 with China, contingent on Beijing's agreement to purchase 120 aircraft. However, it was alleged that the Russian Foreign Ministry blocked the sale of the Su-35 and Tupolev Tu-22M bombers over concerns about the arrangements for Chinese production of the Su-27.
In 2006, China was showing interest in the modernized Su-35, and was negotiating with Moscow for a purchase of the new fighter. Kommersant reported that by the first half of 2007, a contract for an unspecified number would have been signed. At the 2007 MAKS air show, a number of Chinese delegates were seen taking photos and videos of the Su-35 prototypes. In November 2010, Russia, through Rosoboronexport, was ready to resume talks with China on the sale of the Su-35. China reciprocated in 2011 by presenting a proposal on the purchase of the fighter.
In March 2012, the Russian media reported that the two countries were in final contract negotiations for 48 Su-35s in a deal worth US$4 billion, or US$85 million apiece; the remaining obstacle is reportedly Moscow's demand that Beijing guarantee proper licensing for its Su-35 production. China denied this deal because it did not want the Su-35, but only shown slight interest in its 117S engine; at the 2012 Zhuhai Air Show Russia approached China with its 117S engine in a failed attempt to sell Su-35. In late 2012, it was reported that China wanted to purchase only 24 units, which was less than what Russia deemed to be worthwhile, thus stalling negotiations. By the end of the year, however, negotiations resumed, this time involving 24 aircraft instead of 48.
In March 2013, media articles stated the two countries signed an initial agreement for 24 Su-35s and four submarines prior to Chinese President Xi Jinping's visit to Russia. Russia stated it had not signed any arms agreement with China, which is believed to be interested in the Su-35's NPO Saturn 117S engine.
A senior executive with Russia's Rosoboronexport said he expects to finalize the Su-35 order with China in 2014. Peter Wood suggested that the Su-35's range and speed would prove vital in enforcing China's territorial claims in the South China Sea, as their current fighters can at best briefly overfly the disputed islands.
In 2001, Brazil under President Fernando Henrique Cardoso announced the F-X tender to procure a replacement for its aging aircraft including the Dassault Mirage IIID/E and Northrop F-5. Sukhoi partnered with Avibras to submit the Su-27M for the US$700 million tender that would see at least twelve aircraft delivered to the Brazilian Air Force. Other contenders were the Mirage 2000, F-16, MiG-29, and JAS Gripen. Any contract would have been accompanied by an offset agreement that would see the winning bidder provide input to Brazil's aviation industry. Had the Su-35 won, Russia would have purchased 50 Embraer airliners for use by Aeroflot. The Su-35 and Mirage 2000 were the front-runners to the program, but the former was favoured for its superior flight characteristics. According to the Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, the Su-35 would have been the first heavy supersonic fighter to be delivered to Latin America. The tender was suspended for much of 2003 as the newly elected President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva focused more on social welfare. The tender was again suspended in 2005, pending the availability of new fighters.
In 2007, Russia submitted the modernized Su-35 to the tender, which was relaunched as F-X2. The tender this time attracted the participation of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, F-16BR, JAS Gripen NG, Dassault Rafale, and Eurofighter Typhoon. Brazil was looking to purchase at least 36, and up to 120, aircraft to replace Northrop F-5BRs, Alenia/Embraer A-1Ms and Dassault Mirages. In October 2009, a year after the Brazilian Air Force selected three finalists, none of which was the Su-35, Rosoboronexport declared that Russia would provide 120 fighters and full technology transfer to Brazil. The Su-35 is expected re-enter the tender after Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff postponed the programme in January 2011 due to fiscal concerns.
In May 2006, it was reported that Venezuela planned to purchase dozens of Su-30 and Su-35 fighters, and as many as 100 T-90 tanks. There were unconfirmed reports in October 2008 that the Venezuela government had ordered 24 Su-35s for the Venezuelan Air Force. In July 2012, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez repeated his interest in acquiring the Su-35 fighters.
