2020 Beirut explosion

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2020 Beirut explosion
Damages after 2020 Beirut explosions 1.jpg
Aftermath of the explosion, with the destroyed grain silos to the left and the flooded blast crater to the right
Date4 August 2020 (2020-08-04)
Time18:08:18 EEST (15:08:18 UTC)
VenuePort of Beirut
LocationBeirut, Lebanon
Coordinates33°54′05″N 35°31′08″E / 33.90139°N 35.51889°E / 33.90139; 35.51889Coordinates: 33°54′05″N 35°31′08″E / 33.90139°N 35.51889°E / 33.90139; 35.51889
TypeAmmonium nitrate explosion
CauseFire
Deaths200
Non-fatal injuries6,500+
Missing3
Property damageUS$15+ billion
Displaced~300,000

On 4 August 2020, a large amount of ammonium nitrate stored at the port of the city of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon, exploded, causing at least 200 deaths, 3 reported missing, 6,500 injuries, US$10–15 billion in property damage, and leaving an estimated 300,000 people homeless.[1][2] Around 2,750 tonnes of the substance (equivalent to around 1.1 kilotons of TNT) had been stored in a warehouse without proper safety measures for the previous six years, after having been confiscated by the Lebanese authorities from the abandoned ship MV Rhosus. The explosion was preceded by a fire in the same warehouse, but as of September 2020, the exact cause of the detonation is still under investigation.

The explosion was felt in Turkey, Syria, Israel, Palestine and parts of Europe, and was heard in Cyprus, more than 250 km (160 mi) away.[3][4] It was detected by the United States Geological Survey as a seismic event of magnitude 3.3, and is considered one of the most powerful non-nuclear explosions in history.[5]

The Lebanese government declared a two-week state of emergency in response to the disaster. In its aftermath, protests erupted across Lebanon against the government for their failure to prevent the disaster, joining a larger series of protests which have been taking place in the country since 2019.[6][7][8] On 10 August 2020, Prime Minister Hassan Diab and the Lebanese cabinet resigned due to mounting political pressure exacerbated by the event.

Background[edit]

The explosion occurred behind the grain silos in this view.

The economy of Lebanon was in a state of crisis before the explosions, with the government having defaulted on debt, the pound plunging, and a poverty rate that had risen past 50%.[9] In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic had overwhelmed many of the country's hospitals, several of which already were short of medical supplies and unable to pay staff due to a financial crisis.[10] The morning before the explosion, the head of the Rafik Hariri University Hospital, which served as the main coronavirus medical facility in Lebanon, warned that it was approaching full capacity.[11][12]

The government-owned Port of Beirut serves as the main maritime entry point into Lebanon and a vital piece of infrastructure for the importation of scarce goods.[13][14] The Beirut Naval Base is a part of the port.[14] The port included four basins, sixteen quays, twelve warehouses,[14] a large container terminal,[15] and grain silos with a total capacity of 120,000 tonnes that served as a strategic reserve of cereals for the country. The silos were built in the 1960s as part of an expansion plan advanced by Palestinian banker Yousef Beidas.[16]

MV Rhosus[edit]

On 27 September 2013, the Moldovan-flagged cargo ship MV Rhosus set sail from Batumi, Georgia, to Beira, Mozambique, carrying 2,750 tonnes (3,030 short tons) of ammonium nitrate.[17][18][19][20][21] Rhosus was owned by a company based in Panama but was regarded by the captain as under the de facto ownership of Russian businessman Igor Grechushkin.[22] The shipment had been ordered by an African explosives manufacturing company for mining in Mozambique.[23] However, reporting by Der Spiegel has found that it was not Russian national Grechushkin who owned the Rhosus, but rather the Cypriot businessman Charalambos Manoli, who maintained a relationship with the bank used by Hezbollah in Lebanon.[24] On 21 November 2013, the ship made port in Beirut.[25][19][20] Some sources said it was forced to port due to mechanical issues and possibly engine problems,[26][25] while other sources claimed the owner did not have sufficient funds to pay tolls for the Suez Canal and attempted to take on a shipment of heavy machinery in Beirut.[27][28] The heavy machinery was stacked on top of the doors to the cargo space containing the ammonium nitrate, causing the doors to buckle, which damaged the ship.[29] After inspection by port state control, the Rhosus was deemed unseaworthy, and was forbidden to set sail.[25][26] Eight Ukrainians and one or two Russians were aboard, and with the help of the Ukrainian consul, five Ukrainians were repatriated[when?], leaving four crew members to care for the ship.[30][31]

