1140s

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The 1140s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1140, and ended on December 31, 1149.

Events[edit]

1140

By place[edit]

Levant[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
Literature[edit]

1141[edit]

1142[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Levant[edit]
Africa[edit]
Asia[edit]

1143[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Levant[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
Literature[edit]

1144[edit]

By place[edit]

Levant[edit]
  • Autumn – Imad al-Din Zengi, Seljuk governor (atabeg) of Mosul, attacks the Artuqid forces led by Kara Arslan – who has made an alliance with Joscelin II, count of Edessa. In support of the alliance Joscelin marches out of Edessa with a Crusader army down to the Euphrates River, to cut off Zengi's communications with Aleppo. Zengi is informed by Muslim observers at Harran of Joscelin's movements. He sends a detachment to ambush the Crusaders and reaches Edessa with his main army in late November.[40]
  • December 24Siege of Edessa: Seljuk forces led by Imad al-Din Zengi conquer the fortress city of Edessa after a four-week siege. Thousands inhabitants are massacred – only the Christians are spared. The woman and children are sold into slavery.[41] Lacking the forces to take on Zengi, Joscelin II retires to his fortress at Turbessel. There, he request reinforcements from the Byzantines and Queen-Regent Melisende of Jerusalem.
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1145[edit]

By place[edit]

Levant[edit]
  • Spring – Seljuk forces led by Imad al-Din Zengi capture Saruj, the second great Crusader fortress east of the Euphrates. They advance to Birejik and besiege the city, but the garrison puts up a stiff resistance. Meanwhile, Queen-Regent Melisende of Jerusalem joins forces with Joscelin II, count of Edessa and approaches the city. Zengi raises the siege after hearing rumours of trouble in Mosul. He rushes back with his army to take control. There, Zengi is praised throughout Islam as "defender of the faith" and al-Malik al-Mansur, the "victorious king".[44]
  • Raymond of Poitiers, prince of Antioch, travels to Constantinople to ask Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos) for help to support his campaign against the Seljuks. When he arrives, Raymond is forced to accept the suzerainty of the Byzantine Empire. Manuel treats him graciously, gives him gifts and promises him a money subsidy.[45]
Europe[edit]
Africa[edit]
Asia[edit]
  • Estimation: Merv (in the Seljuk Empire) becomes the largest city in the world, surpassing Constantinople.[48]

By topic[edit]

Art and Culture[edit]
Religion[edit]

1146[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
Levant[edit]
Seljuk Empire[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Climate[edit]
  • A rainy year causes the harvest to fail in Europe; one of the worst famines of the century ensues.[54]
Religion[edit]

1147[edit]

By place[edit]

