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|Births – Deaths|
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|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1234 in poetry|
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- The Manden region rises against the Kaniaga Kingdom. This is the beginning of a process that will lead to the rise of the Mali Empire.
- February 9 – Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty: In the Siege of Caizhou, Song Dynasty Chinese and Mongolian armies occupy the Jurchen capital at Caizhou, and Emperor Aizong of Jin commits suicide, marking the collapse of the Jin Dynasty.
- Upon the death of Knut Långe, the deposed Erik Eriksson returns as king of Sweden, possibly after a small war between the two of them. It is also possible that Knut dies of natural causes, and Erik peacefully then returns as king.
- Pope Gregory IX calls for a crusade against Bosnia, and replaces the Bogumil Bosnian Bishop with a Catholic Dominican German, Johann.
- King Andrew II of Hungary proclaims herzeg Coloman as Ban of Bosnia, who passes it on to Prijezda, a cousin of Ban Matej Ninoslav (1234 to 1239), despite Matej being the legitimate Ban of Bosnia.
- Sancho II of Portugal conquers the cities of Aljustrel and Mértola from the Muslims.
- Saint Dominic is canonized.
- Pope Gregory IX releases the Nova Compilatio Decretalium or Decretales Gregorii IX.
- Abaqa Khan, Mongol emperor of Persia (d. 1282)
- Beatrice of Provence, sovereign countess of Provence (approximate date; d. 1267)
- Imam Fauziah Nawawi, prominent Muslim scholar
- Ippen, Japanese monk (d. 1289)
- February (probable) – Alan, Lord of Galloway
- April 16 – Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke (b. 1191)
- May 7 – Otto I, Duke of Merania (b. c. 1180)
- June 18 – Emperor Chūkyō of Japan (b. 1218)
- August 7 – Hugh Foliot, bishop of Hereford (b.c. 1155)
- August 31 – Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan (b. 1212)
- December – Inga of Varteig, Norwegian royal mistress (b. c. 1185)
- date unknown – Knut Långe, usurper to the Swedish throne since 1229