2020 Beirut explosion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2020 Beirut explosion
Damages after 2020 Beirut explosions 1.jpg
Aftermath of the explosion, with the destroyed grain silos to the left and the flooded blast crater to the right
Date4 August 2020 (2020-08-04)
Time18:08:18 EEST (15:08:18 UTC)
VenuePort of Beirut
LocationBeirut, Lebanon
Coordinates33°54′05″N 35°31′09″E / 33.90139°N 35.51917°E / 33.90139; 35.51917Coordinates: 33°54′05″N 35°31′09″E / 33.90139°N 35.51917°E / 33.90139; 35.51917
TypeAmmonium nitrate explosion
CauseUnder investigation
Deaths218
Non-fatal injuries7,500+
Property damageUS$15+ billion
Displaced~300,000

On 4 August 2020, a large amount of ammonium nitrate stored at the port of the city of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, exploded, causing at least 218 deaths, 7,500 injuries, and US$15 billion in property damage, and leaving an estimated 300,000 people homeless. A cargo of 2,750 tonnes of the substance (equivalent to around 1.1 kilotons of TNT) had been stored in a warehouse without proper safety measures for the previous six years, after having been confiscated by the Lebanese authorities from the abandoned ship MV Rhosus.[1] The explosion was preceded by a fire in the same warehouse, but as of April 2021, the exact cause of the detonation is still under investigation.

The blast was also felt across Turkey, Syria, Israel, Palestine, parts of Europe, and was heard in Cyprus, more than 240 km (150 mi) away. It was detected by the United States Geological Survey as a seismic event of magnitude 3.3, and is considered one of the most powerful artificial non-nuclear explosions in history.

The Lebanese government declared a two-week state of emergency in response to the disaster. In its aftermath, protests erupted across Lebanon against the government for their failure to prevent the disaster, joining a larger series of protests which have been taking place across the country since 2019.

Background[edit]

The explosion occurred behind the grain silos in this view.

The economy of Lebanon was in a state of crisis before the explosions, with the government having defaulted on debt, the pound plunging, and a poverty rate that had risen past 50%.[2] In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic had overwhelmed many of the country's hospitals, several of which were already short of medical supplies and unable to pay staff due to the financial crisis.[3] The morning before the explosion, the head of the Rafik Hariri University Hospital, which served as the main coronavirus medical facility in Lebanon, warned that it was approaching full capacity.[4][5]

The government-owned Port of Beirut serves as the main maritime entry point into Lebanon and a vital piece of infrastructure for the importation of scarce goods.[6][7] The Beirut Naval Base is a part of the port.[7] The port included four basins, sixteen quays, twelve warehouses,[7] a large container terminal,[8] and grain silos with a total capacity of 120,000 tonnes that served as a strategic reserve of cereals for the country. The silos were built in the 1960s as part of an expansion plan advanced by Palestinian banker Yousef Beidas.[9]

MV Rhosus[edit]

On 27 September 2013, the Moldovan-flagged cargo ship MV Rhosus set sail from Batumi, Georgia, to Beira, Mozambique, carrying 2,750 tonnes (3,030 short tons) of ammonium nitrate.[10][11][12][13][14] Rhosus was owned by a company based in Panama but was regarded by the captain as under the de facto ownership of Russian businessman Igor Grechushkin.[15] The shipment had been ordered by an African explosives manufacturing company for mining in Mozambique.[16] However, reporting by Der Spiegel has found that it was not Russian national Grechushkin who owned the Rhosus, but rather the Cypriot businessman Charalambos Manoli, who maintained a relationship with the bank used by Hezbollah in Lebanon.[17] On 21 November 2013, the ship made port in Beirut.[18][12][13] Some sources said it was forced to port due to mechanical issues and possibly engine problems,[19][18] while other sources claimed the owner did not have sufficient funds to pay tolls for the Suez Canal and attempted to take on a shipment of heavy machinery in Beirut.[20][21] The heavy machinery was stacked on top of the doors to the cargo space containing the ammonium nitrate, causing the doors to buckle, which damaged the ship.[22] After inspection by port state control, the Rhosus was deemed unseaworthy, and was forbidden to set sail.[18][19] Eight Ukrainians and one or two Russians were aboard,[23] and with the help of the Ukrainian consul, five Ukrainians were repatriated, leaving four crew members to care for the ship.[24][25]

The port of Beirut in 2017, with Rhosus moored on the right. Livestock carriers Abou Karim I and Abou Karim III, both severely damaged in the explosions, are in the center, the latter largely obscuring the former.
The Port of Beirut eleven days after the disaster. The French amphibious assault ship Tonnerre is the large ship on the right, which arrived in the port on 13 August to provide food, construction materials, medical supplies, and personnel.[26]

Grechushkin went bankrupt,[a] and after the charterers lost interest in the cargo, he abandoned the ship.[24] The Rhosus soon ran out of provisions, and the remaining crew were unable to disembark due to immigration restrictions.[27] According to Lloyd's List, the Beirut port authority seized the ship on 4 February 2014, due to US$100,000 in unpaid bills.[28] The ship had accrued port fees and been fined for refusing cargo.[29][22] Lawyers argued for the crew's repatriation on compassionate grounds, because of the danger posed by the cargo still aboard the ship, and an Urgent Matters judge in Beirut allowed them to return home. They had been forced to live aboard the ship for about a year.[10][24]

By order of the judge, the cargo was brought ashore in 2014 and placed in Warehouse 12 at the port,[30] where it remained for the next six years.[10][11][18][31] The MV Rhosus sank in the harbour in February 2018.[32]

Customs officials had sent letters to judges requesting a resolution to the issue of the confiscated cargo, proposing that the ammonium nitrate be either exported, given to the army, or sold to the private Lebanese Explosives Company.[b][11] Letters had been sent on 27 June and 5 December 2014, 6 May 2015, 20 May and 13 October 2016, and 27 October 2017.[11][34] One of the letters sent in 2016 noted that judges had not replied to previous requests, and pleaded:[11]

In view of the serious danger of keeping these goods in the hangar in unsuitable climatic conditions, we reaffirm our request to please request the marine agency to re-export these goods immediately to preserve the safety of the port and those working in it, or to look into agreeing to sell this amount ...

Explosion[edit]

Fire and first explosion[edit]

Around 6 P.M. on 4 August 2020, a fire broke out in Warehouse 12 at the Port of Beirut.[35][36] Warehouse 12 was waterside and next to the grain silos; the warehouse stored the ammonium nitrate that had been confiscated from MV Rhosus, alongside a stash of fireworks.[35][37][38] Around 17:55 local time (14:55 UTC), a team of nine firefighters and one paramedic, known as Platoon 5, was dispatched to fight the fire.[38][39] On arrival the fire crew reported there was "something wrong" as the fire was huge and produced "a crazy sound".[38]

The first explosion, at about 18:07 local time (15:07 UTC), likely triggered by the stored fireworks, sent up a large cloud of smoke and a crackle of bright firework flashes, and heavily damaged the structure of the warehouse itself with a force equivalent to around 1.5-2.5 tons of TNT, the size of a mid-sized truck.[35][36][40]

Final explosion[edit]

The moment of the explosion was captured during a BBC interview.

The second explosion, 33 to 35 seconds later, was much more substantial[41][42][43][44][40] and was felt in northern Israel and in Cyprus, 240 kilometers (150 miles) away.[45][46][47][48] It rocked central Beirut and sent a red-orange cloud into the air, which was briefly surrounded by a white condensation cloud.[49][50] The orange-red colour of the smoke was caused by nitrogen dioxide, a byproduct of ammonium nitrate decomposition.[51]

By the next morning, the main fire that led to the explosion had been extinguished.[52]

External video
video icon Footage of both explosions taken from an apartment located roughly 850 meters from the blast's origin point.

Yield[edit]

Collated time of arrival vs distance from analysis of social media video footage, with the best estimate (0.50 kt TNT) and reasonable upper limit (1.12 kt TNT) curves determined from regression analysis.

