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- Conquest of North Africa by the Almohads:
- A Norman raid against the Tripolitania region succeeds.
- Estimation: Merv (in the Seljuk Empire) becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
- February 15 – Pietro Bernardo Paganelli of Montemagno, Calci is elected as Pope Eugene III, and succeeds Pope Lucius II as the 167th pope.
- Arnold of Brescia joins the revolutionary Commune of Rome, where he becomes its intellectual leader for the next decade.
Arts and culture
- Kim Pusik and his team of historians finish the compilation of the Korean historical text Samguk Sagi.
- Construction begins on Notre-Dame de Chartres Cathedral in Chartres, France.
- Woburn Abbey is founded.
- December 1 – Pope Eugene III issues the bull Quantum praedecessores, calling for the Second Crusade. At Christmas Louis VII of France announces his intention of making a pilgrimage which becomes part of the Crusade.
- Maria of Antioch, Byzantine Empress consort and regent (d. 1182)
- Marie de Champagne, Countess regent of Champagne (d. 1198)
- Frederick IV, Duke of Swabia (d. 1167)
- Ibn Jubayr, Andalusian geographer, traveller and poet (d. 1217)
- Manuel Komnenos, son of Andronikos Komnenos (d. 1185)
- Al-Adil I, Ayyubid-Egyptian general and ruler (d. 1218)
- Amalric II of Jerusalem (d. 1205)
- Sayyid Muhammad Al-Makki, ancestor of the Bukkuri Sayyids (d. 1246)
- date unknown
- probable date
- February 15 – Pope Lucius II
- October 6 – Baldwin, archbishop of Pisa
- Zhang Zeduan, Chinese painter (b. 1085)
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 171. ISBN 978-2-7071-5231-2.
- Picard C. (1997) La mer et les musulmans d'Occident au Moyen Age. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp.64
- Geography at about.com