The port of Beirut in 2017, with Rhosus moored on the right. Abandoned livestock carriers Abou Karim I and Abou Karim III, both severely damaged in the explosions, are in the center, the latter largely obscuring the former.
The Port of Beirut eleven days after the disaster. The French amphibious assault ship Tonnerre is the large ship on the right, which arrived in the port on 13 August to provide food, construction materials, medical supplies, and personnel.[32]

Grechushkin went bankrupt,[a] and after the charterers lost interest in the cargo, he abandoned the ship.[30] The Rhosus soon ran out of provisions, and the remaining crew were unable to disembark due to immigration restrictions.[17] Creditors also obtained three arrest warrants against the ship.[17][30] According to Lloyd's List, the Beirut port authority seized the ship on 4 February 2014, due to US$100,000 in unpaid bills.[33] The ship had accrued port fees and been fined for refusing cargo.[34][29] Lawyers argued for the crew's repatriation on compassionate grounds, because of the danger posed by the cargo still aboard the ship, and an Urgent Matters judge in Beirut allowed them to return home. They had been forced to live aboard the ship for about a year.[17][30]

By order of the judge, the cargo was brought ashore in 2014 and placed in Warehouse 12 at the port,[35] where it remained for the next six years.[17][18][25][36] The MV Rhosus sank in the harbour in February 2018.[37]

Customs officials had sent letters to judges requesting a resolution to the issue of the confiscated cargo, proposing that the ammonium nitrate be either exported, given to the army, or sold to the private Lebanese Explosives Company.[b][18] Letters had been sent on 27 June and 5 December 2014, 6 May 2015, 20 May and 13 October 2016, and 27 October 2017.[18][39] One of the letters sent in 2016 noted that judges had not replied to previous requests, and "pleaded":[18]

In view of the serious danger of keeping these goods in the hangar in unsuitable climatic conditions, we reaffirm our request to please request the marine agency to re-export these goods immediately to preserve the safety of the port and those working in it, or to look into agreeing to sell this amount ...

Explosion[edit]

Red smoke over Lebanon on the evening of the explosion. Video from eyewitness livestream.
External video
4K footage of Lebanon explosion shows Beirut Port blast unfolding in slow motion, Al Arabiya

On the afternoon of 4 August 2020, a fire broke out in Warehouse 12 at the Port of Beirut.[40] Warehouse 12 was waterside and next to the grain silos; the warehouse stored the ammonium nitrate that had been confiscated from MV Rhosus, alongside a "stash" of fireworks.[40][41][42] Around 17:55 local time (14:55 UTC), a team of nine firefighters and one paramedic, known as Platoon 5, was dispatched to fight the fire.[42][43] On arrival the fire crew reported there was "something wrong" as the fire was huge and produced "a crazy sound".[42]

The first explosion, at about 18:07 local time (15:07 UTC), sent up a cloud of smoke followed by flashes of light from the stored fireworks.[40][44][45] The second explosion, 33 to 35 seconds later, was much more substantial.[46][47][48][49][45] It rocked central Beirut and sent a red-orange cloud into the air, which was briefly surrounded by a white condensation cloud.[50][51] The orange-red colour of the smoke was caused by nitrogen dioxide, a byproduct of ammonium nitrate decomposition.[52] The second explosion was felt in northern Israel and in Cyprus, 240 kilometers (150 miles) away.[53][54]

