Temporomandibular joint dysfunction
|Temporomandibular joint dysfunction|
|Classification and external resources|
|eMedicine||neuro/366 radio/679 emerg/569|
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (sometimes abbreviated to TMD or TMJD and also termed temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome, temporomandibular disorder or many other names), is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull). The most important feature is pain, followed by restricted mandibular movement, and noises from the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) during jaw movement. Although TMD is not life-threatening, it can be detrimental to quality of life, because the symptoms can become chronic and difficult to manage. TMD is thought to be very common. About 20% to 30% of the adult population are affected to some degree. Usually people affected by TMD are between 20 and 40 years of age, and it is more common in females than males. TMD is the second most frequent cause of orofacial pain after dental pain (i.e. toothache).
TMD is a symptom complex rather than a single condition, and it is thought to be caused by multiple factors. However, these factors are poorly understood, and there is disagreement as to the relative importance of these factors with each other. There are many treatments available, although there is a general lack of evidence for any treatment in TMD, and no widely accepted treatment protocol exists. Common treatments that are used include provision of occlusal splints, psychosocial interventions like cognitive behavioural therapy, and medications like analgesics (pain killers) or others. Most sources now agree that no irreversible treatment should be carried out for TMD.
- 1 Classification
- 2 Signs and symptoms
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 3.1 Anatomy and physiology of the mastication system
- 3.2 Mechanisms of main signs and symptoms
- 3.3 Specific processes
- 3.4 Theories of underlying causes
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Management
- 5.1 Psychosocial and behavioral interventions
- 5.2 Occlusal splints
- 5.3 Medication
- 5.4 Physiotherapy, biofeedback and similar non-invasive measures
- 5.5 Occlusal adjustment/reorganization
- 5.6 Surgery
- 5.7 Complementary and alternative medicine
- 6 Prognosis
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 History
- 9 References
TMD is considered by some to be one of the 4 major symptom complexes in chronic orofacial pain, along with burning mouth syndrome, atypical facial pain and atypical odontalgia. TMD has been considered as a type of musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, or rheumatological disorder. It has also been called a functional pain syndrome, and a psychogenic disorder. Others consider TMD a "central sensitivity syndrome", in reference to evidence that TMD might be caused by a centrally mediated sensitivity to pain. It is hypothesized that there is a great deal of similarity between TMD and other pain syndromes like fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, headache, chronic lower back pain and chronic neck pain. These disorders have also been theorized to be caused by centrally mediated sensitivity to pain, and furthermore they often occur together.
Variation in definition and terminology
Frequently, TMD has been treated as a single syndrome, but the prevailing modern view is that TMD is a cluster of related disorders with many common features. Indeed, some have suggested that in the future the term TMD may be discarded as the different causes are fully identified and separated into different conditions. Sometimes, "temporomandibular joint dysfunction" is described as the most common form of temporomandibular disorder, whereas many other sources use the term temporomandibular disorder synonymously, or instead of the term temporomandibular joint dysfunction. In turn, the term temporomandibular disorder is described as "a clinical term [referring to] musculoskeletal disorders affecting the temporomandibular joints and their associated musculature. It is a collective term which represents a diverse group of pathologies involving the temporomandibular joint, the muscles of mastication, or both". Another definition of temporomandibular disorders is "a group of conditions with similar signs and symptoms that affect the termporomandibular joints, the muscles of mastication, or both." Temporomandibular disorder is a term that creates confusion since it refers to a group of similarly symptomatic conditions, whilst many sources use the term temporomandibular disorders as a vague description rather than a specific syndrome, and refer to any condition which may affect the temporomandibular joints (see table). The temporomandibular joint is susceptible to a huge range of diseases, some rarer than others, and there is no implication that all of these will cause any symptoms or limitation in function at all.
The preferred terms in medical publications is to an extent influenced by geographic location, e.g. in the United Kingdom, the term "pain dysfunction syndrome" is in common use, and in other countries different terms are used. In the United States, the term "temporomandibular disorder" is generally favored. The American Academy of Orofacial Pain uses temporomandibular disorder, whilst the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research uses temporomandibular joint disorder. It is common for sources to arbitrarily use a preferred term and then list a handful of other synonyms. A more complete list of synonyms for this topic is extensive, with some being more commonly used than others. In addition to those already mentioned, examples include "temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular dysfunction", "temporomandibular disorder", "temporomandibular syndrome", "facial arthromyalgia", "myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome", "craniomandibular dysfunction", "myofacial pain dysfunction", "masticatory myalgia", "mandibular dysfunction", and "Costen's syndrome".
The lack of standardization in terms is not restricted to medical papers. Notable internationally recognized sources vary in both their preferred term, and their offered definition, e.g.
"Temporomandibular Pain and Dysfunction Syndrome - Aching in the muscles of mastication, sometimes with an occasional brief severe pain on chewing, often associated with restricted jaw movement and clicking or popping sounds." (Classification of Chronic Pain, International Association for the Study of Pain).
"Headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint disorder." (International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd edition (ICHD-2), International Headache Society).
"Temporomandibular joint-pain-dysfunction syndrome" listed in turn under "Temporomandibular joint disorders" (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision, World Health Organization).
In this article, the term temporomandibular disorder is taken to mean any disorder than affects the temporomandibular joint, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction (here also abbreviated to TMD) is taken to mean symptomatic (e.g. pain, limitation of movement, clicking) dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, however there is no single, globally accepted term or definition concerning this topic.
Classification by cause and symptoms
It has been suggested that TMD may develop following trauma, particularly whiplash injury, although the evidence for this is not conclusive. This type of TMD is sometimes termed "posttraumatic TMD" (pTMD) to distinguish it from TMD of unknown cause, sometimes termed "idiopathic TMD" (iTMD). Sometimes muscle-related (myogenous) TMD (also termed myogenous TMD, or TMD secondary to myofascial pain and dysfunction) is distinguished from joint-related TMD (also termed arthogenous TMD, or TMD secondary to true articular disease), based upon whether the muscles of mastication or the TMJs themselves are predominantly involved. This classification, which effectively divides TMD into 2 syndromes, is followed by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain. However, since most people with TMD could be placed into both of these groups, which makes a single diagnosis difficult when this classification is used. The Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD) allows for multiple diagnoses in an attempt to overcome the problems with other classifications. RDC/TMD considers temporomandibular disorders in 2 axes; axis I is the physical aspects, and axis II involves assessment of psychological status, mandibular function and TMD-related psychosocial disability. Axis I is further divided into 3 general groups. Group I are muscle disorders, group II are disc displacements and group III are joint disorders, although it is common for people with TMD to fit into more than one of these groups.
Classification by duration
Sometimes distinction is made between acute TMD, where symptoms last for less than 3 months, and chronic TMD, where symptoms last for more than 3 months. Not much is known about acute TMD since these individuals do not typically attend in secondary care (hospital).
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder vary in their presentation and can be very complex, but are often simple. The symptoms will usually involve more than one of the various components of the masticatory system, muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, bones, connective tissue, and/or the teeth.
- Pain and tenderness on palpation in the muscles of mastication, or of the joint itself (preauricular pain - pain felt just in front of the ear). Pain is the defining feature of TMD and is usually aggravated by manipulation or function, such as when chewing, clenching, or yawning, and is often worse upon waking. The character of the pain is usually dull or aching, poorly localized, and intermittent, although it can sometimes be constant. The pain is more usually unilateral (located on one side) rather than bilateral. It is rarely severe.
- Limited range of mandibular movement, which may cause difficulty eating or even talking. There may be locking of the jaw, or stiffness in the jaw muscles and the joints, especially present upon waking. There may also be incoordination, asymmetry or deviation of mandibular movement.