Failed or inactive bids
South Korea was viewed in the early stages as a potential operator. At the 1996 Seoul Air Show, Russia submitted the Su-35 (Su-27M) and Su-37 as part of its bid for South Korea's F-X fighter procurement programme that saw a 40-aircraft requirement to replace the Republic of Korea Air Force's F-4D/Es, RF-4Cs, and F-5E/Fs. The Sukhoi jets competed against the Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon, and F-15K Slam Eagle. For the bid, the proposed Su-35 would have employed a phased grid radar and AL-31FP vectoring-thrust engines. Russian would have provided full technology transfer to South Korea, where final assembly would have taken place. The US$5 billion contract may have been partially financed through a debt-reduction deal on money Russia owed to South Korea. Although the Su-35 was viewed as the cheapest aircraft to purchase and maintain, it was eliminated early in bidding process, along with the Typhoon. The F-15K, which had been a front-runner throughout the competition due to South Korea's close ties with the United States, was chosen in 2002. There were reports that, had South Korea not chosen the F-15K, the United States would have refused to integrate American weapons with the eventual winning aircraft.
Sukhoi approached US-aligned Australia in 2002, offering Su-30 family aircraft, and the Su-35 targeted as the prime "export" fighter. However Australia purchased the F-35 as its replacement for the F-111 and F/A-18.
Russia has offered the Su-35 for sale to India, Malaysia, Algeria and Greece; no firm contracts have materialised, with the first three countries having been occupied with other fighter projects and unlikely to procure the modernized Su-35. In late 2010, Libya was expected to sign a contract for the purchase of twelve Su-35s as part of a bigger military transaction that would have included S-300PMU-2 surface-to-air missiles, Kilo-class submarines, and T-90 tanks. The civil war in Libya and the resulting military intervention caused Rosoboronexport to miss out on US$4 billion in arranged contracts as they were never signed.
- Single-seat fighter.
- Two-seat trainer. Features taller vertical stabilizers and a forward fuselage similar to the Su-30.
- Single-seat fighter with upgraded avionics and various modifications to the airframe. Su-35BM is informal name.
- Designation of the modernized Su-35 variant of the Russian Air Force.
- Thrust-vectoring demonstrator.
- Crew: 1
- Length: 21.9 m (72.9 ft)
- Wingspan: 15.3 m (50.2 ft, with wingtip pods)
- Height: 5.90 m (19.4 ft)
- Wing area: 62.0 m² (667 ft²)
- Empty weight: 18,400 kg (40,570 lb)
- Loaded weight: 25,300 kg (56,660 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 34,500 kg (76,060 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Saturn 117S with TVC nozzle turbofan
- Dry thrust: 8,800 kgf (86.3 kN, 19,400 lbf) each
- Thrust with afterburner: 14,500 kgf (142 kN, 31,900 lbf) each
- Fuel capacity: 14,350 litres (3,790 US gal)
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.25 (2,390 km/h, 1,490 mph) at altitude
- High altitude: 3,600 km (1,940 nmi)
- Ground level: 1,580 km (850 nmi)
- Ferry range: 4,500 km(2,430 nmi)with 2 external fuel tanks
- Service ceiling: 18,000 m (59,100 ft)
- Rate of climb: >280 m/s (>55,100 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 408 kg/m² (84.9 lb/ft²)
- Thrust/weight: 1.13
- Guns: 1× 30 mm GSh-30 internal cannon with 150 rounds
- Hardpoints: 14 hardpoints, consting of 2 wingtip rails, and 12 wing and fuselage stations with a capacity of 8,000 kg (17,630 lb) of ordnance, and provisions to carry combinations of:
- FAB-250 250-kilogram (550 lb) unguided bombs
- FAB-500 500-kilogram (1,100 lb) unguided bombs
- KAB-500L laser-guided bomb
- KAB-1500 laser-guided bomb
- buddy refueling pod
- Irbis-E passive phased array radar
- KNIRTI SAP 14 jamming pod (centreline pylon)
- KNIRTI SAP 518 jamming pod (one each on both wingtips)
- OLS-35 infra-red search and track system
- Khibiny-M electronic warfare suite
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
- Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle
- Dassault Rafale
- Eurofighter Typhoon
- Sukhoi Su-30MKI
- Related lists
- The NATO reporting name only applies to the first Su-35 (Su-27M), as the that of modernized variant is unknown.