Second Crusade[edit]
  • Late Spring – A expedition of Crusaders leaves from Darthmouth in England to the Holy Land. Englishmen together with forces from Flanders, Frisia, Scotland, and some German polities. Leadership is provided by Hervey de Glanvill, an Norman nobleman and constable of Suffolk, he leads a fleet of some 200 ships. Bad weather forced the ships to take refuge at the mouth of the Douro River, on the Portuguese coast on June 16.
  • May–July – A German expeditionary force (some 20,000 men) under King Conrad III leaves Regensburg and passes into Hungary. The German nobility is headed by Conrad's nephew and heir, Frederick I, duke of Swabia. On July 20, Conrad crosses into the Byzantine Empire, and reaches Sofia – where Michael Palaiologos (a nephew of Emperor Manuel I) gives Conrad an official welcome and provides the Crusaders with food.[55]
  • June – A French expeditionary force (some 18,000 men) led by King Louis VII departs from Metz and travels through Bavaria. Louis is accompanied by the French nobility and his wife, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, heiress of France. At Regensburg – where it arrives on June 29, the Crusaders journey peaceably for fifteen days through Hungary and reach the Byzantine frontier at the end of August.[56]
  • July 1October 25Siege of Lisbon: King Afonso I (the Great) conquers Lisbon after a 4-month siege, with support of English, Flemish and German Crusaders.[57] The garrison surrenders on the guarantee that their lives will be spared. The Crusaders break the terms and take part in a bloody massacre.[58] Afonso rules from his capital at Coimbra and takes Sintra and Santarém, and sack Palmela.[59]
  • September 7 – The German crusaders suffer a natural disaster near Constantinople, when part of their encampment is swept away by a flash flood with considerable loss of life. Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos) orders the Crusaders to cross to Asia Minor by the Hellespont. Conrad III ignores the advice of Manuel and after some minor clashes with the Byzantines, pushes towards Constantinople.[60]
  • September 10 – The German crusaders under Conrad III reach Constantinople – where there is a frosty exchange of letters between Conrad and Manuel I. The German forces make camp at Galata on the northern shore of the Golden Horn. Manuel orders that a full-scale effort must be made to transport the Germans across the Bosporus, who are causing troubles by sacking the Philopatium.[61]
  • Autumn – Conrad III decides not to wait for the French and crosses the Bosporus into Asia Minor. He leads the German crusader army to Nicomedia, and divides his forces into two divisions. Conrad takes the knights and his professional soldiers across Seljuk central territory – while the baggage train, pilgrims and a defending force under Bishop Otto of Freising travel along the Aegean coast.[62]
  • October 45 – Louis VII arrives at Constantinople and joins with forces from Savoy under Amadeus III (his uncle) – who have taken the land route through Italy. Louis crosses the Bosporus, and leads the French crusader army into Asia Minor – where he hears in Nicaea of Conrad's defeat at the end of October. Louis sends a military escort for Conrad and agrees to rendezvous at Lopardium.[63]
  • The German crusaders under Otto of Freising follow the coastal road before turning inland, up the Gediz River valley to Philadelphia. Otto's force is ambushed by the Seljuk Turks, just outside Laodicea, losing many man killed or taken prisoner. Otto and the survivors struggle on to Adalia from where they sail for the Holy Land. Others, attempt to continue along the southern coast of Anatolia.[64]
  • October 25Battle of Dorylaeum: The German crusaders under Conrad III are defeated by the Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Mesud I. Conrad is forced to turn back and is during the retreat to Nicaea wounded by arrows. In Seljuk territory the Crusaders are harassed all the way and demoralised by the intensified attacks. Many of the weakest people fall behind and are captured by the Muslims.[65]
  • November – The combined forces of Louis VII and Conrad III meet at Lopardium and march along the coastal road via Pergamon and Smyrna to Ephesus – where they celebrate Christmas. Conrad still suffering from his wounds, sails back to Constantinople to be placed under the care of Manuel's own physicians. Meanwhile, the Crusader camp is attacked by Turkish raiders near Ephesus.[66]
  • December 24Battle of Ephesus: The French crusaders under Louis VII leave Ephesus, and ascend the Meander Valley. Louis is warned by messengers of Manuel, that Seljuk and Danishmendid forces are assembling west of Adalia. Louis ignores the advise and successfully fends off an ambush just outside Ephesus.[67]
Europe[edit]
Levant[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
  • Spring – Eugene III leaves Viterbo and travels to France. At the start of April he meets Louis VII at Dijon. It is agreed that Abbot Suger, Louis' adviser, governs France while Louis is away.

1148[edit]

By place[edit]