Despite inefficient transmission of the shock waves into the ground,[c] the United States Geological Survey measured the event as a 3.3 local magnitude earthquake,[55][56][49] while the Jordan Seismological Observatory reported that it was equivalent to a 4.5 local magnitude earthquake.[57] Specialists from the University of Sheffield estimated that the explosion was one of the biggest non-nuclear explosions in history.[58] The Beirut explosion was similar to explosions of large amounts of ammonium nitrate in Tianjin, China, in 2015; in Texas City, United States, in 1947; or in Toulouse, France in 2001.[59][60][d]

By the next morning, the main fire that led to the explosion had been extinguished.[62]

Cause[edit]

Warehouses in the port were used to store explosives and chemicals including nitrates, common components of fertilizers and explosives.[63][e] The General Director of General Security, Major General Abbas Ibrahim, said the ammonium nitrate confiscated from Rhosus had exploded.[66][26] The 2,750 tonnes (3,030 short tons) of ammonium nitrate was the equivalent to around 1,155 tonnes of TNT (4,830 gigajoules).[67] An independent estimate by the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization based on infrasonic data obtained an explosive yield equivalent to 0.5–1.1 kT of TNT.[68]

The Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation International said that, according to attendees of a Higher Defence Council briefing, the fire was ignited by workers welding a door at a warehouse.[69][70] A former port worker said that "[t]here were 30 to 40 nylon bags of fireworks inside warehouse 12" that he had personally seen.[71] An American diplomatic cable on 7 August said it "remains unclear ... whether fireworks, ammunition or something else stored next to the ammonium nitrate might have been involved" in worsening the warehouse fire and igniting the ammonium nitrate.[72] A port worker said Warehouse 12 was "not in regular use", and that "those in charge only used to open the warehouse to stack inside it materials confiscated upon judicial orders or perilous products", though he had not seen this to include any armaments.[73]

Casualties[edit]

200 people were confirmed dead (with an additional three missing), and more than 6,500 people were injured.[74][75] Foreigners from at least 22 countries were among the casualties.[h] Furthermore, at least 108 Bangladeshi nationals were injured in the blasts, becoming the most affected foreign community.[90] Also, several United Nations naval peacekeepers who were members of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) were injured by the blast.[114][115][116] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 34 refugees were among the dead and missing, and an additional 124 refugees were injured.[117] At least 150 people became permanently disabled as a result of the explosion.[118]

All ten members of Platoon 5 died at the scene of the blast.[43] Nazar Najarian, the secretary-general of the Kataeb Party, died after suffering severe head injuries.[119] French architect Jean-Marc Bonfils died after suffering serious injuries at his apartment in the East Village building in Mar Mikhaël. He had been live-streaming the fire at the warehouse on Facebook at the time.[120][121] Lady Cochrane Sursock, philanthropist and matriarch of the Sursock family, died on 31 August due to injuries sustained from the blast.[122][123]

Damage[edit]

S. Dagher Building, located opposite the port's free zone entrance, suffered extensive damage
The Port of Beirut as seen from the International Space Station a week after the disaster, with inset an enlarged view of the explosion crater (top left)
External image
Detailed 0.5 m satellite imagery of explosion aftermath captured by Pleiades-1B on 5 August 2020.[124]

The explosion overturned cars and stripped steel-framed buildings of their cladding.[4] Within the port area, the explosion destroyed a section of shoreline and left a crater roughly 124 m (407 ft) in diameter and 43 m (141 ft) in depth.[125][126][127][128] Homes as far as 10 kilometers (6 miles) away were damaged by the blast,[9] and up to 300,000 people were left homeless by the explosion.[129] The grain silos were largely destroyed,[130] exacerbating food shortages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and a severe financial crisis.[131] About 15,000 tonnes (14,800 long tons; 16,500 short tons) of grain were lost, leaving the country with less than a month's worth of grain in reserve.[129] However, part of the silos' sturdy structure survived, shielding a large area of western Beirut from greater destruction.[16]