Despite inefficient transmission of the shock waves into the ground,[c] the United States Geological Survey measured the event as a 3.3 local magnitude earthquake,[53][54][44] while the Jordan Seismological Observatory reported that it was equivalent to a 4.5 local magnitude earthquake.[55] A study of seismic signatures of the explosion by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources in Germany produced a yield estimate between 0.5 and 1.1 kt of TNT.[56] Experts from the Blast and Impact Research Group at the University of Sheffield estimated that the explosion was one of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions ever recorded.[57][58] Later, they were able to quantitatively support this rapid estimate as they compiled more distance versus time of arrival data as new videos of the explosion in Beirut became available on social media platforms. Their study found that a best estimate and upper bound prediction of the yield of the explosion are 0.5 and 1.12 kt of TNT, respectively.[59] This is equal to around 1 GWh of energy.[60] Another study used several videos of the explosion to describe the evolution of the fireball size and estimated the Beirut explosion yield to be 0.6 ± 0.3 kt of TNT.[61] The Beirut explosion was similar to explosions of large amounts of ammonium nitrate in Tianjin, China, in 2015; in Texas City, United States, in 1947; or in Toulouse, France, in 2001.[62][63][d]

An independent estimate by the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization based on infrasonic data obtained an explosive yield equivalent to 0.5–1.1 kt of TNT,[65] making it the sixth-largest artificial non-nuclear explosion in human history.

Cause[edit]

Warehouses in the port were used to store explosives and chemicals including nitrates, common components of fertilizers and explosives.[66][e] The General Director of General Security, Major General Abbas Ibrahim, said the ammonium nitrate confiscated from Rhosus had exploded.[69][19] The 2,750 tonnes (3,030 short tons) of ammonium nitrate was the equivalent to around 1,155 tonnes of TNT (4,830 gigajoules).[70] The failure to remove the materials from the warehouse and relocate them was attributed to mismanagement of the port, corruption of the government, and inaction of the flag registry's country and ship owner.[71]

The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International said that, according to attendees of a Higher Defence Council briefing, the fire was ignited by workers welding a door at a warehouse.[72][73] A former port worker said that "[t]here were 30 to 40 nylon bags of fireworks inside warehouse 12" that he had personally seen.[74] An American diplomatic cable on 7 August said it "remains unclear ... whether fireworks, ammunition or something else stored next to the ammonium nitrate might have been involved" in worsening the warehouse fire and igniting the ammonium nitrate.[75] A port worker said Warehouse 12 was "not in regular use", and that "those in charge only used to open the warehouse to stack inside it materials confiscated upon judicial orders or perilous products", though he had not seen this to include any armaments.[76]

Casualties[edit]

218 people were confirmed dead, and over 6,500 people were injured.[77][78] Foreigners from at least 22 countries were among the casualties.[h] Furthermore, at least 108 Bangladeshi nationals were injured in the blasts, becoming the most affected foreign community.[93] Also, several United Nations naval peacekeepers who were members of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) were injured by the blast.[117][118][119] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 34 refugees were among the dead and missing, and an additional 124 refugees were injured.[120] At least 150 people became permanently disabled as a result of the explosion.[121]

All ten members of Platoon 5 died at the scene of the blast.[39] Nazar Najarian, the secretary-general of the Kataeb Party, died after suffering severe head injuries.[122] French architect Jean-Marc Bonfils died after suffering serious injuries at his apartment in the East Village building in Mar Mikhaël. He had been live-streaming the fire at the warehouse on Facebook at the time.[123][124] Lady Cochrane Sursock, philanthropist and matriarch of the Sursock family, died on 31 August from injuries sustained from the blast.[125][126]

Damage[edit]

S. Dagher Building, located opposite the port's free zone entrance, suffered extensive damage
The Port of Beirut as seen from the International Space Station a week after the disaster, with inset of an enlarged view of the explosion crater (top left)
External image
image icon Detailed 0.5 m satellite imagery of explosion aftermath captured by Pleiades-1B on 5 August 2020.[127]

The explosion overturned cars and stripped steel-framed buildings of their cladding.[46] Within the port area, the explosion destroyed a section of shoreline and left a crater roughly 124 m (407 ft) in diameter and 43 m (141 ft) in depth.[128][129][130][131] Homes as far as 10 kilometers (6 miles) away were damaged by the blast,[2] and up to 300,000 people were left homeless by the explosion.[132][133][134] The grain silos were largely destroyed,[135] exacerbating food shortages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and a severe financial crisis.[136] About 15,000 tonnes (14,800 long tons; 16,500 short tons) of grain were lost, leaving the country with less than a month's worth of grain in reserve.[132] However, part of the silos' sturdy structure survived, shielding a large area of western Beirut from greater destruction.[9]

The damage from the blast affected over half of Beirut, with the likely cost above $15 billion and insured losses at around $3 billion.[137] Approximately ninety percent of the hotels in the city were damaged and three hospitals completely destroyed, while two more suffered damage.[132][138] Dozens of injured people brought to nearby hospitals could not be admitted because of the damage to the hospitals. Windows and other installations of glass across the city were shattered.[139]

Saint George Hospital, one of the city's largest medical facilities, was less than 1 kilometer (58 mile) from the explosion, and was so badly damaged that staff were forced to treat patients in the street.[40][140] Four nurses died from the initial blast, fifteen patients died after their ventilators stopped working, and several child cancer patients were injured by flying glass.[141][40][30] Within hours, after discharging all its patients, and sending some to other facilities, Saint George Hospital was forced to close.[142] The hospital's director of intensive care, Dr. Joseph Haddad, was quoted as saying: "There is no St. George Hospital any more. It's fallen, it's on the floor ... It's all destroyed. All of it."[40]

The Sursock Museum was severely damaged, as were many of its artworks, and some ceramics were completely destroyed.[143] The atelier for the fashion house Sandra Mansour was heavily damaged by the explosion.[144] Sursock Palace, a 160-year-old Beirut landmark that was listed as a cultural heritage site, also sustained heavy damage, as did its many artworks.[145][i] The Armenian Catholicosate in Antelias sustained great damage.[146] All the stained glass windows of the National Evangelical Church were blown out.[147] The FIBA Asia headquarters was also heavily damaged.[148] Embassies in and around Beirut reported varying degrees of damage to their buildings; the embassies of Argentina,[149] Australia,[150] Finland,[151] Cyprus,[132] and the Netherlands,[103] which were close to the blast, sustained heavy damage, while minor damage was reported from the South Korean,[152] Hungarian,[153] Kazakh,[154] Russian,[154] Bulgarian,[155] Romanian,[156] and Turkish[157] embassies.

Shipping[edit]

The cruise ship Orient Queen, berthed nearby, suffered extensive damage and capsized overnight.[158][159] Two members of the crew were killed, and seven crew members were injured.[159][160] On 7 August, the first lawsuit related to the explosions was filed by the ship's owners, Abou Merhi Cruises, whose offices were also destroyed.[159][161]

The Bangladesh Navy corvette BNS Bijoy, which participated in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, was also damaged.[117][118][162]

External image
image icon Abou Karim I on its side next to Abou Karim III, near the blast crater The crater is the water-filled area in the left foreground.[163]

The edible-oil tanker ship Amadeo II was nearest to the explosion, which deposited the mangled remains of the ship on a nearby quay.[164][165][166] Two large livestock carriers, Abou Karim I and Abou Karim III, laid up at the end of Berth 09, very close to Warehouse 12, were heavily damaged. Abou Karim I became unstable, keeled over onto the adjacent Abou Karim III and shortly afterwards capsized.[158][167] The livestock carrier Jouri and the cargo ships Mero Star and Raouf H were also close to the blast and suffered serious damage; AIS from these ships stopped broadcasting at the time of the explosion.[158][168][119]

Hapag-Lloyd's offices in Beirut were destroyed.[169] CMA CGM's offices, located a few hundred meters away from the site of the explosion, were severely damaged. One employee died and two were severely injured.[170][171]

Airport[edit]

Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport, the city's main airport, about 10 km (6 mi) from the site of the blast, sustained moderate damage to the terminal buildings during the explosion.[172] Doors and windows were destroyed, and ceiling tiles were shaken loose by the shockwave, severing electrical wires. Despite the damage, flights continued.[173]

Investigation[edit]

The government formed an investigation committee led by Prime Minister Hassan Diab, which will submit its findings to the Council of Ministers of Lebanon by 11 August. The committee includes the justice, interior and defence ministers, and the head of the top four security agencies: the Army, General Security, Internal Security Forces, and State Security.[174] The investigation is to examine whether the explosion was an accident or due to negligence, and if it was caused by a bomb or another external interference.[175] President Aoun rejected calls for an international probe despite demands from world leaders.[176]

On 5 August, the Council agreed to place sixteen Beirut port officials who had overseen storage and security since 2014 under house arrest, overseen by the army, pending the investigation into the explosions.[177][178] In addition, the general manager of the port Hassan Koraytem and the former director general of Lebanon's customs authority Shafiq Merhi were arrested.[179] Later, on 17 August, the incumbent director-general of Lebanon's customs authority Badri Daher was also arrested. Also, former ministers of both finance and public works are due to be interrogated by a judge appointed by the Lebanon's High Judicial Council.[180][181] In the meantime, Lebanon's state prosecutor Ghassan Oueidat ordered a travel ban on seven individuals including Hassan Koraytem.[182] On 12 August, Lebanon's caretaker Justice Minister Marie-Claude Najm commented on the investigation by saying: "Much of the criticism is warranted due to the slow pace of work and some politicisation, but this case is a chance for the Lebanese judiciary to prove they can do their jobs and win back the confidence of the people".[183] On 19 August, a Lebanon judge ordered the arrests of more suspects over the explosion, making the total number of accused 25.[181][184]

Lebanese judge Fadi Sawan,[185] who has been responsible for the investigation, summoned former Minister of Transportation and Public Works Ghazi Aridi, Labor Ministers Ghazi Zaiter, Youssef Fenianos and Michel Najjar, General Director of the Lebanese State Security Tony Saliba, Director General of Lebanon's Land and Maritime Transport division, Abdul-Hafeez Al-Qaisi, and General Director of General Security, Major General Abbas Ibrahim.[186][187]

In September, Lebanon's state prosecution asked Interpol to detain two Russian citizens, the captain and the owner of Rhosus, as its cargo of ammonium nitrate was blamed for the explosion.[188] In January 2021, Interpol issued Red Notices[j] against the two Russians as well as a Portuguese man.[190]

In December 2020, Lebanon's outgoing Prime Minister Diab and three former ministers were charged with negligence over the Beirut port explosion. The former ministers were former finance minister Ali Hassan Khalil, Ghazi Zeiter and Youssef Fenianos, both former ministers of public works. Zeitar was transport and public works minister in 2014, followed by Fenianos in 2016, who held the job until the beginning of 2020. Khalil was finance minister in 2014, 2016 and until 2020.[191]

On 28 January 2021, Syrian-Russian businessman George Haswani denied any links to the Beirut explosion. He told Reuters he did not know anything about a company linked to the process of buying a shipment of chemicals that exploded. In an interview with Reuters at his home in Damascus, Haswani said that he had resorted to the Cypriot company Interstatus to register his company, which is the same agent that registered the Savaro company, and that the agent company had moved the registration site of the two companies to the same address on the same day. However, Haswani said that he did not know anything about Savaro, and that any links between it and his company are just a coincidence, because the two companies have the same agent. As stated in previous reports, Reuters was unable to determine whether Haswani had anything to do with Savaro. Haswani said, "I don’t know what other companies are registered by this Cypriot company, five or three or 70 or more." "It is a fabricated media whirlwind. We don’t know Savaro and we hadn’t heard about them before this.," Haswani told Reuters, commenting on reports indicating his involvement in the explosion. Interstatus did not respond to a request for comment. Marina Psyllou, the director of the "Interstatus" company, was listed in the registration documents of the company (Savaro) as the only owner and director of the company, but she denied that she was the real manager of the company. He told Reuters in mid-January 2021 that the beneficial owner of the company was another person, whom she refused to identify. She added that Savaro was a dormant company that had never conducted business. Haswani said that he was not contacted by any investigators from Lebanon or any other country regarding the explosion, and that he will soon work to file a legal case in Paris against media reports linking him to the explosion. He continued, "I am living my life normally and laughing because I am someone who knows well that I have nothing to do with this matter at all. Why would I worry?"[192]

On 15 April 2021, six detained people were released, including two officers, although they were not allowed to travel out of Lebanon.[193]

Relief operations[edit]

United States Air Force, Medical Services supply

The Lebanese Red Cross said every available ambulance from North Lebanon, Bekaa, and South Lebanon was being dispatched to Beirut to help patients.[40] According to the agency, a total of 75 ambulances and 375 medics were activated in response to the explosions.[194] Lebanese President Michel Aoun said the government would make up to 100 billion pounds (US$66 million) in aid available to support recovery operations.[46] The ride-sharing app Careem offered free rides to and from hospitals and blood donation centers to anyone willing to donate blood.[195][196] Volunteers removed debris while local business owners offered to repair damaged buildings for free in the absence of a state-sponsored cleanup operation.[197] A temporary hospital was established in the city by the Iranian Red Crescent Society.[198]

Health Minister Hamad Hasan requested that international aid be sent to Lebanon;[6] a number of countries sent in food, medical supplies, field hospitals, medical workers, and rescue teams.[199] On 9 August, a multinational summit hosted by France raised 253 million euros in aid.[200] The money pledged was not to be given to the Lebanese government, but rather to the people of Lebanon through the United Nations, other international organizations, and non-governmental organizations.[201] On 14 August, a $565 million appeal for Lebanon was launched by the United Nations, including initial recovery efforts, as well as immediate humanitarian aid.[202]

In the first week after the explosion, civilians gathered in hundreds to volunteer to clean up the debris on the streets and inside homes and businesses in Gemmayze, Achrafieh, and Karantina neighborhoods. Many civil society organizations offered equipment and food to the volunteers, while many residents and businesses opened their homes and hotels for free to those who lost their homes in the blast.[203]

UNESCO played a leading role in the rescue and reconstruction of historic buildings, with Blue Shield International assessing the damage to houses, museums and libraries, and the International Council of Museums providing expertise. Blue Shield International, the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon and the Lebanese Armed Forces put together a project to secure and protect cultural assets. According to Karl von Habsburg, founding president of Blue Shield International, the protection of cultural property in Beirut was not only about securing buildings, but also about preventing looting and water damage, taking dangerous chemical substances into account. The efforts also included the restoration of schools.[204][205][206][207][208][209]

Reactions[edit]

Domestic[edit]

Prime Minister Hassan Diab announced that 5 August, the day after the explosion, would be a national day of mourning.[210] The Lebanese government declared a two-week state of emergency.[211] President Aoun said the government would provide support to displaced people, and the Ministry of Health would meet the expense of treatment for the wounded.[212] Marwan Abboud, the governor of Beirut, said he arrived at the scene to search for firefighters who were on the site attempting to control the fire that was raging before the second explosion. He broke down in tears on television, calling the event "a national catastrophe".[40] Lebanese civilians from every region in Lebanon came to help by offering food, cleaning the streets, and helping NGOs.[213]

Multiple members of the Lebanese parliament resigned in protest, including Marwan Hamadeh,[214] Paula Yacoubian,[215] all three Kataeb Party MPs,[215] Neemat Frem,[216] Michel Moawad,[216] Dima Jamali,[217] and Henri Helou.[133] The Lebanese ambassador to Jordan, Tracy Chamoun, also resigned on live television.[218][219] On the night of 6 August, the protests against the government that had been ongoing since the previous October resumed, with dozens of protestors near the parliament building calling for the resignation of Lebanese government officials.[219][220][221][222][223] On 8 August, Diab called for early elections, saying it would be the only way for the country to exit the crisis.[215]