Second Crusade[edit]
  • January 1 – The French crusaders under King Louis VII defeat a Turkish ambush next to the Meander River. Three days later they arrive at Laodicea – passing the spot where the German contingent led by Otto of Freising has been so disastrously ambushed (see 1147). The Crusaders are badly mauled as they cross Mount Cadmus (around January 8) before reaching Adalia on January 20.[75]
  • January 8Battle of Mount Cadmus: The French crusaders under Louis VII are defeated by the Seljuk Turks. The vanguard led by Geoffrey de Rancon ignores orders to pause and moves too far ahead, losing touch with the main army. The French are attacked by the Turks with the baggage train (almost 10 km long) unprotected. Louis is able to escape the fray under cover of the darkness.[76]
  • March – The French crusaders are left in Adalia, lack of available shipping obliges Louis VII to divide his forces – the knights and best troops accompany him to St. Symeon. Large numbers of pilgrims and non-combatants try to continue along the coastal road. Continually harassed by the Turks many French and Germans are killed. Less then half of them arrive in the late spring at Antioch.[77]
  • March 7 – King Conrad III recovers from his wounds and leaves with his household Constantinople. He is well supplied with money by Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos), and uses these funds to recruit pilgrims to augment the forces that remain to him. Conrad and his re-equipped Crusaders sail with a Byzantine fleet to Palestine. The fleet is scattered by storms and lands in different ports.[78]
  • March 19 – Louis VII and his wife, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine, are welcomed at St. Symeon by Eleanor's uncle Raymond of Poitiers and all his household. Raymond escorts the French crusaders to Antioch, where for the next days festivities are held. He urges Louis to accompany him on a expedition against Aleppo, Louis refuses and prefers instead to finish his pilgrimage to Jerusalem.[79]
  • April – Southern French crusaders under Alfonso Jordan of Toulouse arrive by sea at Acre. Alfonso dies suddenly at Caesarea, resulting in the accusation that he has been poisoned by Count Raymond II of Tripoli. Most of the Provençal forces turn back and return home. Meanwhile, an unknown proportion of northern European naval crusaders (from England and Germany) arrive at Acre.[80]
  • April–May – Louis VII and the French crusaders remain in Antioch, but there are rumours of an incestuous affair between Eleanor of Aquitaine and Raymond of Poitiers. Louis, alarmed for his honour, departs with his army to Jerusalem in late May. Meanwhile, Conrad III with his chief nobleman are welcomed by Queen Melisende and her 18-year-old son, co-ruler Baldwin III at Jerusalem.[81]
  • June – Mu'in al-Din Unur, Seljuk ruler (atabeg) of Damascus, prepares for war, and strengthen the fortifications of the city. He sends an urgent request for military assistance to the Zangid ruler Sayf al-Din. Unur orders his troops to destroy the water sources in areas that the Crusaders must cross. Seljuk governors of frontier provinces station scouting parties along the road to Damascus.[82]
  • June 24Council of Acre: Conrad III, Louis VII, Melisende and many other nobles join in a war council near Acre. They decide that Damascus rather then Edessa will be the primary target of the Second Crusade.[83]
  • July – The Crusaders under Baldwin III join forces with the Crusader armies of Louis VII and Conrad III (all together some 50,000 men) at Tiberias. They march up the Jordan Valley and cross into Zangid territory.[84]
  • July 24 – Zangid forces under Sayf al-Din arrive at Homs. Mu'in al-Din Unur sends a letter ultimatum to the Crusader leaders to lift the siege of Damascus. Meanwhile, guerrilla attacks demoralise the Crusaders.[85]
  • July 28Siege of Damascus: The Crusaders are forced to withdraw from their siege of Damascus after only four days. First Conrad III, then the rest of the Crusader army, decides to retreat back to Jerusalem.[86]
  • September – The French crusaders raid the province of Damascus, in reprisal for the failure of their siege. Mu'in al-Din Unur takes his forces to the Hawran to protect the harvest and its transport to Damascus.[87]
  • September 8 – Conrad III sails from Acre to Thessaloniki and forms an alliance with Manuel I against King Roger II of Sicily. During his visit Henry II (Jasomirgott) marries Manuel's niece, Theodora Komnene.[88]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Seljuk Empire[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]
Religion[edit]
Technology[edit]
  • An Italian silk industry is started at Palermo by Roger II, who takes numbers of silk workers back from Greece.

1149[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Levant[edit]
  • Spring – Nur al-Din, Seljuk ruler (atabeg) of Aleppo, invades the Principality of Antioch and defeats the Crusaders under Raymond of Poitiers at Baghras. He moves southward to besiege the fortress of Inab, one of the few strongholds of the Crusaders east of the Orontes River. Raymond with a small army (supported by the Assassin allies under Ali ibn Wafa) hurries to its rescue. Nur al-Din, misinformed of the strength of the Crusader forces, retreats. In fact the Zangid forces (some 6,000 men) outnumbers the Crusaders by over four to one. Against Ali's advice Raymond decides to reinfroce the garrison of Inab.[98]
  • April – King Louis VII and Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine sail homeward in separate Sicilian ships. While the fleet rounds the Peloponnese (southern Greece) it is attacked by ships of the Byzantine navy. Louis gives orders to raise the French flag and is allowed to sail on. But the ships containing many of his followers and his possessions are captured and taken as a war-prize to Constantinople.[99]
  • June 29Battle of Inab: The Zangid army under Nur al-Din defeat the combined army of Raymond of Poitiers and the Assassins of Ali ibn Wafa at Inab. After the battle, Nur al-Din invades Antiochene territory and captures the fortresses of Artah and Harim. He then turns west to appear before the walls of Antioch itself and raids as far as St. Symeon.[100]
  • July – King Baldwin III receives an urgent request for help from Antioch to break the incomplete Zangid blockade of the city. Meanwhile, the Crusaders fail to retake Harim.[101] Nur al-Din strengthens his siege of Antioch, but it is too large to surround. A truce is agreed under which Harim and farther east territory remains under Seljuk dominance.
  • July 15 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem is consecrated, after reconstruction.
Europe[edit]
England[edit]