The damage from the blast affected over half of Beirut, with the likely cost above $15 billion and insured losses at around $3 billion.[132] Approximately ninety percent of the hotels in the city were damaged and three hospitals completely destroyed, while two more suffered damage.[129][133] Dozens of injured people brought to nearby hospitals could not be admitted because of the damage to the hospitals. Windows and other installations of glass across the city were shattered.[134]

Saint George Hospital, one of the city's largest medical facilities, was less than 1 kilometer (58 mile) from the explosion, and was so badly damaged that staff were forced to treat patients in the street.[45][135] Four nurses died from the initial blast, fifteen patients died after their ventilators stopped working, and several child cancer patients were injured by flying glass.[136][45][35] Within hours, after discharging all its patients, and sending some to other facilities, Saint George Hospital was forced to close.[137] The hospital's director of intensive care, Dr. Joseph Haddad, was quoted as saying: "There is no St. George Hospital any more. It's fallen, it's on the floor ... It's all destroyed. All of it."[45]

The Sursock Museum was severely damaged, as were many of its artworks, and some ceramics were completely destroyed.[138] Sursock Palace, a 160-year-old Beirut landmark that was listed as a cultural heritage site, also sustained heavy damage, as did its many artworks.[139][i] The Armenian Catholicosate in Antelias sustained great damage.[140] All the stained glass windows of the National Evangelical Church were blown out.[141] The FIBA Asia headquarters was also heavily damaged.[142] Embassies in and around Beirut reported varying degrees of damage to their buildings; the embassies of Argentina,[143] Australia,[144] Finland,[145] Cyprus,[129] and the Netherlands,[100] which were close to the blast, sustained heavy damage, while minor damage was reported from the South Korean,[146] Hungarian,[147] Kazakh,[148] Russian,[148] Bulgarian,[149] Romanian,[150] and Turkish[151] embassies.

Shipping[edit]

The cruise ship Orient Queen, berthed nearby, suffered extensive damage. Two members of the crew were killed,[152] and seven crew members were injured.[153][154][155] The ship capsized overnight.[156][152] On 7 August, the first lawsuit related to the explosions was filed by the ship's owners, Abou Merhi Cruises, whose offices were also destroyed.[157][152]

The Bangladesh Navy corvette BNS Bijoy, which participated in the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, was also damaged. The ship was very close to the site of the explosion.[114][115][158]

External image
Abou Karim I on its side next to Abou Karim III, near the blast crater The crater is the water-filled area in the left foreground.[159]

The livestock carrier Jouri was close to the epicentre.[160] The cargo ship Mero Star was severely damaged. The cargo ship Raouf H was closest to the site.[116] AIS from these ships stopped broadcasting at the time of the explosion.[160] The container ship CMA CGM Lyra was 1.5 kilometers (0.93 mi) from the site of the explosion and was undamaged.[161] Two large abandoned livestock carrier ships, Abou Karim I and Abou Karim III, were heavily damaged or destroyed in the explosions. They were laid up at the end of Berth 09, very close to Warehouse 12. In a photo of the aftermath, Abou Karim I, is unstable and keeling over onto the adjacent Abou Karim III. Shortly afterwards the Abou Karim I capsized.[162][better source needed][163][164] The edible-oil tanker ship Amadeo II was completely destroyed in the explosions. The charred remains of the ship could be seen lying on land.[165][166]

Hapag-Lloyd's offices in Beirut were destroyed.[167] CMA CGM's offices, located a few hundred meters away from the site of the explosion, were severely damaged. One employee died and two were severely injured.[168][169]

Airport[edit]

Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport, the city's main airport, about 10 km (6 mi) from the site of the blast, sustained moderate damage to the terminal buildings during the explosion.[170] Doors and windows were destroyed, and ceiling tiles were shaken loose by the shockwave, severing electrical wires. Despite the damage, flights continued.[171]

Investigation[edit]