- "T-10" is the in-house designation of the Su-27 family. Derivatives of the type such as the Su-27K and Su-27M have the designations of "T-10K" and "T10-M"; as the modernized Su-35 has a project designation of "T-10BM", it would most likely to have been labelled as the "Su-27BM". However, the media has given it the designation "Su-35BM" to distinguish it from the Su-27M/Su-35, even though neither Sukhoi or KnAAPO have never referred to it as such.
- Other sources claim the MTOW is 38.5 tonnes and the empty weight is 16.5 tonnes.
- "Су-35 / Су-35С – FLANKER-E". Military Russia (in Russian). December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "На МАКСе заключат контракты на 64 российских истребителя". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 13 August 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi shows off its new super agile fighter". Russia Today. 8 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Russian Defense Ministry orders 64 Su-family fighters". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 21 August 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- Gordon 1999, p. 61.
- Williams 2002, p. 118.
- Eden 2004, p. 468.
- "Su-35 Multirole Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft, Russia". Airforce-technology.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Williams 2002, p. 119.
- Gordon 1999, p. 62.
- Gordon 1999, p. 148.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 29–33.
- Gordon 1999, pp. 61–62.
- Wilson 2000, p. 132.
- Gordon 1999, p. 63.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 30–31.
- Fomin 2007, p. 48.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, p. 31.
- Eden 2004, p. 469.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, p. 33.
- Fomin 2007, p. 49.
- Gordon 1999, pp. 63–66.
- Barrie 1995, p. 6.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 34–37.
- Hillebrand, Niels (12 April 2009). "Sukhoi Su-27M (Su-35) Super Flanker". Milavia.net. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- Gordon 2007, pp. 172–173.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 44–45.
- Gordon 2007, p. 173.
- Butowski, Piotr (22 June 2004). "Halfway to PAK FA: the latest addition to the Su-27 family seeks to bridge the gap to the fifth generation combat aircraft". Interavia Business & Technology. Aerospace Media Publishing – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). OCLC 71365085. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Butowski, Piotr (22 September 2007). "Wraps come off new Russian fighters: Russia's so-called "intermediate-generation" fighters made their debut at MAKS 2007". Interavia Business & Technology. Aerospace Media Publishing – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). OCLC 71365085. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Большая модернизация: ВВС России готовятся к государственным испытаниям истребителя СУ-35БМ". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 13 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi plans further Su-27 derivative". Flightglobal. 6 September 2005. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Kramnik, Ilya (9 July 2008). "Su-35, a younger son of Su-27". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 12 July 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- Fomin 2007, p. 47.
- Fomin 2007, p. 51.
- "Su-35". Sukhoi. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Gordon 2007, p. 175.
- "Su-35". KnAAPO. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Gordon 2007, pp. 175–176.
- Makienko 2008, pp. 18–22.
- Kopp, Carlo (August 2009). Sukhoi/KnAAPO Su-35BM/Su-35-1/Su-35S Flanker. Air Power Australia Technical Report. Air Power Australia. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Karnozov, Vladimir (4 September 2007). "Sukhoi unveils 'supercruising' Su-35-1 multi-role fighter". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Sweetman, Bill (1 April 2004). "Russian stealth research revealed: Russia shows solid progress in a variety of low-observable technologies". Journal of Electronic Defense. Horizon House Publications – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). ISSN 0192-429X. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Fomin 2008, p. 28.