- Noises from the joint during mandibular movement, which may be intermittent. Joint noises may be described as clicking, popping, or crepitus (grating).
Other signs and symptoms have also been described, although these are less common and less significant than the cardinal signs and symptoms listed above. Examples include:
- Headache (possibly), e.g. pain in the occipital region (the back of the head), or the forehead; or other types of facial pain including migraine, tension headache. or myofascial pain.
- Pain elsewhere, such as the teeth, neck, or shoulder.[medical citation needed]
- Diminished auditory acuity (hearing loss).
- Tinnitus (occasionally).
- Sensation of malocclusion (feeling that the teeth do not meet together properly).
- pain or feeling of pressure behind the eyes[unreliable medical source?]
Anatomy and physiology of the mastication system
The temporomandibular joints are the dual articulation of the mandible with the skull. Each TMJ is classed as a "ginglymoarthrodial" joint since it is both a ginglymus (hinging joint) and an arthrodial (sliding) joint, and involves the condylar process of the mandible below, and the articular fossa (or glenoid fossa) of the temporal bone above. Between these articular surfaces is the articular disc (or meniscus), which is a biconcave, transversely oval disc composed of dense fibrous connective tissue. Each TMJ is covered by a fibrous capsule. There are tight fibers connecting the mandible to the disc, and loose fibers which connect the disc to the temporal bone, meaning there are in effect 2 joint capsules, creating an upper joint space and a lower joint space, with the articular disc in between. The synovial membrane of the TMJ lines the inside of the fibrous capsule apart from the articular surfaces and the disc. This membrane secretes synovial fluid, which is both a lubricant to fill the joint spaces, and a means to convey nutrients to the tissues inside the joint. Behind the disc is loose vascular tissue termed the "bilaminar region" which serves as a posterior attachment for the disc and also fills with blood to fill the space created when the head of the condyle translates down the articular eminence. Due to its concave shape, sometimes the articular disc is described as having an anterior band, intermediate zone and a posterior band. When the mouth is opened, the initial movement of the mandibular condyle is rotational, and this involves mainly the lower joint space, and when the mouth is opened further, the movement of the condyle is translational, involving mainly the upper joint space. This translation movement is achieved by the condylar head sliding down the articular eminence, which constitutes the front border of the articular fossa. The function of the articular eminence is to limit the forwards movement of the condyle. The ligament directly associated with the TMJ is the temporomandibular ligament, also termed the lateral ligament, which really is a thickening of the lateral aspect of the fibrous capsule. The stylomandibular ligament and the sphenomandibular ligament are not directly associated with the joint capsule. Together, these ligaments act to restrict the extreme movements of the joint.
Muscles of mastication
The muscles of mastication are paired on each side and work together to produce the movements of the mandible. The main muscles involved are the masseter, temporalis and medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. They can be thought of in terms of the directions they move the mandible, with most being involved in more than one type of movement due to the variation in the orientation of muscle fibers within some of these muscles.
- Protrusion - Lateral and medial pterygoid.
- Retraction - Posterior fibers of temporalis (and the digastric and geneihyoid muscles to a lesser extent).
- Elevation - Anterior and middle fibers of temporalis, the superficial and deep fibers of masseter and the medial pterygoid.
- Lateral movements - Medial and lateral pterygoid (the ipsilateral temporalis and the pterygoid muscles of the contralateral side pull the mandible to the ipsilateral side).
Each lateral pterygoid muscle is composed of 2 heads, the upper or superior head and the lower or inferior head. The lower head originates from the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate and inserts at a depression on the neck of mandibular condyle, just below the articular surface, termed the pterygoid fovea. The upper head originates from the infratemporal surface and the infratemporal crest of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. The upper head also inserts at the fovea, but a part may be attached directly to the joint capsule and to the anterior and medial borders of the articular disc. The 2 parts of lateral pterygoid have different actions. The lower head contracts during mouth opening, and the upper head contracts during mouth closing. The function of the lower head is to steady the articular disc as it moves back with the condyle into the articular fossa. It is relaxed during mouth closure.
Mechanisms of main signs and symptoms
Noises from the TMJs are a symptom of dysfunction of these joints. The sounds commonly produced by TMD are usually described as a "click" or a "pop" when a single sound is heard and as "crepitation" or "crepitus" when there are multiple, grating, rough sounds. Most joint sounds are due to internal derangement of the joint, which is a term used to describe instability or abnormal position of the articular disc. Clicking often accompanies either jaw opening or closing, and usually occurs towards the end of the movement. The noise indicates that the articular disc has suddenly moved to and from a temporarily displaced position (disk displacement with reduction) to allow completion of a phase of movement of the mandible. If the disc displaces and does not reduce (move back into position) this may be associated with locking. Clicking alone is not diagnostic of TMD since it is present in high proportion of the general population, mostly in people who have no pain. Crepitus often indicates arthritic changes in the joint, and may occur at any time during mandibular movement, especially lateral movements. Perforation of the disc may also cause crepitus. Due to the proximity of the TMJ to the ear canal, joint noises are perceived to be much louder to the individual than to others. Often people with TMD are surprised that what sounds to them like very loud noises cannot be heard at all by others next to them. However, it is occasionally possible for loud joint noises to be easily heard by others in some cases and this can be a source of embarrassment e.g. when eating in company.
Pain symptoms in TMD can be thought of as originating from the joint (arthralgia), or from the muscles (myofascial), or both. There is a poor correlation between TMD pain severity and evidence of tissue pathology.
Generally, degenerative joint changes are associated with greater pain.
Pain originating from the muscles of mastication as a result of abnormal muscular function or hyperactivity. The muscular pain is frequently, but not always, associated with daytime clenching or nocturnal bruxism.
Referred TMD pain
Sometimes TMD pain can radiate or be referred from its cause (i.e. the TMJ and/or the muscles of mastication) and be felt as headaches, earache or toothache.
Due to the proximity of the ear to the temporomandibular joint, TMJ pain can often be confused with ear pain. The pain may be referred in around half of all patients and experienced as otalgia (earache). Conversely, TMD is an important possible cause of secondary otalgia. Treatment of TMD may then significantly reduce symptoms of otalgia and tinnitus, as well as atypical facial pain. Despite some of these findings, some researchers question whether TMJD therapy can reduce symptoms in the ear, and there is currently an ongoing debate to settle the controversy.
Limitation of mandibular movement
The jaw deviates to the affected side during opening, and restricted mouth opening usually signifies that both TMJs are involved, but severe trismus rarely occurs. If the greatest reduction in movement occurs upon waking then this may indicate that there is concomitant sleep bruxism. In other cases the limitation in movement gets worse throughout the day.
The jaw may lock entirely.
Limitation of mandibular movement itself may lead to further problems involving the TMJs and the muscles of mastication. Changes in the synovial membrane may lead to a reduction in lubrication of the joint and contribute to degenerative joint changes. The muscles become weak, and fibrosis may occur. All these factors may lead to a further limitation of jaw movement and increase in pain.