By topic[edit]

Commerce[edit]
  • Genoa grants the benefits of a part of the city's fiscal revenues to a consortium of creditors called compera, the first example of the consolidation of public debt in medieval Europe.[103]
Religion[edit]
  • April 8 – Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Tusculum where he meets Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He attempts to reunite the couple by insisting to restore the love between them.[104]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Nicolle (2009). Osprey: Campaign 204. The Second Crusade 1148: Disaster outside Damascus, p. 15. ISBN 978-184603-354-4.
  2. ^ a b Fletcher, R. A. (1987). "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050-1150". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 5. 37: 31–47 [45]. JSTOR 3679149.
  3. ^ Verbruggen, J. F. (1997) [1954]. The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340. Translated by Wilard, Sumner; Southern, R. W. (Second ed.). Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer. p. 129. ISBN 9780851155708.
  4. ^ Bennett, Matthew (1998). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient & Medieval Warfare. Chicago and London: Taylor & Francis. p. 192. ISBN 9781579581169.
  5. ^ Yoshitake, Kenji (1988-06-01). "The arrest of the bishops in 1139 and its consequences". Journal of Medieval History. 14 (2): 97–114. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(88)90022-X. ISSN 0304-4181.
  6. ^ Bauer, S. Wise (2013). The History of the Renaissance World: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 154. ISBN 9780393059762.
  7. ^ Christie, Olav H. J.; Rácz, Anita; Elek, János; Héberger, Károly (2014). "Classification and unscrambling a class-inside-class situation by object target rotation: Hungarian silver coins of the Árpád Dynasty, ad 997–1301" (PDF). Journal of Chemometrics. 28 (4): 287–292. doi:10.1002/cem.2601. ISSN 1099-128X.
  8. ^ Ruud, Jay (2006). Encyclopedia of medieval Literature, Jay Ruud, 2006: Encyclopedia of medieval Literature. Facts on File Library of World Literature. New York: Facts on File. p. 355. ISBN 0-8160-5497-5.
  9. ^ Brann, Ross (2006). Menocal, María Rosa; Scheindlin, Raymond P.; Sells, Michael (eds.). The Literature of Al-Andalus. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 273. ISBN 9780521030236. For example, in four poems written in 1141 as the anxious pilgrim awaited favorable gusts to take him by ship from Alexandria to the coast of northern Palestine
  10. ^ Goitein, Shelomo Dov (1959). "The Biography of Rabbi Judah Ha-Levi in the Light of the Cairo Geniza Documents". Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research. 28: 41–56. doi:10.2307/3622446. ISSN 0065-6798. JSTOR 3622446.
  11. ^ Biran, Michal (2005). The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9780521842266.
  12. ^ Sinor, D. (1999). "The Kitan and the Kara Khitay". In Asimov, Muchamed Sajfutdinovič; Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Volume IV: The Age of Achievement A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century (Part One: The historical, social and economic setting). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited. p. 238. ISBN 9788120815957.
  13. ^ Hamilton, Alastair (2016-01-01). "Prester John. The Legend and its Sources, written by Keagan Brewer (editor and translator)". Church History and Religious Culture. 96 (3): 379–380. doi:10.1163/18712428-09603008. ISSN 1871-2428.
  14. ^ Patterson, Robert B. (2018). The Earl, the Kings, and the Chronicler: Robert Earl of Gloucester and the Reigns of Henry I and Stephen. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192518675.
  15. ^ Heath, Ian (2016). Armies of Feudal Europe 1066-1300 (Second ed.). Cambridge, UK: Wargames Research Group. p. 117. ISBN 9781326686215.
  16. ^ Painter, Sidney (January 1932). "The Rout of Winchester". Speculum. 7 (1): 70–75. doi:10.2307/2848323. ISSN 0038-7134. JSTOR 2848323.
  17. ^ Lancelott, Francis (1859). "Matilda of Bolougne, Queen of Stephen". The Queens of England and Their Times: From Matilda, Queen of William the Conqueror, to Adelaide, Queen of William the Fourth. Volume I. New York: D. Appleton and Company. pp. 53–54.