- Usov, Pavel (16 February 2007). "На КнААПО поступят двигатели для Су-35". Kommersant (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Zaitse, Yury (21 September 2007). "Sukhoi Su-35 fighter: winging its way into a new era". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 2 October 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi holding's newest jets to take to the skies in 2007". RIA Novosti. 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Начались испытания новой "сушки"". Kommersant (in Russian). 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Начались испытания второго летного образца новейшего Су-35" (Press release) (in Russian). Sukhoi. 3 October 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013.
- ""Сухой" подключил к испытаниям второй Су-35". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 2 October 2008. Archived from the original on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Су-35 выполнил первый демонстрационный полет". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- ""Сухой" поставит заказчикам 160 истребителей Су-35". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 17 July 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Karnozov, Vladimir (12 July 2008). "Russian air force seeks 24–36 Su-35 fighters". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- Nechayev, Alexander (27 April 2009). "Полностью разрушился и сгорел". Vzglyad (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Doronin, Nina (27 April 2009). "В ходе испытаний на заводском аэродроме сгорел истребитель Су-35". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Комиссия расследует обстоятельства крушения Су-35 в Комсомольске-на-Амуре". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Истребитель Су-35 разбился из-за отказа тормозной системы". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Russian Su-35 fighter jet prototype destroyed during testing". RIA Novosti. 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi signs record $2.5 billion deal with Russian defense ministry". RIA Novosti. 18 August 2009. Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Сбербанк прокредитует создание Су-35". Vzglyad (in Russian). 15 September 2010. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (20 August 2009). "Russia signs $2.5 billion deal for 64 Sukhoi fighters". Flightglobal. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Sukhoi launches production of Su-35 for Russia". Defence Talk. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Wood 2009, p. 54.
- "Sukhoi completed general units' assembly of the first production Su-35S" (Press release). Sukhoi. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Russia's SU-35 Super-Flanker: Mystery Fighter No More". Defense Industry Daily. 27 March 2013. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi is completing preliminary tests of the Su-35" (Press release). Sukhoi. 20 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Минобороны получит первый серийный Су-35 до конца 2010 года". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Russia begins test flights of Su-35S series fighter". RIA Novostia. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "The flight tests of the first serial Su-35S have been started" (Press release). KnAAPO. 5 May 2011. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Корпорация "Сухой" поставит до 2015 года 46 самолетов Су-35С по гособоронзаказу" (in Russian). ARMS-TASS. 20 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Senators, Yury (6 March 1999). "Су-35 нанесли по рязанской деревне бомбовый удар". Kommersant (in Russian). Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Gordon 2007, p. 366.
- Fomin 2012, p. 16.
- "Серийный Су-35С совершил первый полет". Vzglyad (in Russian). 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Su-35 fighters made 500 test flights" (Press release). KnAAPO. 5 April 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi Continues Tests of Su-35 Fighter Jet". RIA Novosti. 8 August 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Sukhoi Delivered 6 Su-35S to the Ministry of Defense". Sukhoi. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "ВВС начали отработку сверхманевренного ближнего боя на Cу-35C". Izvestia (in Russian). 20 February 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Госиспытания истребителя Су-35С завершатся в 2015 году". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Russian Aerobatic Teams First to Get Su-30SM, Su-35C". RIA Novosti. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- ""Русские витязи" пересядут с Су-27 на Су-35С и Су-30СМ, заявил Рогозин" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Gill and Kim 1995, p. 60.
- Zhao 2004, p. 216.
- "КнААПО укрепит ВВС Индонезии и Китая". Kommersant (in Russian). 25 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "China's military top brass view Sukhoi's exposition" (Press release). Sukhoi. 1 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Chang, Andrei (23 November 2007). "Analysis: China seeks new Russian technology". United Press International. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "Russia ready to sell Su-35 fighter jets to China". RIA Novosti. 16 November 2010. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Интервью Первого заместителя директора ФСВТС России А.В" (in Russian). Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation. 27 February 2012. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "Russia near Chinese Su-35 fighter contract". United Press International. 6 March 2012. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Копированию не подлежит". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 7 March 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Mattis 2012, pp. 1–2.