Degenerative joint disease, such as osteoarthritis or organic degeneration of the articular surfaces, recurrent fibrous and/or bony ankylosis, developmental abnormality, or pathologic lesions within the TMJ. Myofascial pain syndrome.[medical citation needed]
In people with TMD, it has been shown that the lower head of lateral pterygoid contracts during mouth closing (when it should relax), and is often tender to palpation. To theorize upon this observation, some have suggested that due to a tear in the back of the joint capsule, the articular disc may be displaced forwards (anterior disc displacement), stopping the upper head of lateral pterygoid from acting to stabilize the disc as it would do normally. As a biologic compensatory mechanism, the lower head tries to fill this role, hence the abnormal muscle activity during mouth closure. There is some evidence that anterior disc displacement is present in proportion of TMD cases. Anterior disc displacement with reduction refers to abnormal forward movement of the disc during opening which reduces upon closing. Anterior disc displacement without reduction refers to an abnormal forward, bunched-up position of the articular disc which does not reduce. In this latter scenario, the disc is not intermediary between the condyle and the articular fossa as it should be, and hence the articular surfaces of the bones themselves are exposed to a greater degree of wear (which may predispose to osteoarthritis in later life).
Degenerative joint disease
The general term "degenerative joint disease" refers to arthritis (both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) and arthrosis. The term arthrosis may cause confusion since in the specialized TMD literature it means something slightly different from in the wider medical literature. In medicine generally, arthrosis can be a nonspecific term for a joint, any disease of a joint (or specifically degenerative joint disease), and is also used as a synonym for osteoarthritis. In the specialized literature that has evolved around TMD research, arthrosis is differentiated from arthritis by the presence of low and no inflammation respectively. Both are however equally degenerative. The TMJs are sometimes described as one of the most used joints in the body. Over time, either with normal use or with parafunctional use of the joint, wear and degeneration can occur, termed osteoarthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune joint disease, can also affect the TMJs. Degenerative joint diseases may lead to defects in the shape of the tissues of the joint, limitation of function (e.g. restricted mandibular movements), and joint pain.
Theories of underlying causes
TMD is a symptom complex (i.e. a group of symptoms occurring together and characterizing a particular disease), which is thought to be caused by multiple, poorly understood factors, but the exact etiology is unknown. There are factors which appear to predispose to TMD (genetic, hormonal, anatomical), factors which may precipitate it (trauma, occlusal changes, parafunction), and also factors which may prolong it (stress and again parafunction). Overall, 2 hypotheses have dominated research into the causes of TMD, namely a psychosocial model and a theory of occlusal dysharmony. Interest in occlusal factors as a causative factor in TMD was especially widespread in the past, and the theory has since fallen out of favor and become controversial due to lack of evidence.
Emotional stress (anxiety, depression, anger) may increase pain by causing autonomic, visceral and skeletal activity and by reduced inhibition via the descending pathways of the limbic system. The interactions of these biological systems have been described as a vicious "anxiety-pain-tension" cycle which is thought to be frequently involved in TMD. Put simply, stress and anxiety cause grinding of teeth and sustained muscular contraction in the face. This produces pain which causes further anxiety which in turn causes prolonged muscular spasm at trigger points, vasoconstriction, ischemia and release of pain mediators. The pain discourages use of the masticatory system (a similar phenomenon in other chronic pain conditions is termed "fear avoidance" behavior), which leads to reduced muscle flexibility, tone, strength and endurance. This manifests as limited mouth opening and a sensation that the teeth are not fitting properly.
Persons with TMD have a higher prevalence of psychological disorders than people without TMD. People with TMD have been shown to have higher levels of anxiety, depression, somatization and sleep deprivation, and these could be considered important risk factors for the development of TMD. In the 6 months before the onset, 50-70% of people with TMD report experiencing stressful life events (e.g. involving work, money, health or relationship loss). It has been postulated that such events induce anxiety and causes increased jaw muscle activity. Muscular hyperactivity has also been shown in people with TMD whilst taking examinations or watching horror films.
Others argue that a link between muscular hyperactivity and TMD has not been convincingly demonstrated, and that emotional distress may be more of a consequence of pain rather than a cause.
Bruxism and other para-functional activities
Bruxism is an oral parafunctional activity where there is excessive clenching and grinding of the teeth. It can occur during sleep or whilst awake. The cause of bruxism itself is not completely understood, but psychosocial factors appear to be implicated in awake bruxism and dopaminergic dysfunction and other central nervous system mechanisms may be involved in sleep bruxism. If TMD pain and limitation of mandibular movement are greatest upon waking, and then slowly resolve throughout the day, this may indicate sleep bruxism. Conversely, awake bruxism tends to cause symptoms that slowly get worse throughout the day, and there may be no pain at all upon waking.
The relationship of bruxism with TMD is debated. Many suggest that sleep bruxism can be a causative or contributory factor to pain symptoms in TMD. Indeed, the symptoms of TMD overlap with those of bruxism. Others suggest that there is no strong association between TMD and bruxism. A systematic review investigating the possible relationship concluded that when self-reported bruxism is used to diagnose bruxism, there is a positive association with TMD pain, and when more strict diagnostic criteria for bruxism are used, the association with TMD symptoms is much lower. Self-reported bruxism is probably a poor method of identifying bruxism. There are also very many people who grind their teeth and who do not develop TMD. Bruxism and other parafunctional activities may play a role in perpetuating symptoms in some cases.
Other parafunctional habits such as pen chewing, lip and cheek biting (which may manifest as morsicatio buccarum and/or linea alba), are also suggested to contribute to the development of TMD. Other parafuncitonal activities might include jaw thrusting, excessive gum chewing, nail biting and eating very hard foods.
Trauma, both micro and macrotrauma, is sometimes identified as a possible cause of TMD, however the evidence is not strong. Prolonged mouth opening (hyper-extension) is also suggested as a possible cause. It is thought that this leads to microtrauma and subsequent muscular hyperactivity. This may occur during dental treatment, with oral intubation whilst under a general anesthetic, during singing or wind instrument practice (really these can be thought of as parafunctional activities). Damage may be incurred during violent yawning, laughing, road traffic accidents, sports injuries, interpersonal violence, or during dental treatment, (such as tooth extraction).
It has been proposed that a link exists between whiplash injuries (sudden neck hyper-extension usually occurring in road traffic accidents), and the development of TMD. This has been termed "post-traumatic TMD", to separate it from "idiopathic TMD". Despite multiple studies having been performed over the years, the cumulative evidence has been described as conflicting, with moderate evidence that TMD can occasionally follow whiplash injury. The research that suggests a link appears to demonstrate a low to moderate incidence of TMD following whiplash injury, and that pTMD has a poorer response to treatment than TMD which has not developed in relation to trauma.
Occlusal factors as an etiologic factor in TMD is a controversial topic. Abnormalities of occlusion (problems with the bite) are often blamed for TMD but there is no evidence that these factors are involved. Occlusal abnormalities are incredibly common, and most people with occlusal abnormalities do not have TMD. Although occlusal features may affect observed electrical activity in masticatory muscles, there are no statistically significant differences in the number of occlusal abnormalities in people with TMD and in people without TMD. There is also no evidence for a causal link between orthodontic treatment and TMD. The modern, mainstream view is that the vast majority of people with TMD, occlusal factors are not related. Theories of occlusal factors in TMD are largely of historical interest. A causal relationship between occlusal factors and TMD was championed by Ramfjord in the 1960s. A small minority of dentists continue to prescribe occlusal adjustments in the belief that this will prevent or treat TMD despite the existence of systematic reviews of the subject which state that there is no evidence for such practices, and the vast majority of opinion being that no irreversible treatment should be carried out in TMD (see Occlusal adjustment).
TMD does not obviously run in families like a genetic disease. It has been suggested that a genetic predisposition for developing TMD (and chronic pain syndromes generally) could exist. This has be postulated to be explained by variations of the gene which codes for the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) which may produce 3 different phenotypes with regards pain sensitivity. COMT (together with monoamine oxidase) is involved in breaking down catecholamines (e.g. dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine). The variation of the COMT gene which produces less of this enzyme is associated with a high sensitivity to pain. Females with this variation, are at 2-3 times greater risk of developing TMD than females without this variant. However this theory is controversial since there is conflicting evidence.