On 9 August, the information minister of Lebanon, Manal Abdel Samad and then environment minister, Damianos Kattar resigned, the first government resignations since the explosion.[224][225] On 10 August, the justice minister, Marie-Claude Najm, also resigned, followed by the resignation of the entire Lebanese cabinet.[133][226][227] Shortly after the resignation of the cabinet, Lebanese Prime Minister Hassan Diab stepped down from office.[228] President Michel Aoun accepted the resignation of the government and the Prime Minister, and asked the government to stay on in a caretaker capacity until a new cabinet is formed.[229]

International[edit]

Tel Aviv City Hall lit up with the colours of the Lebanese flag, 5 August 2020

Representatives of multiple countries, as well as the United Nations (UN),[118][230] offered condolences. In addition to those countries which provided aid, others offered to do so.[k] Notably, Israel offered aid via UN channels, as Israel and Lebanon have no diplomatic ties and are technically at war;[235][236] the offer was refused by the Lebanese government. Despite years of conflict, including the 2006 Lebanon War,[237] both Israel and senior Hezbollah officials ruled out Israeli involvement in the explosion, despite claims and allegations spread via social media.[238][239][l]

The International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated on 5 August, thus providing for widespread usage of various corporate, national, and international satellite assets on a humanitarian basis.[127] Several countries expressed solidarity by lighting up landmarks and monuments in the colours of the Lebanese flag, including the City Hall of Tel Aviv,[242][m] whereas the Eiffel Tower in Paris went dark at midnight,[252] and the Arab League flew its flag at its headquarters in Cairo at half-mast.[253] Some figures from the Israeli right-wing criticized the display of the flag of Lebanon, an "enemy state", in Tel Aviv.[242] There was also backlash inside Lebanon against the Israeli gesture.[254]