- "Russia-China Su-35 Fighter Talks Frozen". RIA Novosti. 17 April 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Moss, Trefor (30 November 2012). "Russia and China Close to SU-35 Deal…Again". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Choi, Chi-yuk (26 March 2013). "China to buy Lada-class subs, Su-35 fighters from Russia". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "СМИ узнали о покупке Китаем 24 истребителей Су-35". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Minnick, Wendell (25 March 2013). "Russia: No Deal on Sale of Fighters, Subs to China". Defense News. ISSN 0884-139X. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Wood, Peter (27 November 2013). "How China Plans to Use the Su-35". thediplomat.com. The Diplomat. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Lantratov, Constantine (31 March 2004). ""Сухой" против EmBrAer". Kommersant (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Brazil declines to sign $750 million deal to buy Su-35 fighters from Russia". Pravda. 23 November 2004. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- "Минобороны обменяет 12 Су-35 на 50 бразильских авиалайнеров". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 20 October 2004. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Бразилия признала Су-35 лучше "Миражей" и F-16". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 11 June 2002. Archived from the original on 19 June 2002. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Brazil Offers Hope to Russian Arms Producers". RIA Novosti. 28 April 2005. Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Rivers, Brendan P. (1 November 2003). "Brazil relaunches fighter tender". Journal of Electronic Defense. Horizon House Publications – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). ISSN 0192-429X. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Lantratov, Constantine (28 February 2005). "Бразилии не нужны новые истребители". Kommersant (in Russian). Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Истребитель Су-35 вернется в тендер ВВС Бразилии". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Истребитель Су-35 примет участие в тендере в Бразилии". Kommersant (in Russian). 22 April 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (6 October 2008). "Brazil names three finalists for F-X2 contract, rejects three others". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
- "Entrevista com Anatoly Isaikin Diretor General da EEFU Rosoboronexport sobre o Programa F-X2". DefesaNet (in Portuguese). 6 October 2009. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Cruz, Valdo (20 January 2011). "Dilma deixa compra de caças da FAB para 2012". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Су-35 предрекли возвращение в бразильский тендер". Lenta.ru (in Russian). 28 March 2012. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Sweeney, Jack (15 October 2008). "Venezuela buys Russian aircraft, tanks to boost power". United Press International. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Abdullaev, Nabi (23 May 2006). "Venezuela Arms Sales Won't Hurt U.S. Ties". The Moscow Times.
- "Venezuela's Chavez Eyes Russian Su-35 Fighters". RIA Novosti. 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Sherman, Kenneth B. (1 September 2001). "US to ROK: "Buy American"". Journal of Electronic Defense. Horizon House Publications – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). ISSN 0192-429X. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Joo and Kwak 2001, p. 205.
- Gethin 1998, p. 32.
- Lee, Soo-Jeong (19 April 2002). "South Korea selects Boeing's F-15K for air force". Associated Press – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Govindasamy, Siva (22 October 2007). "South Korean F-15K deal may close by end 2007". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Butowski 2008, p. 47.
- Williams 2002, p. 137.
- "Russia may export new Su-35 fighters to India, Malaysia, Algeria". RIA Novosti. 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "Σαράντα οκτώ Su-35 παραδίδονται το 2015 – Υποψήφιο στην αξιολόγηση της Π.Α – Video: Su-35 Vs EF-2000". Defencenet.gr (in Greek). 20 September 2010. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Общая стоимость планируемых к подписанию с Ливией контрактов на поставку российских вооружений может составить от 2,3 до 3 млрд дол – "Джейнс"" (in Russian). ARMS-TASS. 21 April 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Russia big loser in Arab arms market slump". United Press International. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "UN sanctions on Libya to cost Russia US$4 billion". Russia Today. 27 February 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Russian Air Force Gets First Six Su-35S Fighter Jets". RIA Novosti. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Began testing the second serial Su-35 (PHOTO). In the U.S., production of its competitors have rolled up". NEWSru. 2 December 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Su-35". KnAAPO. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Su-35: Multifunctional Super-Maneuverable Fighter" (PDF). KnAAPO. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Gordon & Davison 2006, pp. 92, 97.