Since females are more often affected by TMD than males, the female sex hormone estrogen has been suggested to be involved. The results of one study suggested that the periods of highest pain in TMD can be correlated with rapid periods of change in the circulating estrogen level. Low estrogen was also correlated to higher pain. In the menstrual cycle, estrogen levels fluctuate rapidly during ovulation, and also rapidly increases just before menstruation and rapidly decreases during menstruation. Post-menopausal females who are treated with hormone replacement therapy are more likely to develop TMD, or may experience an exacerbation if they already had TMD. Several possible mechanisms by which estrogen might be involved in TMD symptoms have been proposed. Estrogen may play a role in modulating joint inflammation, nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal nerve, muscle reflexes to pain and μ-opioid receptors.
TMD has been suggested to be associated with other conditions or factors, with varying degrees evidence and some more commonly than others. E.g. It has been shown that 75% of people with TMD could also be diagnosed with fibromyalgia, since they met the diagnostic criteria, and that conversely, 18% of people with fibromyalgia met diagnostic criteria for TMD. A possible link between many of these chronic pain conditions has been hypothesized to be due to shared pathophysiological mechanisms, and they have been collectively termed "central sensitivity syndromes", although other apparent associations cannot be explained in this manner.
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Systemic joint laxity.
- Chronic back pain.
- Irritable bowel syndrome.
- Chronic neck pain.
- Interstitial cystitis.
- Regular scuba diving.
Group I: muscle disorders
Ia. Myofascial pain:
Ib. Myofascial pain with limited opening:
Group II: disc displacements
IIa. Disc displacement with reduction:
IIb. Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening:
IIc. Disc displacement without reduction, without limited opening:
Group III: arthralgia, osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis
IIIb. Osteoarthritis of the TMJ:
IIIc. Osteoarthrosis of the TMJ:
Pain is the most common reason for people with TMD to seek medical advice. Joint noises may require auscultation with a stethoscope to detect. Clicks of the joint may also be palpated, over the joint itself in the preauricular region, or via a finger inserted in the external acoustic meatus, which lies directly behind the TMJ. The differential diagnosis is with degenerative joint disease (e.g. osteoarthritis), rheumatoid arthritis, temporal arteritis, otitis media, parotitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, Eagle syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia,[medical citation needed] oromandibular dystonia,[medical citation needed] deafferentation pains, and psychogenic pain.
Various diagnostic systems have been described. Some consider the Research Diagnostic Criteria method the gold standard. Abbreviated to "RDC/TMD", this was first introduced in 1992 by Dworkin and LeResche in an attempt to classify temporomandibular disorders by etiology and apply universal standards for research into TMD. This method involves 2 diagnostic axes, namely axis I, the physical diagnosis, and axis II, the psychologic diagnosis. Axis I contains 3 different groups which can occur in combinations of 2 or all 3 groups, (see table).
McNeill 1997 described TMD diagnostic criteria as follows:
- Pain in muscles of mastication, the TMJ, and /or the periauricular area (around the ear), which is usually made worse by manipulation or function.
- Asymmetric mandibular movement with or without clicking.
- Limitation of mandibular movements.
- Pain present for a minimum of 3 months.
The International Headache Society's diagnostic criteria for "headache or facial pain attributed to temporomandibular joint disorder" is similar to the above:
- A. Recurrent pain in one or more regions of the head and/or face fulfilling criteria C and D
- B. X-ray, MRI and/or bone scintigraphy demonstrate TMJ disorder
- C. Evidence that pain can be attributed to the TMJ disorder, based on at least one of the following:
- pain is precipitated by jaw movements and/or chewing of hard or tough food
- reduced range of or irregular jaw opening
- noise from one or both TMJs during jaw movements
- tenderness of the joint capsule(s) of one or both TMJs
- D. Headache resolves within 3 months, and does not recur, after successful treatment of the TMJ disorder
TMD can be difficult to manage, and since the disorder transcends the boundaries between several health-care disciplines — in particular, dentistry and neurology, the treatment may often involve multiple approaches and be multidisciplinary. Most who are involved in treating and researching TMD now agree that any treatment carried out should not permanently alter the jaw or teeth, and should be reversible. To avoid permanent change, over-the-counter or prescription pain medications may be prescribed.
Given the important role that psychosocial factors appear to play in TMD, psychosocial interventions could be viewed to be central to management of the condition. There is a suggestion that treatment of factors that modulate pain sensitivity such as mood disorders, anxiety and fatigue, may be important in the treatment of TMD, which often tends to attempt to address the pain directly.
Hypnosis is suggested by some to be appropriate for TMD. Studies have suggested that it may even be more beneficial than occlusal splint therapy, and has comparable effects to relaxation techniques.
Relaxation techniques include progressive muscle relaxation, yoga, and meditation. It has been suggested that TMD involves increased sensitivity to external stimuli leading to an increased sympathetic ("fight or flight") response with cardiovascular and respiratory alterations. Relaxation techniques cause reduced sympathetic activity, including muscle relaxation and reducing sensitivity to external stimuli, and provoke a general sense of well being and reduced anxiety.
Occlusal splints (also termed bite plates or intra-oral appliances) are often used by dentists to treat TMD. They are usually made of acrylic and can be hard or soft. They can be designed to fit onto the upper teeth or the lower teeth. They may cover all the teeth in one arch (full coverage splint) or only some (partial coverage splint). Splints are also termed according to their intended mechanism, such as the anterior positioning splint or the stabilization splint. Although occlusal splints are generally considered a reversible treatment, sometimes partial coverage splints lead to pathologic tooth migration (changes in the position of teeth). Normally splints are only worn during sleep, and therefore probably do nothing for people who engage in parafunctional activities during wakefulness rather than during sleep. There is slightly more evidence for the use of occlusal splints in sleep bruxism than in TMD. At the least, they will mechanically protect the teeth from pathologic tooth wear associated with bruxism. A splint can also have a diagnostic role if it demonstrates excessive occlusal wear after a period of wearing it each night. This may confirm the presence of sleep bruxism if it was in doubt. Soft splints are occasionally reported to worsen discomfort related to TMD. Specific types of occlusal splint are discussed below.
A stabilization splint is a hard acrylic splint that forces the teeth to meet in an "ideal" relationship for the muscles of mastication and the TMJs. It is claimed that this technique reduces abnormal muscular activity and promotes "neuromuscular balance". A stabilization splint is only intended to be used for about 2–3 months. It is more complicated to construct than other types of splint since a face bow record is required and significantly more skill on the part of the dental technician. This kind of splint should be properly fitted to avoid exacerbating the problem and used for brief periods of time. The use of the splint should be discontinued if it is painful or increases existing pain. A systematic review of all the scientific studies investigating the efficacy of stabilization splints concluded the following:
"On the basis of our analysis we conclude that the literature seems to suggest that there is insufficient evidence either for or against the use of stabilization splint therapy over other active interventions for the treatment of TMD. However, there is weak evidence to suggest that the use of stabilization splints for the treatment of TMD may be beneficial for reducing pain severity, at rest and on palpation, when compared to no treatment".
Partial coverage splints are recommended by some experts, but they have the potential to cause unwanted tooth movements, which can occasionally be severe. The mechanism of this tooth movement is that the splint effectively holds some teeth out of contact and puts all the force of the bite onto the teeth which the splint covers. This can cause the covered teeth to be intruded, and those that are not covered to over-erupted. I.e. a partial coverage splint can act as a Dahl appliance. Examples of partial coverage splints include the NTI-TSS ("nociceptive trigeminal inhibitor tension suppression system"), which covers the upper front teeth only. Due to the risks involved with long term use, some discourage the use of any type of partial coverage splint.