As a result of the explosion, concerns were raised about the storage of ammonium nitrate in other ports across the world.[255] Large quantities of the chemical compound were removed from storage in Egypt, India, Romania, and Senegal.[256][257][n]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The captain, Boris Prokoshev, wrote that Grechushkin had told him he had gone bankrupt, but noted that he did not believe Grechushkin.[25]
  2. ^ Ammonium nitrate has a long history of industrial disasters globally, and thus has been gradually phased out over concerns for misuse and safety.[33]
  3. ^ Because the explosion occurred on the earth's surface, the seismic waves generated by the blast are not as strong as they would have been had the equivalent amount of energy been released from underground sources.[44]
  4. ^ As a point of comparison, the Halifax Explosion in 1917 (which was not caused by ammonium nitrate) was the world's largest non-nuclear explosion, releasing the equivalent energy of roughly 2.9 kilotons of TNT (12,000 GJ).[64]
  5. ^ Other hazardous materials stored at the port included hydrofluoric acid oxidizer, benzoyl peroxide, calcium hypochlorite, picric acid, oils and several unknown chemicals.[67] On 3 September 2020, the Lebanese Army announced that they found an additional 4.35 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in the customs' "Detention Port", outside the seaport near entrance number 9.[68]
  6. ^ The five injured were connected to the Dutch embassy. The Dutch ambassador's wife, Hedwig Waltmans-Molier, was seriously injured and later died of her injuries.[103][104]
  7. ^ The Kazakhstani consul was wounded in his office.[114]
  8. ^ Among the dead were forty-three Syrian,[79] thirteen Armenian,[80] five Bangladeshi,[81] four Filipino,[82] three Egyptian,[83][84] two Palestinian,[85] two Belgian,[86] two Canadian,[87] one German,[88] one Ethiopian,[89] one French,[90] one Italian,[91] one Australian,[92] one Pakistani,[93] one American,[94] one Greek,[95] and one Dutch national.[96] Among the injured were forty-two Filipino,[97] twenty-four French,[90] fifteen Sri Lankan,[98] ten Italian,[99] nine Ethiopian,[100] seven Jordanian,[101] six Turkish,[102] five Dutch,[f] five Greek,[105] five Indian,[106] five Sudanese,[107] four Belgian,[108] four Pakistani,[93] three Kenyan,[109] two Algerian,[110] one Nigerian,[111] one Chinese,[112] one Indonesian,[113] one Kazakhstani,[g] one Vietnamese,[115] and one Moroccan national.[116]
  9. ^ The palace had been restored over a twenty-year period following the civil war of 1975–1990.[145]
  10. ^ A Red Notice seeks the location and arrest of wanted persons wanted for prosecution or to serve a sentence.[189]
  11. ^ Sri Lanka donated 1,675 kilos of Ceylon tea to those affected by the Beirut blast; however, the gift was distributed to the families of the soldiers in the Presidential Guard Brigade.[231] In addition, 12 tons of fish donated by Mauritania were not distributed to the public, as the army only mentioned that they "stored it according to public safety standards".[232] Iraq has sent 13,000 tons of wheat/flour to Lebanon;[233] however, 7,000 tons of them were poorly stockpiled in the Camille Chamoun Sports City Stadium.[234]
  12. ^ In the meantime, Die Welt reported, according to the intelligence information, that Hezbollah received a total of 270 tons of ammonium nitrate on July 16, 2013, delivered from Iran to Lebanon. On October 23 of the same year, another 270 tons of ammonium nitrate were delivered, in addition to a third delivery, which made the three deliveries equal to a quantity of 630 to 670 tons of ammonium nitrate. The second delivery was transported by plane, probably by Mahan Air, while the other deliveries were made by sea or land, for example across the Syrian border. Mohammad Qasir who has been responsible for Hezbollah's logistics for 20 years was also responsible for paying for the ammonium nitrate deliveries.[240] In September 2020, the U.S. state department's counterterrorism coordinator, Nathan Sales, mentioned in a video appearance at the American Jewish Committee that: "I can reveal that such [Hezbollah weapons] caches have been moved through Belgium to France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. I can also reveal that significant ammonium nitrate caches have been discovered or destroyed in France, Greece, and Italy".[241]
  13. ^ Others include the Belfast City Hall,[243] the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the Great Pyramid near Giza,[244] the King Road Tower in Jeddah,[245] the Kuwait Towers in Kuwait City,[246] the Los Angeles City Hall,[247] the headquarters of the Palestine Broadcasting Corporation in Ramallah,[248] the Sydney Opera House,[249] the Azadi Tower in Tehran,[250] and the National Assembly and Yerevan City Hall in Yerevan.[251]
  14. ^ Meanwhile, Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kadhimi ordered the formation of a committee to remove hazardous inventories accumulated at the border ports.[258] Subsequently, hazardous material was removed from storage inside Umm Qasr Port.[259]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Urbina, Ian (26 October 2020). "'Ticking time bomb': Abandoned seafarers stranded without water, food, or money". CTV News.
  2. ^ a b Balkiz, Ghazi; Qiblawi, Tamara; Wedeman, Ben (5 August 2020). "Beirut explosion shatters windows across Lebanese capital". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  3. ^ Sarah El Deeb (5 July 2020). "Crisis hits Lebanon's hospitals, among the best in Mideast". ABC News. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  4. ^ Qiblawi, Tamara (5 August 2020). "Beirut will never be the same again". CNN. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  5. ^ Trew, Bel (5 August 2020). "'The worst thing I've ever seen': Doctors treat wounded in rubble of destroyed hospitals after Beirut explosions". The Independent. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  6. ^ a b Azhari, Timour (4 August 2020). "Hundreds wounded as huge blast rips through Lebanon's Beirut". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  7. ^ a b c Grzeszczak, Jocelyn (4 August 2020). "What is the Port of Beirut? Everything We Know About the Site Following Deadly Explosion". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  8. ^ "Home". www.portdebeyrouth.com. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  9. ^ a b Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (10 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: Legendary Palestinian banker envisaged silos that shielded his adopted city from more destruction". The National. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Dagher, Charbel; Maksoud, Christine (October 2015). "m/v Rhosus – Arrest and Personal Freedom of the Crew" (PDF). The Arrest News (11). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d e Azhari, Timour (5 August 2020). "Beirut blast: Tracing the explosives that tore the capital apart". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  12. ^ a b "How ship's deadly cargo ended up at Beirut port". BBC News. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  13. ^ a b Holroyd, Matthew (6 August 2020). "How did so much ammonium nitrate make it to Port of Beirut? | #TheCube". euronews. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  14. ^ "Russian captain recalls journey that led to deadly cargo being impounded". BBC News. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  15. ^ Vasilyeva, Maria; Barrington, Lisa; Saul, Jonathan (11 August 2020). "Who owned the chemicals that blew up Beirut? No one will say". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  16. ^ Polglase, Katie (7 August 2020). "Ammonium nitrate that exploded in Beirut bought for mining, Mozambican firm says". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  17. ^ SPIEGEL, Fritz Schaap, Christoph Reuter, Maximilian Popp, DER. "Shipowner Linked to Hezbollah's Bank: Questions Swirl around the Cargo that Destroyed Beirut - DER SPIEGEL - International". www.spiegel.de. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d *Voytenko, Mikhail (23 July 2014). "Crew kept hostages on a floating bomb – m/v Rhosus, Beirut". fleetmon. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
    • "Rhosus". Fleetmon [vessel tracker database]. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  19. ^ a b c Jørgensen, Lars Bach (5 August 2020). "Ekspert forklarer, hvad der sandsynligvis skete i Beirut" [Expert explains what probably happened in Beirut]. TV 2 (in Danish). Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020. The large amount of potentially dangerous fertilizer has been there since 2014, when the Moldavian ship Rhosus had to port due to engine problems.
  20. ^ "De waarschuwingen in Beiroet waren er, maar de gedoemde lading bleef liggen" [Warnings in Beirut were there, but the doomed shipment was left in storage]. NOS (in Dutch). 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  21. ^ Daria Litvinova (6 August 2020). "Captain astonished that his ship delivered Beirut explosive". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  22. ^ a b Vasilyeva, Maria (6 August 2020). "Beirut's accidental cargo: how an unscheduled port visit led to disaster". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  23. ^ "First pictures emerge of a Russian man whose ammonium nitrate cargo detonated in the port of Beirut". The Siberian Times. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  24. ^ a b c Untila, Stela (5 August 2020). "Substanța care a provocat explozia din Beirut a fost adusă de nava unui rus sub pavilionul R. Moldova". NewsMaker (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  25. ^ a b "First pictures emerge of a Russian man whose ammonium nitrate cargo detonated in the port of Beirut". siberiantimes.com. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  26. ^ "French defence minister visits Beirut to inspect military aid ship 'Thunder'". RFI. 14 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  27. ^ Urbina, Ian (2 September 2020). "The Disturbing Story Behind the Beirut Port Explosion". The Nation. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  28. ^ "Beirut blast: The Inferno and the Mystery Ship". BBC News. 8 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  29. ^ "Captain Boris Prokoshev on Why Rhosus was in Beirut". BBC News. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  30. ^ a b "Rescue workers search rubble after deadly Beirut blast". 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  31. ^ Nakhoul, Samia; Francis, Ellen (5 August 2020). "Toll expected to rise in blast that shook Beirut, killing 78 and injuring thousands". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  32. ^ Koettl, Christoph (7 August 2020). "Ship Cited in Beirut Blast Hasn't Sailed in 7 Years. We Found It". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  33. ^ "Ammonium nitrate sold by ton as U.S. regulation is stymied". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on 28 February 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  34. ^ "العقيد جوزيف سكاف طالب بإبعاد الحمولة عن مرفأ بيروت نظراً لخطورتها". Lebanon Times (in Arabic). 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  35. ^ a b c El Deeb, Sarah; Mroue, Bassem (6 August 2020). "In a horrific instant, a burst of power that ravaged Beirut". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  36. ^ a b "Beirut explosion: What we know so far". BBC News. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  37. ^ "Fireworks were stored in same Beirut warehouse as ammonium nitrate – report". The Times of Israel. 8 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  38. ^ a b c Azhari, Timour (August 2020). "How Beirut firefighters were sent into disaster". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  39. ^ a b Kohnavard, Nafiseh (16 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: The story of Platoon Five". BBC News. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Hubbard, Ben; Abi-Habib, Maria (5 August 2020). "Deadly Explosions Shatter Beirut, Lebanon". New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  41. ^ Qiblawi, Tamara; Mankarious, Sarah-Grace; Thompson, Nick (6 August 2020). "From sea to mountain: How a massive explosion left a trail of destruction across Beirut and beyond". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020. The first explosion at 6:07 p.m. is followed by a second massive blast 33 seconds later.