  18. ^ Annals of England: A Senior Class Date-Book of English History. The Royal School Series. London, Edinburgh and New York: T. Nelson and Sons. 1875. p. 17.
  19. ^ Crouch, David (1988-01-01). "Earl William of Gloucester and the end of the Anarchy: new evidence relating to the honor of Eudo Dapifer". The English Historical Review. CIII (CCCCVI): 69–75. doi:10.1093/ehr/CIII.CCCCVI.69. ISSN 0013-8266.
  20. ^ Gordon, Kim Hunter (2012). Breaking God's Flail: Chan Sculpture and the Death of a Great Khan in Song Dynasty Hechuan. Beijing: Kim Hunter Gordon. p. 15. ISBN 9787502256630.
  21. ^ San, Tan Koon (2014). Dynastic China: An Elementary History. Petaling Jaya: The Other Press. p. 289. ISBN 9789839541885.
  22. ^ Liu, Shi-Yee (January 2010). "Epitome of National Disgrace: A Painting Illuminating Song-Jin Diplomatic Relations". Metropolitan Museum Journal. 45: 55–82. doi:10.1086/met.45.41558052. ISSN 0077-8958. It was not until the autumn of 1141, after the Song army had scored a few significant victories, that the two states began negotiating a peace treaty, which was completed in October 1142. Although this Peace Treaty of the Shaoxing Era (Shaoxing heyi) ended the ravaging decade-long military conflict, the Song empire was degraded to a vassal state of the Jin in a hierarchical relationship defined as minister to ruler.
  23. ^ Radspieler, T. (1955). The Ethnic German Refugee in Austria 1945 to 1954. The Hague, Netherlands: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 23. ISBN 9789401179102.
  24. ^ Sigerus, Emil; Kiewe, Heinz Edgar (1977). Charted Peasant Designs from Saxon Transylvania. New York: Courier Corporation. p. 6. ISBN 9780486234250.
  25. ^ Koranyi, James; Wittlinger, Ruth (2011-03-11). "From Diaspora to Diaspora: The Case of Transylvanian Saxons in Romania and Germany" (PDF). Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 17 (1): 96–115. doi:10.1080/13537113.2011.550248. ISSN 1353-7113. Most academic literature on the topic suggests that the majority of early settlers colonized the area following a call by the Hungarian King Géza II (1141-1162) acting as “defenders” of Christianity and, later, of the Kingdom of Hungary.5
  26. ^ Montanari, Stefano; Di Toma, Paolo; Lazzini, Arianna (2012). "Entrepreneurial strategies and corporate governance: experiences from the Italian wine industry". Corporate Board. 8: 44–60. Our analysis is focused on the wine industry in Italy and analyzes the case of Barone Ricasoli Spa an estate owned by the family Ricasoli since 1141.
  27. ^ Brincat, Ivan (3 February 2016). "Barone Ricasoli: A visit to the oldest winery in Italy and the one which created the Chianti Classico". Food and Wine Gazette. Retrieved 9 July 2019. The first stones of Brolio Castle date back to the middle ages. The castle passed into the hands of the Ricasoli family thanks to an exchange of lands in 1141.
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  32. ^ Nicholson, Helen J. (2001). The Knights Hospitaller, p. 11. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-0-85115-845-7.
  33. ^ Abulafia, David (1985). The Norman kingdom of Africa and the Norman expeditions to Majorca and the Muslim Mediterranean. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-416-6.
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  51. ^ a b Williams, John B. (1997). "The making of a crusade: the Genoese anti-Muslim attacks in Spain 1146-1148". Journal of Medieval History. 23 (1): 29–53. doi:10.1016/s0304-4181(96)00022-x.
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  53. ^ Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" [Sicily and the Libyan space in the Middle Ages] (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 17 January 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. ^ Chester Jordan, William (1997). The great famine: northern Europe in the early fourteenth century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05891-1.
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