An anterior positioning splint is a splint that designed to promote an anteriorly displaced disc. It is rarely used. A 2010 review of all the scientific studies carried out to investigate the use of occlusal splints in TMD concluded:
"Hard stabilization appliances, when adjusted properly, have good evidence of modest efficacy in the treatment of TMD pain compared to non-occluding appliances and no treatment. Other types of appliances, including soft stabilization appliances, anterior positioning appliances, and anterior bite appliances, have some RCT evidence of efficacy in reducing TMD pain. However, the potential for adverse events with these appliances is higher and suggests the need for close monitoring in their use."
Medication is the main method of managing pain in TMD, mostly because there is little if any evidence of the effectiveness of surgical or dental interventions. Many drugs have been used to treat TMD pain, such as analgesics (pain killers), benzodiazepines (e.g. clonazepam, prazepam, diazepam), anticonvulsants (e.g. gabapentin), muscle relaxants (e.g. cyclobenzaprine), and others. Analgesics that have been studied in TMD include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. piroxicam, diclofenac, naproxen) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors (e.g. celecoxib). Topical methyl salicylate and topical capsaicin have also been used. Other drugs that have been described for use in TMD include glucosamine hydrochloride/chondroitin sulphate and propranolol. Despite many randomized control trials being conducted on these commonly used medications for TMD a systematic review carried out in 2010 concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support or not to support the use of these drugs in TMD. Low-doses of anti-muscarinic tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline, or nortriptyline have also been described. In a subset of people with TMD who are not helped by either noninvasive and invasive treatments, long term use of opiate analgesics has been suggested, although these drugs carry a risk of drug dependence and other side effects. Examples include morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, hydrocodone, and methadone.
Botulinum toxin solution ("Botox") is sometimes used to treat TMD. Injection of botox into the lateral pterygoid muscle has been investigated in multiple randomized control trials, and there is evidence that it is of benefit in TMD. It is theorized that spasm of lateral pterygoid causes anterior disc displacement. Botulinum toxin causes temporary muscular paralysis by inhibiting acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The effects usually last for a period of months before they wear off. Complications include the creation of a "fixed" expression due to diffusion of the solution and subsequent involvement of the muscles of facial expression, which lasts until the effects of the botox wear off. Injections of local anesthetic, sometimes combined with steroids, into the muscles (e.g. the temoralis muscle or its tendon) are also sometimes used. Local anesthetics may provide temporary pain relief, and steroids inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines. Steroids and other medications are sometimes injected directly into the joint (See Intra-articular injections).
Physiotherapy, biofeedback and similar non-invasive measures
Physiotherapy (physical therapy) is sometimes used as a adjuvant to other methods of treatment in TMD. There are many different approaches described, but exercises aiming to increase the range of mandibular movements are commonly involved. Jaw exercises aim to directly oppose the negative effects of disuse that may occur in TMD, due to pain discouraging people from moving their jaw. After initial instruction, people are able to perform a physical therapy regimen at home. The most simple method is by regular stretching within pain tolerance, using the thumb and a finger in a "scissor" maneuver. Gentle force is applied until pain of resistance is felt, and then the position is held for several seconds. Commercial devices have been developed to carry out this stretching exercise (e.g. the "Therabite" appliance). Over time, the amount of mouth opening possible without pain can be gradually increased. A baseline record of the distance at the start of physical therapy (e.g. the number of fingers that can be placed vertically between the upper and lower incisors), can chart any improvement over time.
It has been suggested that massage therapy for TMD improves both the subjective and objective health status. "Friction massage" uses surface pressure to causes temporary ischemia and subsequent hyperemia in the muscles, and this is hypothesized to inactivate trigger points and disrupt small fibrous adhesions with in the muscle that have formed following surgery or muscular shortening due to restricted movement.
Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT), used by some osteopathic physicians (D.O.’s), is also used to treat TMD. OMT is a non-invasive manual treatment, similar to physical therapy, that uses precise forces applied by the physician to improve the function of muscles and ligaments and to optimize blood flow to an area. Like other manual therapies, OMT can improve symptoms of TMD. OMT has been shown to improve maximal mouth opening and maximal mouth opening velocity. OMT has also been shown to be as effective as conventional conservative therapy in reducing pain and improving function, and may also reduce the need for NSAID and muscle relaxant medications.
Occasionally physiotherapy for TMD may include the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), which may override pain by stimulation of superficial nerve fibers and lead to pain reduction which extends after the time where the TENS is being actually being applied, possibly due to release of endorphins. Others recommend the use of ultrasound, theorized to produce tissue heating, alter blood flow and metabolic activity at a level that is deeper than possible with surface heat applications.
Low level laser therapy a controversial treatment using lasers at levels which do not kill cells within the target tissues. "Laser photobiomodulation" is theorized to reduce TMD pain and give anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanisms of action are not thought to be related to the generation of heat in the tissue, but rather via a promotion of cellular and tissue alterations which increase the recovery and healing potential of the tissue, triggered by metabolic activation (e.g. increased sodium potassium pump mitochondrial activity, increased vascularization, and fibroblast formation). Low level laser therapy may be effective in reducing TMD pain.
This is the adjustment or reorganizing of the existing occlusion, carried out in the belief that this will redistribute forces evenly across the dental arches and/or achieve a more favorable position of the condyles in the fossae, which is purported to lessen tooth wear, bruxism and TMD, but this is controversial. These techniques are sometimes termed "occlusal rehabilitation" or "occlusal equilibration". At its simplest, occlusal adjustment involves selective grinding (with a dental drill) of the enamel of the occlusal surfaces of teeth, with the aim of allowing the upper teeth to fit with the lower teeth in a more harmonious way. However, there is much disagreement between proponents of these techniques on most of the aspects involved, including the indications and the exact goals. Occlusal adjustment can also be very complex, involving orthodontics, restorative dentistry or even orthognathic surgery. Some have criticized these occlusal reorganizations as having no evidence base, and irreversibly damaging the dentition on top of the damage already caused by bruxism. A "middle ground" view of these techniques is that occlusal adjustment in most cases of TMD is neither desirable nor helpful as a first line treatment, and furthermore, with few exceptions, any adjustments should be reversible. However, most dentists consider this unnecessary overtreatment, with no evidence of benefit. Specifically, orthodontics and orthognathic surgery are not considered by most to be appropriate treatments for TMD. A systematic review investigating all the scientific studies carried out on occlusal adjustments in TMD concluded the following:
"There is an absence of evidence of effectiveness for occlusal adjustment. Based on these data occlusal adjustment cannot be recommended for the treatment or prevention of TMD.
These conclusions were based largely on the fact that, despite many different scientific studies investigating this measure as a therapy, overall no statistically significant differences can be demonstrated between treatment with occlusal adjustment and treatment with placebo. The reviewers also stated that there are ethical implications if occlusal adjustment was found to be ineffective in preventing TMD.
Orthodontic treatment, as described earlier, is sometimes listed as a possible predisposing factor in the development of TMD. On the other hand, orthodontic treatment is also often carried out in the belief that it may treat or prevent TMD. Another systematic review investigating the relationship between orthodontics and TMD concluded the following:
"There is no evidence to support or refute the use of orthodontic treatment for the treatment of TMD. In addition, there are no data which identify a link between active orthodontic intervention and the causation of TMD. Based on the lack of data, orthodontic treatment cannot be recommended for the treatment or prevention of TMD."