  42. ^ Hill, Evan; Cooper, Stella; Triebert, Christiaan; Koettl, Christoph; Jordan, Drew; Khavin, Dmitriy; Ismay, John (5 August 2020). "What Footage of the Beirut Explosion Tells Us About the Blast". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  43. ^ Khoury, Jack; Landau, Noa (4 August 2020). "Massive Beirut Port Blast Kills Over 100, Leaves Thousands Wounded". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  44. ^ a b c "M 3.3 Explosion – 1 km ENE of Beirut, Lebanon". Earthquake Hazards Program. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  45. ^ Bressan, David. "Beirut Explosion Generates Seismic Waves Equivalent Of A Magnitude 3.3 Earthquake". Forbes. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  46. ^ a b c Nasrallah, Hadi; Rose, Sunniva (4 August 2020). "Many injured as large blast rocks Beirut". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  47. ^ "Beirut explosion updates: Massive blast rocks Lebanese capital". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  48. ^ "Like an earthquake': Huge explosion rips through Beirut captured on video". Hindustan Times. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  49. ^ "Here's what the videos of the Beirut blast tell us about the explosion". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  50. ^ Pickrell, Ryan. "Shocking videos capture massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  51. ^ "What is ammonium nitrate and what happens when it explodes?". 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  52. ^ "Satellite Images Show Aftermath Of Beirut Blast". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  53. ^ "Beirut explosion rocks Lebanon's capital city". CNN. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  54. ^ Qiblawi, Tamara. "Beirut's residents describe apocalyptic scenes after explosion rocks city". CNN. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  55. ^ "Devastating: the terrible aftermath of the Beirut explosion". Arab News. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  56. ^ "Beirut explosion causes strong shock waves - Infrasonic, hydroacoustic and seismic signals registered and investigated by BGR". 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  57. ^ "Beirut explosion 'one of the largest non-nuclear blasts in history'". Evening Standard. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  58. ^ "Port officials under house arrest after Beirut blast". BBC News. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  59. ^ Rigby, S. E.; Lodge, T. J.; Alotaibi, S.; Barr, A. D.; Clarke, S. D.; Langdon, G. S.; Tyas, A. (22 September 2020). "Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media". Shock Waves. 30 (6): 671–675. Bibcode:2020ShWav..30..671R. doi:10.1007/s00193-020-00970-z. ISSN 1432-2153.
  60. ^ Amos, Jonathan; Rincon, Paul (5 October 2020). "Beirut blast was 'historically' powerful". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  61. ^ Diaz, Jorge (2021). "Explosion analysis from images: Trinity and Beirut". European Journal of Physics. 42 (3): 035803. arXiv:2009.05674. Bibcode:2021EJPh...42c5803D. doi:10.1088/1361-6404/abe131. S2CID 221655034.
  62. ^ "What we know about the massive chemical explosion in Beirut". Ars Technica. 5 May 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  63. ^ "Expert reaction to Beirut explosion". 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  64. ^ Ruffman, Alan; Howell, Colin D (1994). Ground Zero: A Reassessment of the 1917 Explosion in Halifax Harbour. Halifax, N.S.: Co-published by Nimbus Pub. and Gorsebrook Research Institute for Atlantic Canada Studies at Saint Mary's University. p. 276. ISBN 1-55109-095-3. OCLC 31518913. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  65. ^ "BGR/Seismologie/Erdbeben Aktuell". www.seismologie.bgr.de. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  66. ^ "Massive blast in Beirut kills at least 10, sending shockwaves across city". Reuters. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  67. ^ "Lebanon: Beirut Explosion. Hazardous materials found at port (Imagery post event)" (PDF). ReliefWeb. 13 August 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  68. ^ "Lebanese Army Just Found Over 4 Tons Of Explosive Material Near Beirut Port". the961.com. 4 September 2020. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  69. ^ Gadzo, Mersiha (4 August 2020). "Dozens killed, thousands wounded in Beirut blast: Live updates". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  70. ^ Ismay, John (5 August 2020). "What Is Ammonium Nitrate, Blamed in the Beirut Explosion?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  71. ^ Urbina, Ian (9 August 2020) Murky world of international shipping behind explosion in Beirut Archived 29 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Irish Times
  72. ^ Cookman, Liz (5 August 2020). "What caused the Beirut explosion? Everything we know so far". The National. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  73. ^ Rai, Arpan (5 August 2020). "Beirut blast: Warnings of 'extreme danger' ignored by Lebanon officials about stored ammonium nitrate". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  74. ^ "Beirut explosion: former port worker says fireworks stored in hangar". The Guardian. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  75. ^ "U.S. Contractor Knew of Explosive Material in Beirut Since at Least 2016". The New York Times. 11 August 2020. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  76. ^ Al Faour, Nadia (10 August 2020). "Hangar 12: fireworks were stored next to ammonium nitrate in Beirut warehouse, former workers say". The National. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  77. ^ "Beirut port blast death toll rises to 190". Reuters. 30 August 2020. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  78. ^ "6 months later, Beirut blast still sends shock waves through Lebanese communities". 4 February 2021. Retrieved 29 April 2021 – via www.care.org.
  79. ^ "At least 43 Syrians among people killed in Beirut blast: Al Mayadeen". Reuters. 8 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  80. ^ "Number of Armenians killed in Beirut explosion climbs to 13". news.am. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  81. ^ "Missing Bangladeshi worker found dead in Beirut hospital". New Age (Bangladesh). 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  82. ^ "Filipinos killed in Beirut blast rises to 4 while 31 injured". Yahoo! News. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  83. ^ "Three Egyptians killed in Beirut explosion: Ministry". Egypttoday. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  84. ^ "Egypt repatriates bodies of three nationals killed in Beirut blast – Politics – Egypt". Ahram Online. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  85. ^ "Two Palestinian refugees succumb to wounds sustained in Beirut explosion". WAFA Agency. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  86. ^ "Second Belgian death confirmed in Beirut explosion". The Brussels Times. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  87. ^ "2 Canadians among those killed in Beirut explosion: Trudeau". Global News. 14 August 2020. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  88. ^ "German diplomat killed in Beirut blast". thelocal.de. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  89. ^ "They were laid off and far from home. Now an explosion in Beirut has left them even more vulnerable". CNN. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  90. ^ a b "One French Death, 24 Injured After Beirut Blast". 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
  91. ^ "Esplosione Beirut, Farnesina: morta una cittadina italiana". la Repubblica. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  92. ^ Tillett, Andrew (5 August 2020). "One Australian killed, embassy damaged in Beirut blast". Australian Financial Review. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  93. ^ a b c "1 Pakistani child died 4 in critical condition in Beirut blast". Daily Times. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  94. ^ "1 American among 135 dead in massive Beirut explosion, officials say". Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  95. ^ "Εκρήξεις στη Βηρυτό: Μια Ελληνίδα πολίτης νεκρή και δύο τραυματίες". news247.gr (in Greek). 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  96. ^ "Echtgenote van Nederlandse ambassadeur in Beiroet overleden als gevolg van explosie". Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  97. ^ "11 more Filipinos injured in Beirut blast". Manila Standard. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  98. ^ "Fifteen Sri Lankans injured in Beirut blast". Dailynews.lk. 10 August 2020. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  99. ^ "Beirut, fonti Farnesina: morta italiana nell'esplosione". Rai News24 (in Italian). 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  100. ^ "Ethiopians among victims in the explosion in the Lebanese capital Beirut". borkena.com. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  101. ^ "Seven Jordanians Wounded in Beirut Blast – Foreign Ministry". Al Bawaba. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  102. ^ "Beyrut'taki patlamada 6 Türk vatandaşı yaralandı". Sözcü (in Turkish). 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  103. ^ a b "Wife of Dutch Ambassador Seriously Injured in Beirut Blast: Ministry". 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020 – via NYTimes.com.