- "Sukhoi Su-35", Jane's All the World's Aircraft. Jane's Information Group. 6 February 2013.
- Barrie, Douglas (7 – 13 June 1995). "Sukhoi reveals latest thrust-vectoring Su-35 revealed". Flight International (London, UK: Reed Business Information) 147 (4475): 6. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Butowski, Piotr (April – May 2008). "Russia Revitalized". Combat Aircraft Monthly (Cornwall, UK: Ian Allan Publishing) 9 (2). ISSN 2041-7489.
- Eden, Paul, ed. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
- Fomin, Andrey (June 2007). "Su-35, A Step from Fifth Generation". Take-Off (Praha, Czech Republic: Aeromedia Publishing): 46–53. ASIN B000AMXXYI. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- ——— (May 2008). "Su-35 Has Flown!". Take-Off (Praha, Czech Republic: Aeromedia Publishing): 24–29. ASIN B000AMXXYI. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- ——— (July 2012). "Su-35S in trials". Take-Off (Praha, Czech Republic: Aeromedia Publishing): 16–17. ASIN B000AMXXYI. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Frawley, Gerald (2002). "Sukhoi Su-35 & Su-37". The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002/2003. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- Gethin, Howard (9 – 15 September 1998). "Sukhoi flies latest Su-37 demonstrator". Flight International (London, UK: Reed Business Information) 154 (4642): 32. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Gill, Bates; Kim, Taeho (1995). China's Arms Acquisitions from Abroad: A Quest for 'Superb and Secret Weapons'. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829196-1.
- Gordon, Yefim (1999). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker: Air Superiority Fighter. London, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-029-7.
- ———; Davison, Peter (2006). Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker. Warbird Tech 42. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press. ISBN 978-1-58007-091-1.
- ——— (2007). Sukhoi Su-27. Famous Russian Aircraft. Hinckley, UK: Midlands Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-247-0.
- Hewson, Robert (April – May 2008). "Joint Strife Fighter?". Combat Aircraft Monthly (Cornwall, UK: Ian Allan Publishing) 9 (2). ISSN 2041-7489.
- Joo, Seung-Ho; Kwak, Tae-Hwan Kwak (2001). Korea in the 21st Century. Hauppauge, New York: Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56072-990-7.
- Мakienko, Кonstantin (July 2008). "Су-35: спасатель русской авиации". Профиль (Profil) (in Russian): 18–22.
- Mattis, Peter (15 March 2012). "Beijing Denies Russian Rumors of Su-35 Purchase; Evaluating China's Intelligence Penetration of Taiwan". China Brief (Washington D.C.: Jamestown Foundation) 12 (6): 1–2. OCLC 472168732. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- Williams, Mel, ed. (2002). "Sukhoi 'Super Flankers'". Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. Norwalk, Connecticut: AIRtime Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.
- Wilson, Stewart (2000). Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
- Wood, John (2009). Russia, the Asymmetric Threat to the United States: A Potent Mixture of Energy and Missiles. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International. ISBN 978-0-313-35941-5.
- Zhao, Suisheng (2004). Chinese Foreign Policy: Pragmatism and Strategic Behavior. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1284-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sukhoi Su-35.|
- Official Sukhoi Su-35 webpages at Sukhoi and KnAAPO
- Sukhoi Su-35 Multifunctional fighter aircraft at AirRecognition.com
- Su-27M and Su-35BM webpages at GlobalSecurity.org
- Stealth design Su-35 at Fighter-planes.com