A common scenario where a newly placed dental restoration (e.g. a crown or a filling) is incorrectly contoured, and creates a premature contact in the bite. This may localize all the force of the bite onto one tooth, and cause inflammation of the periodontal ligament and reversible increase in tooth mobility. The tooth may become tender to bite on. Here, the "occlusal adjustment" has already taken place inadvertently, and the adjustment aims to return to the pre-existing occlusion. This should be distinguished from attempts to deliberately reorganize the native occlusion.
Attempts in the last decade to develop surgical treatments based on MRI and CAT scans now receive less attention. These techniques are reserved for the most difficult cases where other therapeutic modalities have failed. The American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons recommends a conservative/non-surgical approach first. Only 20% of patients need to proceed to surgery.
Examples of surgical procedures that are used in TMD, some more commonly than others, include arthrocentesis, arthroscopy, menisectomy, disc repositioning, condylotomy or joint replacement. Invasive surgical procedures in TMD may cause symptoms to worsen. Menisectomy, also termed discectomy refers to surgical removal of the articular disc. This is rarely carried out in TMD, it may have some benefits for pain, but dysfunction may persist and overall there it leads to degeneration or remodeling of the TMJ.
TMJ arthrocentesis refers to lavage (flushing out) of the upper joint space (where most of the translation movement takes place) with saline via the introduction of cannulae. It is theorized that the hydraulic pressure generated within the joint combined with external manipulation is capable of releasing adhesions or the anchored disc phenomenon and leads to an improvement in the movement ("lysis and lavage"). It is also suggested that undesirable contents within the synovial fluid of the joint can be washed out, such as microscopic debris (from breakdown of the articular surfaces) and pain mediators (enzymes and prostaglandins), and there is also stimulation of the synovial membrane to restore its normal lubricating function. It was initially used to treat acute closed lock, however it has since come to be used chronic closed lock, chronic anterior displaced disc with reduction, and degenerative joint disease (e.g. arthritis). In acute closed lock, it is theorized that the upper joint space is inflated from its normally collapsed state during this procedure, and this extra space frees up the articular disc which returns to its correct position. This is the least invasive, and easiest to carry out of the surgical options. It can be carried out under local anesthetic (and for this reason is cheaper than arthroscopy, although it is also carried out under general anesthetic) and has minimal complications. Although it has been suggested that arthrocentesis decreases pain, increases maximal incisal opening and has prolonged effects, when the procedure was investigated by a systematic review, the impact on pain was comparable to arthroscopy and the results are unstable. The review concluded by suggesting that arthrocentesis only be used for TMD within well designed randomized controlled trial (i.e. for the purposes of further research and not for routine management). Arthrocentesis may be combined with injection of sodium hyaluronate into the joint at the end of the lavage with the aim to improve lubrication within the joint.
Arthroscopy involves the introduction of an arthroscope (a very thin, flexible camera) into the joint via single cannula (as opposed to arthrocentesis which usually involves 2 cannulae and no arthroscope), allowing the joint space to be visualized on a monitor and explored by the surgeon. Arthroscopy is also used in other joints and the technique is similar to laparoscopy. The cannula is inserted via a small incision just in front of the ear. The arthroscope has a built in capacity to pump in or suck out saline. Arthroscopy may be intended as a purely diagnostic procedure, or it may be employed in combination with surgical interventions within the joint, in which case a second "working" cannula is also inserted into the joint. Examples include release of adhesions (e.g. by blunt dissection or with a laser) or release of the disc. Biopsies or disc reduction can also be carried out during arthroscopy. Arthroscopy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. Arthroscopy has advantages over arthrocentesis in that it allows for detection of problems inside the joint such as perforation or synovitis. As with arthrocentesis, the procedure may be combined with sodium hyaluronate injection into the joint at the end of the procedure.
Both sodium hyaluronate and glucocorticoids have been injected into the joints in order to treat TMD. Sodium hyaluronate is a component of the normal synovial fluid that fills the joint spaces in health. Its function is to lubricate and maintain the internal environment of the joint. It has been used for arthritis in the knee and hip joints, and it was first used for TMD in 1985. A systematic review found that hyaluronate might be beneficial for clinical TMD signs in the long term, but that this may be unstable. The effects of hyaluronate may be similar to glucocorticoids. There may be added benefit in arthrocentesis or arthroscopy if intra-articular injections are combined with these procedures. Reported adverse events are minor and temporary.
Complementary and alternative medicine
Acupuncture is sometimes used for TMD. There is limited evidence that acupuncture is an effective symptomatic treatment for TMD. A short term reduction in muscular pain of muscular origin can usually be observed after acupuncture in TMD, and this is more than is seen with placebo. There are no reported adverse events of acupuncture when used for TMD, and some suggest that acupuncture is best employed as an adjuvent to other treatments in TMD, However, some suggest that acupuncture may be no more effective than sham acupuncture, that many of the studies investigating acupuncture and TMD suffer from significant risk of bias, and that the long term efficacy of acupuncture for TMD is unknown.
Practitioners of chiropractic medicine sometimes carry out chiropractic adjustments (also termed manipulations or mobilizations) in the belief that this will treat TMD. Related conditions that are also claimed to be treatable by chiropractic include tension headaches and neck pain. Some sources suggest that there is some evidence of efficacy of chiropractic treatment in TMD, but the sources cited for these statements were case reports and a case series of only 9 participants. One review concluded "inconclusive evidence in a favorable direction regarding mobilization and massage for TMD". Overall, although there is general agreement that chiropractic may be of comparable benefit to other manual therapies for lower back pain, there is no credible evidence of efficacy in other conditions, including TMD. However, there is some evidence of possible adverse effects from cervical (neck) vertebral manipulation, which sometimes may be serious.
It has been suggested that the natural history of TMD is benign and self-limiting, with symptoms slowly improving and resolving over time. The prognosis is therefore good. However, the persistent pain symptoms, psychological discomfort, physical disability and functional limitations may detriment quality of life. It has been suggested that TMD does not cause permanent damage and does not progress to arthritis in later life, however degenerative disorders of the TMJ such as osteoarthritis are included within the spectrum of TMDs in some classifications.
TMD mostly affects people in the 20 - 40 age group, and the average age is 33.9 years. People with TMD tend to be younger adults, who are otherwise healthy. Within the catchall umbrella of TMD, there are peaks for disc displacements at age 30, and for inflammatory-degenerative joint disorders at age 50.
About 75% of the general population may have at least one abnormal sign associated with the TMJ (e.g. clicking), and about 33% have at least one symptom of TMD. However, only in 3.6-7% will this be of sufficient severity to trigger the individual to seek medical advice.
For unknown reasons, females are more likely to be affected than males, in a ratio of about 2:1, although others report this ratio to be as high as 9:1. Females are more likely to request treatment for TMD, and their symptoms are less likely to resolve. Females with TMD are more likely to be nulliparous than females without TMD. It has also been reported that female caucasians are more likely to be affected by TMD, and at an earlier age, than female African Americans.
According to the most recent analyses of epidemiologic data using the RDC/TMD diagnostic criteria, of all TMD cases, group I (muscle disorders) accounts for 45.3%, group II (disc displacements) 41.1%, and group III (joint disorders) 30.1% (individuals may have diagnoses from more than one group). Using the RDC/TMD criteria, TMD has a prevelence in the general population of 9.7% for group I, 11.4% for group IIa, and 2.6% for group IIIa.