  104. ^ "Dutch ambassador's wife seriously hurt in Beirut explosion; Dutch Royals send "heartfelt sympathy"". NL Times. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  105. ^ "Greece sends aid to Beirut as injuries of Greek nationals come to light". NEOS KOSMOS. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  106. ^ "Lebanon blast: Five Indians suffered minor injuries, says MEA". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  107. ^ "Five Sudanese injured in Beirut blast". Radio Dabanga. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  108. ^ "2 Belgian embassy employees suffer injuries in Beirut explosion". aninews.in. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  109. ^ "Beirut Explosion: Kenyans in Lebanon Recount Harrowing Experience". Mwakilishi.com. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  110. ^ Sidhoum, Samira. "Beirut blast: Two Algerians slightly injured". Algeria Press Service. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  111. ^ "Beirut explosion: Missing Nigerian woman Ayobami found in hospital". P.M. News. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  112. ^ "Lebanon's capital city rocked by explosion". CNN. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  113. ^ Moch. Fiqih Prawira Adjie (5 August 2020). "Ministry says one Indonesian injured in Lebanon blasts". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  114. ^ Aidana Yergaliyeva (5 August 2020). "Kazakh Citizens Stay Safe After Beirut Blast, Embassy to Be Restored, Says Kazakh FM". Astana Times. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  115. ^ Nguyen, Hannah (5 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: One Vietnamese citizen injured". Vietnam Times. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  116. ^ "Moroccan Woman Among Injured in Beirut Explosion". Morocco World News. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  117. ^ a b "Beirut blast: 4 Bangladeshis killed, 21 Bangladesh Navy crew injured". Dhaka Tribune. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  118. ^ a b c "Lebanon: UN 'actively assisting' in response to huge explosions at Beirut port". UN News. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  119. ^ a b "Horrific explosion rocks Beirut port". Offshore Energy. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  120. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Beirut blast death toll includes dozens of refugees, emergency response ramps up". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  121. ^ "Scarred for life: Beirut blast victims and life-altering wounds". Al Jazeera. 25 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 August 2020. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  122. ^ "Live updates: Lebanese capital rocked by huge explosion". CNN. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  123. ^ "L'architecte français Jean-Marc Bonfils est décédé lors des explosions à Beyrouth". L'Obs. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  124. ^ "Jean-Marc Bonfils ... killed by the love of Beirut". 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  125. ^ "Lady Cochrane, disparition d'une icône". L'Orient-Le Jour (in French). 31 August 2020. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  126. ^ "Libano: morta filantropa Yvonne Sursock Cochrane coinvolta in esplosione Beirut". Agenzia Nova (in Italian). 31 August 2020. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  127. ^ a b "Industrial accident in Lebanon – Activations – International Disasters Charter". disasterscharter.org. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  128. ^ "Satellite Image Shows Beirut Explosion Devastation". Forbes. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  129. ^ "The Beirut explosion created a 405-foot-wide crater". CNN. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  130. ^ "Beirut explosion leaves 43-meter deep crater: Security official". Al Arabiya English. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  131. ^ Loris Guémart (7 September 2020). "Le cratère de Beyrouth ne fait pas 43 m de profondeur". Arrêt sur images (in French). Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  132. ^ a b c d "Lebanon eyes state of emergency after deadly Beirut blast: Live". Al Jazeera English. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  133. ^ a b c Allahoum, Ted Regencia, Linah Alsaafin, Ramy. "'Endemic corruption' caused Beirut blast, says Diab: Live updates". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  134. ^ "Lebanon's government 'to resign over blast'". BBC. 10 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  135. ^ Holmes, Oliver; Beaumont, Peter; Safi, Michael; Chulov, Martin (4 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: dead and wounded among 'hundreds of casualties', says Lebanon Red Cross – live updates". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  136. ^ Molana-Allen, Leila (1 July 2020). "Food insecurity hits middle class amid Lebanon's economic crisis". France 24. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  137. ^ Hussain, Noor Zainab; Cohn, Carolyn (7 August 2020). "Insured losses from Beirut blast seen around $3 billion: sources". reuters. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  138. ^ "90% of Beirut hotels damaged, state media says". CNN. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  139. ^ Singhvi, Anjali; Reinhard, Scott; McCann, Allison; Leatherby, Lauren; Migliozzi, Blacki (5 August 2020). "Mapping the Damage From the Beirut Explosion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  140. ^ Chulov, Martin; Safi, Michael (4 August 2020). "Lebanon: at least 78 killed as huge explosion rocks Beirut". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  141. ^ "Beirut after the blast: the crunch of glass, acrid smoke and stairs slick with blood". The Economist. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  142. ^ Ramzy, Austin (5 August 2020). "What We Know and Don't Know About the Beirut Explosions". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  143. ^ Bishara, Hakim (5 August 2020). "Deadly Explosion in Beirut Decimates Thousands of Buildings, Including Galleries and Museums". Hyperallergic. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  144. ^ "Lebanese Designer Sandra Mansour on the Beirut Explosion, One Week Later". Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  145. ^ a b "Blast destroyed landmark 19th century palace in Beirut". ABC News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  146. ^ "Armenian Catholicosate damaged in Beirut explosion". Public Radio of Armenia. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  147. ^ Chandler, Diana (5 August 2020). "Beirut blast prompts prayer from Messianic believers". The Baptist Messenger of Oklahoma. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  148. ^ Ramos, Gerry (6 August 2020). "SBP sends sympathy as FIBA Asia headquarters damaged in Lebanon blast". Sports Interactive Network Philippines. Archived from the original on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  149. ^ "La embajada argentina sufrió graves daños, pero sin heridos". Télam (in Spanish). 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  150. ^ Shelton, Tracey (5 August 2020). "Beirut explosion leaves Australian embassy 'considerably' damaged, one Australian dead". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  151. ^ "Report: Finnish Embassy in Beirut 'destroyed' by blast". News Now Finland. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  152. ^ "No S. Koreans Reported Killed or Injured in Beirut Explosions". KBS World RADIO. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  153. ^ "Hungary Embassy Damaged in Beirut Blast, No Hungarian Casualties Reported". Hungary Today. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  154. ^ a b "Мощный взрыв в Бейруте: масштабные разрушения, десятки погибших и тысячи пострадавших". BBC News Русская служба (in Russian). BBC News. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  155. ^ "Счупени са прозорци на посолството ни в Бейрут след взрив в района, няма данни за пострадали български граждани". Информационна Агенция "Фокус" (in Bulgarian). 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  156. ^ "Beirut explosion: Romanian embassy HQ slightly damaged". Romania Insider. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  157. ^ "Beyrut'taki patlamalarda 2 Türk vatandaşı yaralandı" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  158. ^ a b c Domballe, Jeremy (18 August 2020). "Update: The current situation in the port of Beirut, Lebanon". IHS Markit. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  159. ^ a b c "Orient Queen Sinks in Beirut, Two Crew Reported Dead". Cruise Industry News. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  160. ^ "Owner of cruise ship sunk by Lebanon blast sues 'those responsible'". euronews. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  161. ^ Beirut explosion: cruise ship owner sues "those responsible", as more protests loom Archived 8 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian
  162. ^ "European Navies Providing Disaster Relief To Beirut". Naval News. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  163. ^ "حجم خسارت انفجار مهیب در بندر بیروت". خبرگزاری مهر | اخبار ایران و جهان | Mehr News Agency. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  164. ^ Dadouch, Sarah (11 August 2020). "At Beirut's shattered port, a crater more than 15 yards deep and small signs of previous lives". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  165. ^ "Beirut explosion 149 killed, more than 5000 injured". Report News Agency. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  166. ^ "AMADEO II". Marine Traffic. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  167. ^ "Lebanese army finds more explosive chemicals outside Beirut port after huge blast". Reuters. 3 September 2020. Archived from the original on 3 October 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  168. ^ Voychenko, Mikhail (4 August 2020). "Beirut port explosion mystery solved? UPDATES: 3 ships disappeared. VIDEO". Fleetmon. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  169. ^ Ovcina, Jasmina. "Hapag-Lloyd's Beirut office completely destroyed, staff safe". Offshore Energy. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  170. ^ "Beirut Explosions: The CMA CGM Group expresses deepest emotion and solidarity towards its on-site staff and all of the Lebanese people". CMA-CGM. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020.
  171. ^ "Shipping Group CMA CGM Says Missing Beirut Staff Member Died". 6 August 2020 – via NYTimes.com.[dead link]
  172. ^ "Beirut airport damaged in explosion, but flights continue". The National. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  173. ^ Perton, Ted (6 August 2020). "Beirut Airport Continues Operation Despite Heavy Damage". SamChui. Archived from the original on 17 October 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  174. ^ Azhari, Timour (6 August 2020). "Lebanese officials deflect blame as anger grows over Beirut blast". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  175. ^ Georgy, Michael; Francis, Ellen (7 August 2020). "Lebanon sees possible 'external interference' in port blast". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  176. ^ "Lebanon president rejects calls for international blast probe". Arab News. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  177. ^ "Lebanon to place Beirut port officials under house arrest: sources". Reuters. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  178. ^ "Beirut port manager among 16 held in blast probe, judicial source says". Reuters. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  179. ^ "Beirut Port Manager & 15 Others Were Just Arrested". the961.com. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  180. ^ "Lebanese customs chief arrested over Beirut blast". CTV News. 17 August 2020. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  181. ^ a b Khraiche, Dana; Diab, Youssef (17 August 2020). "Beirut Blast Probe Opens With Arrest Order for Port Customs Head". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  182. ^ "Beirut port manager among 16 held in blast probe, judicial source says". abc.net. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  183. ^ "Lebanon judiciary can handle Beirut explosion probe: Minister". Al Jazeera. 12 August 2020. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  184. ^ Khodr, Zeina. "Lebanon judge orders more arrests over Beirut explosion". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
  185. ^ "Little-known Lebanese judge Fadi Sawan leads probe into Beirut blast". The National. 23 August 2020. Archived from the original on 24 August 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  186. ^ "Beirut Blast: Investigations with former and current ministers". shafaaq.com. 13 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  187. ^ "Beirut emergency law sparks fears of army crackdown". Arab News. 13 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  188. ^ "Lebanon Asks Interpol to Arrest Russian Ship Captain, Owner Over Port Explosion". U.S.News. Reuters. 1 October 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  189. ^ "About Notices". Lyon, France: Interpol. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  190. ^ "Interpol issues notices over Lebanon's massive port blast". ABC News. Associated Press. 12 January 2021. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  191. ^ Beirut port explosion prosecutor charges Lebanon's outgoing Prime Minister Hassan Diab, three ex-ministers with negligence
  192. ^ Reuters Staff (28 January 2021). "Syrian businessman Haswani denies links to Beirut blast chemicals" – via www.reuters.com.
  193. ^ "Judge orders release of 6 detained over Lebanon port blast". Arab News. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  194. ^ Osseiran, Nazih; Malsin, Jared (4 August 2020). "Beirut Explosion Caused by Fire Kills Dozens, Injures Thousands". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  195. ^ Carbel Mallo (4 August 2020). "Hundreds reported missing by family members, Health Minister says". CNN. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  196. ^ @careemleb (4 August 2020). "URGENT: All blood types needed in all hospitals and blood donation centers in Beirut. Use promocode DONATEBLOOD for a free ride to and from the hospital or the blood donations center" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020 – via Twitter.
  197. ^ "Beirut blast: Lebanese volunteers band together to clean up, help residents". The Straits Times. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  198. ^ "Iran's Red Crescent Erects Field Hospital in Lebanon". Iran Front Page. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  199. ^
  200. ^ Devi, Sharmila (August 2020). "Lebanon faces humanitarian emergency after blast". The Lancet. 396 (10249): 456. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31750-5. PMC 7426079. PMID 32798477.
  201. ^ Azhari, Timour. "Lebanon aid summit raises $300m to be given 'directly' to people". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  202. ^ "FBI team arrives this weekend to take part in Beirut probe". CBS News. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
  203. ^ Dadouch, Sarah. "They return to homes damaged in Beirut's blast to discover someone has already cleaned them". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  204. ^ "Der "Beirut Blast" und "Blue Helmet – Blue Shield"" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  205. ^ "Unesco, Icom and Louvre rally to help Beirut as museums tackle extensive explosion damage". www.theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  206. ^ "UN peacekeepers in partnership with the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) and Blue Shield International in Lebanon". Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  207. ^ ""Beirut: Habsburg koordiniert Kulturgüterschutz" (German: Beirut - Habsburg coordinates the protection of cultural property)". Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  208. ^ "UNIFIL concludes heritage protection mission in Beirut". Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  209. ^ "UNESCO: Beirut blast damaged 160 schools; 85,000 students unable to attend classes". Middle East Monitor. 27 August 2020. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  210. ^ "Lebanon's Prime Minister Hassan Diab declares national day of mourning Wednesday, after Beirut blast". The Daily Star. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  211. ^ "Lebanon Declares 2-Week State of Emergency After Deadly Blast". VOA News. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  212. ^ Cheeseman, Abbie; Suliman, Adela; Mulligan, Matthew (4 August 2020). "Massive explosion rocks Beirut, causing injuries and widespread damage". NBC News. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  213. ^ "Beirut blast: Lebanon's young helping the country's most desperate". Archived from the original on 14 October 2020. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  214. ^ "Beirut blasts: Lebanese MP Marwan Hamadeh resigns, says 'government ineffective'". Al Arabiya English. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  215. ^ a b c "Police fire tear gas to break up Beirut protest: Live updates". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  216. ^ a b Najjar, Ted Regencia, Arwa Ibrahim, Farah. "Second day of protests as anger over Beirut explosion grows: Live". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  217. ^ "Lebanese government on verge of collapse after 3 ministers, 8 MPs resign". Al Arabiya English. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  218. ^ "Lebanon's ambassador to Jordan resigns on live TV, cites rampant corruption". Al Arabiya English. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  219. ^ a b Allahoum, Ted Regencia, Arwa Ibrahim, Ramy. "LIVE: France's Macron says Lebanon aid won't go to the 'corrupt'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  220. ^ "Anti-government protests break out in Beirut". BBC. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  221. ^ Najjar, Ted Regencia, Arwa Ibrahim, Farah. "Second day of protests as anger over Beirut explosion grows: Live". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  222. ^ Hubbard, Ben; El-Naggar, Mona (8 August 2020). "Clashes Erupt in Beirut at Blast Protest as Lebanon's Anger Boils Over". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  223. ^ Ben Wedeman; Luna Safwan; Ghazi Balkiz; Tamara Qiblawi. "Lebanon protesters storm ministries as violent protests grip Beirut". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  224. ^ "Lebanon information minister quits in first cabinet resignation". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  225. ^ Regencia, Ted; Ibrahim, Arwa; Najja, Farah (9 August 2020). "Second day of protests as anger over Beirut explosion grows: Live". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  226. ^ "Lebanese cabinet resigns amid political fallout from Beirut explosion". Haaretz.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  227. ^ "Beirut blast: Lebanese government resigns over explosion". euronews. 10 August 2020. Archived from the original on 1 September 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  228. ^ "Lebanese PM steps down in wake of Beirut explosion, protests". AP NEWS. 10 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  229. ^ "Lebanon's president accepts gov't resignation after Beirut blast". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  230. ^ "UNIFIL statement on the explosion in Beirut". UNIFIL. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  231. ^ "Storm in a teacup: Lebanon's president and 1,675 kilos of finest Ceylon brew". Arab News. 24 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  232. ^ "Beirut explosion: Trouble brewing for Lebanon's president after Sri Lankan tea gift". Middle East Eye. 9 September 2020. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  233. ^ "Iraq Is Sending More Than 13,000 Tons Of Wheat To Lebanon". The961. August 2020. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  234. ^ "7,000 Tons Of Iraqi Donated Flour Were Just Found Poorly Stored & Damaged In Beirut Stadium". The961. 6 November 2020. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  235. ^ "'Stay strong, Lebanon': Global support over deadly Beirut blast". Al Jazeera English. 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  236. ^ "Israel not behind Beirut blast, sources on both sides say; at least 10 killed". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  237. ^ "Why Israel Is Probably Not Responsible For The Beirut Explosion". Forbes. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  238. ^ "Lübnan'ın başkenti Beyrut'ta patlama" (in Turkish). Anadolu Agency. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  239. ^ Boxerman, Aaron (4 August 2020). "Israeli involvement in massive Beirut port blast ruled out by both sides". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  240. ^ "Die explosive Spur führt zur Hisbollah". Die Welt (in German). 19 August 2020. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  241. ^ "US accuses Hezbollah of stockpiling weapons and ammonium nitrate across Europe". The Guardian. 17 September 2020. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  242. ^ a b Peleg, Bar (5 August 2020). "Tel Aviv Shows Solidarity With Lebanon, Drawing Right-wing Ire". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  243. ^ McMullan, Ross (7 August 2020). "Having lived in Lebanon, I am shocked at this explosion tragedy in a nation I came to love". The News Letter. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  244. ^ Chawla, Medha (5 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: Burj Khalifa and Giza Pyramids light up in solidarity with the victims". India Today. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  245. ^ "تعبيراً عن تضامنها.. علم لبنان يضيء معالم السعودية والإمارات". Okaz (in Arabic). 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  246. ^ Al Mulla, Yasmena (6 August 2020). "Kuwait sends 36 tonnes of medical aid to Beirut after horrific explosion". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  247. ^ Bandler, Aaron (6 August 2020). "L.A. City Hall Lit Up With Lebanese Flag to Show Support Over Beirut Blast". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  248. ^ "In a show of solidarity, Palestine Broadcasting Corporation building in Ramallah lit with the Lebanese flag". Palestinian News & Information Agency. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  249. ^ "Sydney Opera House lights up with Lebanese cedar in solidarity with Beirut". SBS News. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  250. ^ Aali, Fatemeh (5 August 2020). "Lebanon's flag projected on Azadi Tower as sign of solidarity". Mehr News Agency. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  251. ^ "Parliament, City Hall Buildings in Yerevan Lit Up in Solidarity with Lebanon". Asbarez. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  252. ^ Sedgwick, Justin (6 August 2020). "Eiffel Tower in Paris goes dark in show of solidarity with Beirut after massive explosion". FOX 5. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  253. ^ "الجامعة العربية تنكس علمها حدادا على ضحايا انفجار بيروت". masrawy.com (in Arabic). 5 August 2020. Archived from the original on 27 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  254. ^ "'We'll light up Tel Aviv ... with our rockets': Lebanese rebuff Israeli solidarity". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  255. ^ Giles, Christopher; Menon, Shruti; Ali, Zulfiqar (21 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: Where else is ammonium nitrate being stored?". BBC News (BBC Reality Check). Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  256. ^ "Senegal to Move 3,000 Tons of Explosive Chemical From Port". Bloomberg.com. 29 August 2020. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  257. ^ Taylor, Adam. "After Beirut, ports around the world searched for dangerous chemicals. Some didn't like what they found. ce". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 6 September 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  258. ^ "Iraq clears ports of 'hazardous materials' following Beirut blast". Middle East Monitor. 7 August 2020. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  259. ^ "To avoid Beirut's scenario, Iraq evacuates hazardous material from Umm Qasr port". shafaaq.com. 2 September 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2020.

External links[edit]