Temporomandibular disorders were described as early as ancient Egypt. An older name for the condition is "Costen's syndrome", eponymously referring to James B. Costen. Costen was an otolaryngologist, and although he was not the first physician to describe TMD, he wrote extensively on the topic, starting in 1934, and was the first to approach the disorder in an integrated and systematic way. Costen hypothesized that malocclusion caused TMD, and placed emphasis on ear symptoms, such as tinnitus, otaglia, impaired hearing, and even dizziness. Specifically, Costen believed that the cause of TMD was mandibular over-closure, recommending a treatment revolving around building up the bite. The eponym "Costen syndrome" became commonly used shortly after his initial work, but in modern times it has been dropped, partially because occlusal factors are now thought to play little, if any, role in the development of TMD, and also because ear problems are now thought to be less associated with TMD. Other historically important terms that were used for TMD include "TMJ disease" or "TMJ syndrome", which are now rarely used.
- Mujakperuo HR, Watson M, Morrison R, Macfarlane TV (2010). "Pharmacological interventions for pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD004715. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004715.pub2. PMID 20927737.
- Shi Z, Guo C, Awad M (2003). "Hyaluronate for temporomandibular joint disorders". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD002970. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002970. PMID 12535445.
- Guo C, Shi Z, Revington P (2009). "Arthrocentesis and lavage for treating temporomandibular joint disorders". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD004973. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004973.pub2. PMID 19821335.
- Edwab RR, ed. (2003). Essential dental handbook : clinical and practice management advice from the experts. Tulsa, OK: PennWell. pp. 251–309. ISBN 978-0-87814-624-6.
- Manfredini, D; Guarda-Nardini, L; Winocur, E; Piccotti, F; Ahlberg, J; Lobbezoo, F (October 2011). "Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of axis I epidemiologic findings". Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics 112 (4): 453–62. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.04.021. PMID 21835653.
- Al-Ani MZ, Davies SJ, Gray RJ, Sloan P, Glenny AM (2004). "Stabilisation splint therapy for temporomandibular pain dysfunction syndrome". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD002778. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002778.pub2. PMID 14973990.
- Scully, Crispian (2008). Oral and maxillofacial medicine : the basis of diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 8,14,30,31,33,101,104,106,291–295,338,339,351. ISBN 9780443068188.[page needed]
- Cairns, BE (May 2010). "Pathophysiology of TMD pain--basic mechanisms and their implications for pharmacotherapy". Journal of oral rehabilitation 37 (6): 391–410. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2842.2010.02074.x. PMID 20337865.
- "Management of Temporomandibular Disorders. National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment Conference Statement". 1996. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CA, Bouquot JE (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. pp. 75–9. ISBN 0-7216-9003-3.
- Aggarwal VR, Lovell K, Peters S, Javidi H, Joughin A, Goldthorpe J (2011). "Psychosocial interventions for the management of chronic orofacial pain". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (11): CD008456. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008456.pub2. PMID 22071849.
- Fernandez, CE; Amiri, A; Jaime, J; Delaney, P (December 2009). "The relationship of whiplash injury and temporomandibular disorders: a narrative literature review". Journal of chiropractic medicine 8 (4): 171–86. doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2009.07.006. PMC 2786231. PMID 19948308.
- "Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) Policy Statement". American Association for Dental Research. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Luther, F; Layton, S; McDonald, F (Jul 7, 2010). "Orthodontics for treating temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders". In McDonald, Fraser. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (7): CD006541. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006541.pub2. PMID 20614447.
- Kindler LL, Bennett RM, Jones KD (March 2011). "Central sensitivity syndromes: mounting pathophysiologic evidence to link fibromyalgia with other common chronic pain disorders". Pain Management Nursing 12 (1): 15–24. doi:10.1016/j.pmn.2009.10.003. PMC 3052797. PMID 21349445.
- Wassell R, Naru A, Steele J, Nohl F (2008). Applied occlusion. London: Quintessence. pp. 73–84. ISBN 978-1-85097-098-9.
- Guardia, CF; Berman SA. "Temporomandibular Disorders on Medscape Reference". WebMD. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Classification of Chronic Pain, Part II, B. Relatively Localized Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Group III: Craniofacial pain of musculoskeletal origin". IASP. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "2nd Edition International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2)". International Headache Society. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
- "International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision". World Health Organization. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Okeson, Jeffrey P. (2003). Management of temporomandibular disorders and occlusion (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. pp. 191, 204, 233, 234, 227. ISBN 0-323-01477-1.
- Wright, Edward F. (2010). Manual of temporomandibular disorders (2nd ed.). Ames, IA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-8138-1324-0.[page needed]
- Cawson RA, Odell EW, Porter S (2002). Cawsonś essentials of oral pathology and oral medicine (7th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-07106-3.[page needed]
- Phyllis A. Balch (1997). Prescription For Nutritional Healing (2nd ed.). ISBN 9781583334003.
- Alomar, X; Medrano, J; Cabratosa, J; Clavero, JA; Lorente, M; Serra, I; Monill, JM; Salvador, A (June 2007). "Anatomy of the temporomandibular joint". Seminars in ultrasound, CT, and MR 28 (3): 170–83. doi:10.1053/j.sult.2007.02.002. PMID 17571700.
- Standring S, ed. (2006). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (39th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-07168-3.
- Davies S, Gray RM (September 2001). "What is occlusion?". British Dental Journal 191 (5): 235–8, 241–5. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4801151. PMID 11575759.
- Westesson PL, Otonari-Yamamoto M, Sano T, Okano T (2011). "Anatomy, Pathology, and Imaging of the Temporomandibular Joint". In Som PM, Curtin HD. Head and neck imaging (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-05355-6.
- Kerawala C, Newlands C (editors) (2010). Oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 342–351. ISBN 9780199204830.
- Cuccia, AM; Caradonna, C; Caradonna, D (February 2011). "Manual therapy of the mandibular accessory ligaments for the management of temporomandibular joint disorders". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 111 (2): 102–12. PMID 21357496.
- Odell EW (Editor) (2010). Clinical problem solving in dentistry (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 37–41. ISBN 9780443067846.
- Greenberg MS, Glick M (2003). Burket's oral medicine diagnosis & treatment (10th ed.). Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker. ISBN 1-55009-186-7.[page needed]
- Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery fifth edition; Hupp, ellis, and tucker. 2008
- Ramírez LM, Sandoval GP, Ballesteros LE (2005). "Temporomandibular disorders: referred cranio-cervico-facial clinic". Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 10 Suppl 1: E18–26. PMID 15800464.
- Quail G (2005). "Atypical facial pain—a diagnostic challenge" (PDF). Aust Fam Physician 34 (8): 641–5. PMID 16113700.
- Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR (2008). Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier. pp. 629–47. ISBN 978-0-323-04903-0.
- "Definitions of "Arthrosis" from various medical and popular dictionaries". Farlex. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Orlando B, Manfredini D, Salvetti G, Bosco M (2007). "Evaluation of the effectiveness of biobehavioral therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders: a literature review". Behavioral Medicine 33 (3): 101–18. doi:10.3200/BMED.33.3.101-118. PMID 18055333.
- Tyldesley WR, Field A, Longman L (2003). Tyldesley's Oral medicine (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192631470.[page needed]
- Shetty, S; Pitti, V; Satish Babu, CL; Surendra Kumar, GP; Deepthi, BC (September 2010). "Bruxism: a literature review". Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society 10 (3): 141–8. doi:10.1007/s13191-011-0041-5. PMC 3081266. PMID 21886404.
- De Meyer, MD; De Boever, JA (1997). "[The role of bruxism in the appearance of temporomandibular joint disorders]". Revue belge de medecine dentaire 52 (4): 124–38. PMID 9709800.
- Manfredini, D; Lobbezoo, F (June 2010). "Relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of literature from 1998 to 2008". Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics 109 (6): e26–50. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.02.013. PMID 20451831.
- Buescher, JJ (Nov 15, 2007). "Temporomandibular joint disorders". American family physician 76 (10): 1477–82. PMID 18052012.
- Trovato, F; Orlando, B; Bosco, M (2009). "Occlusal features and masticatory muscles activity. A review of electromyographic studies". Stomatologija / issued by public institution "Odontologijos studija" ... [et al.] 11 (1): 26–31. PMID 19423968.
- Koh, H; Robinson, PG (April 2004). "Occlusal adjustment for treating and preventing temporomandibular joint disorders". Journal of oral rehabilitation 31 (4): 287–92. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2842.2003.01257.x. PMID 15089931.
- Zadik, Y; Drucker, S (September 2011). "Diving dentistry: a review of the dental implications of scuba diving". Australian dental journal 56 (3): 265–71. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01340.x. PMID 21884141.
- S Zhang, N Gersdorff, J Frahm (2011) Real-Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Temporomandibular Joint Dynamics. The Open Medical Imaging Journal, 2011, 5, 1-7, 
- Anderson, GC; Gonzalez, YM; Ohrbach, R; Truelove, EL; Sommers, E; Look, JO; Schiffman, EL (Winter 2010). "The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. VI: future directions". Journal of orofacial pain 24 (1): 79–88. PMC 3157036. PMID 20213033.
- The TMJ Association (2005). "Temporomandibular (Jaw) Joint Diseases and Disorders". Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Hersen, Peter; Sturmey, Michel (2012). Handbook of evidence-based practice in clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. pp. 594–5. ISBN 978-0-470-33546-8.
- Fricton J, Look JO, Wright E, Alencar FG Jr, Chen H, Lang M, Ouyang W, Velly AM (2010). "Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating intraoral orthopedic appliances for temporomandibular disorders". Journal of Orofacial Pain 24 (3): 237–54. PMID 20664825.
- Marbach JJ (1996). "Temporomandibular pain and dysfunction syndrome. History, physical examination, and treatment". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 22 (3): 477–98. doi:10.1016/S0889-857X(05)70283-0. PMID 8844909.
- Dionne RA (1997). "Pharmacologic treatments for temporomandibular disorders". Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 83 (1): 134–42. doi:10.1016/S1079-2104(97)90104-9. PMID 9007937.
- Bouloux, GF (July 2011). "Use of opioids in long-term management of temporomandibular joint dysfunction". Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 69 (7): 1885–91. doi:10.1016/j.joms.2010.12.014. PMID 21419546.
- Schwartz, M; Freund, B (Nov–Dec 2002). "Treatment of temporomandibular disorders with botulinum toxin". The Clinical journal of pain 18 (6 Suppl): S198–203. doi:10.1097/00002508-200211001-00013. PMID 12569969.
- Persaud R, Garas G, Silva S, Stamatoglou C, Chatrath P, Patel K (February 2013). "An evidence-based review of botulinum toxin (Botox) applications in non-cosmetic head and neck conditions". JRSM Short Reports 4 (2): 10. doi:10.1177/2042533312472115. PMC 3591685. PMID 23476731.
- Aggarwal, A; Keluskar, V (Mar–Apr 2012). "Physiotherapy as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of TMJ disorders". General dentistry 60 (2): e119–22. PMID 22414516.
- Miernik, M; Wieckiewicz, M; Paradowska, A; Wieckiewicz, W (Sep–Oct 2012). "Massage therapy in myofascial TMD pain management". Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University 21 (5): 681–5. PMID 23356206.
- Cuccia AM, Caradonna C, Annunziata V, Caradonna D (April 2010). "Osteopathic manual therapy versus conventional conservative therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders: a randomized controlled trial". Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 14 (2): 179–84. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2009.08.002. PMID 20226365.
- Monaco A, Cozzolino V, Cattaneo R, Cutilli T, Spadaro A (March 2008). "Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) effects on mandibular kinetics: kinesiographic study". European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 9 (1): 37–42. PMID 18380529.
- Wright EF, North SL (2009). "Management and treatment of temporomandibular disorders: a clinical perspective". The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 17 (4): 247–54. PMC 2813497. PMID 20140156.
- Maia ML, Bonjardim LR, Quintans Jde S, Ribeiro MA, Maia LG, Conti PC (2012). "Effect of low-level laser therapy on pain levels in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review". Journal of Applied Oral Science 20 (6): 594–602. doi:10.1590/S1678-77572012000600002. PMC 3881861. PMID 23329239.
- Crider A, Glaros AG, Gevirtz RN (December 2005). "Efficacy of biofeedback-based treatments for temporomandibular disorders". Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 30 (4): 333–45. doi:10.1007/s10484-005-8420-5. PMID 16385422.
- Hagandora CK, Almarza AJ (August 2012). "TMJ disc removal: comparison between pre-clinical studies and clinical findings". Journal of Dental Research 91 (8): 745–52. doi:10.1177/0022034512453324. PMID 22744995.
- Wray D, Stenhouse D, Lee D, Clark AJE (2003). Textbook of general and oral surgery. Edinburgh [etc.]: Churchill Livingstone. pp. 173–178. ISBN 0443070830.
- Kalantzis A, Scully C (2005). Oxford handbook of dental patient care, the essential guide to hospital dentistry (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 116–7. ISBN 978-0-19-856623-6.
- Jung A, Shin BC, Lee MS, Sim H, Ernst E (May 2011). "Acupuncture for treating temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, sham-controlled trials". Journal of Dentistry 39 (5): 341–50. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2011.02.006. PMID 21354460.
- Türp JC (2011). "Limited evidence that acupuncture is effective for treating temporomandibular disorders". Evidence-based Dentistry 12 (3): 89. doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400816. PMID 21979775.
- La Touche R, Goddard G, De-la-Hoz JL, et al. (2010). "Acupuncture in the treatment of pain in temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". The Clinical Journal of Pain 26 (6): 541–50. doi:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181e2697e. PMID 20551730.
- Cho SH, Whang WW (2010). "Acupuncture for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review". Journal of Orofacial Pain 24 (2): 152–62. PMID 20401353.
- Laurence B (March 2012). "Acupuncture may be no more effective than sham acupuncture in treating temporomandibular joint disorders". The Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice 12 (1): 2–4. doi:10.1016/j.jebdp.2011.12.001. PMID 22326146.
- DeVocht JW (March 2006). "History and overview of theories and methods of chiropractic: a counterpoint". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 444: 243–9. doi:10.1097/01.blo.0000203460.89887.8d. PMID 16523145.
- Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Leininger B, Triano J (2010). "Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report". Chiropractic & Osteopathy 18: 3. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-18-3. PMC 2841070. PMID 20184717.
- Ernst, Simon Singh & Edzard (2008). Trick or treatment : the undeniable facts about alternative medicine (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 149–90. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6.
- List T, Axelsson S (May 2010). "Management of TMD: evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 37 (6): 430–51. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2842.2010.02089.x. PMID 20438615.
- Costen's syndrome at Who Named It?
- Costen JB (October 1997). "A syndrome of ear and sinus symptoms dependent upon disturbed function of the temporomandibular joint. 1934". The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 106 (10 Pt 1): 805–19. PMID 9342976.
- Perry HT (January 1995). "Temporomandibular joint dysfunction: from Costen to the present". Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 24 (1): 163–7. PMID 7605085.
- Michael LA (October 1997). "Jaws revisited: Costen's syndrome". Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 106 (10 Pt 1): 820–2. PMID 9342977.