The government formed an investigation committee led by Prime Minister Hassan Diab, which will submit its findings to the Council of Ministers of Lebanon by 11 August. The committee includes the justice, interior and defence ministers, and the head of the top four security agencies: the Army, General Security, Internal Security Forces, and State Security.[172] The investigation is to examine whether the explosion was an accident or due to negligence, and if it was caused by a bomb or another external interference.[173] President Aoun rejected calls for an international probe despite demands from world leaders.[174]

On 5 August, the Council agreed to place sixteen Beirut port officials who had overseen storage and security since 2014 under house arrest, overseen by the army, pending the investigation into the explosions.[175][176] In addition, the general manager of the port Hassan Koraytem and the former director general of Lebanon's customs authority Shafiq Merhi were arrested.[177] Later, on 17 August, the incumbent director-general of Lebanon's customs authority Badri Daher was also arrested. Also, former ministers of both finance and public works are due to be interrogated by a judge appointed by the Lebanon's High Judicial Council.[178][179] In the meantime, Lebanon's state prosecutor Ghassan Oueidat ordered a travel ban on seven individuals including Hassan Koraytem.[180] On 12 August, Lebanon's caretaker Justice Minister Marie-Claude Najm commented on the investigation by saying: "Much of the criticism is warranted due to the slow pace of work and some politicisation, but this case is a chance for the Lebanese judiciary to prove they can do their jobs and win back the confidence of the people".[181] On 19 August, a Lebanon judge ordered the arrests of more suspects over the explosion, making the total number of accused 25.[179][182]

Lebanese judge Fadi Sawan,[183] who has been responsible for the investigation, summoned former Minister of Transportation and Public Works Ghazi Aridi, Labor Ministers Ghazi Zaiter, Youssef Fenianos and Michel Najjar, General Director of the Lebanese State Security Tony Saliba, Director General of Lebanon's Land and Maritime Transport division, Abdul-Hafeez Al-Qaisi, and General Director of General Security, Major General Abbas Ibrahim.[184][185]

Relief operations[edit]

Humanitarian aid from the Iranian Red Crescent being sent to Lebanon two days after the disaster

The Lebanese Red Cross said every available ambulance from North Lebanon, Bekaa, and South Lebanon was being dispatched to Beirut to help patients.[45] According to the agency, a total of 75 ambulances and 375 medics were activated in response to the explosions.[186] Lebanese President Michel Aoun said the government would make up to 100 billion pounds (US$66 million) in aid available to support recovery operations.[4] The ride-sharing app Careem offered free rides to and from hospitals and blood donation centers to anyone willing to donate blood.[187][188] Volunteers removed debris while local business owners offered to repair damaged buildings for free in the absence of a state-sponsored cleanup operation.[189] A temporary hospital was established in the city by the Iranian Red Crescent Society.[190]

Health Minister Hamad Hasan requested that international aid be sent to Lebanon;[13] a number of countries sent in food, medical supplies, field hospitals, medical workers, and rescue teams.[191] A large number of countries collectively pledged approximately US$300 million in aid. The money pledged was not to be given to the Lebanese government, but rather to the people of Lebanon through the United Nations, other international organizations, and non-governmental organizations.[192] On 14 August, a $565 million appeal for Lebanon was launched by the United Nations, including initial recovery efforts, as well as immediate humanitarian aid.[193]

In the first week after the explosion, civilians gathered in hundreds to volunteer to clean up the debris on the streets and inside homes and businesses in Gemmayze, Achrafieh, and Karantina neighborhoods. Many civil society organizations offered equipment and food to the volunteers, while many residents and businesses opened their homes and hotels for free to those who lost their homes in the blast.[194]

UNESCO played a leading role in the rescue and reconstruction of historic buildings, with Blue Shield International assessing the damage to houses, museums and libraries, and the International Council of Museums providing expertise. The efforts also included the restoration of schools.[195][196][197][198]

Reactions[edit]

Domestic[edit]

Prime Minister Hassan Diab announced that 5 August, the day after the explosions, would be a national day of mourning.[199] The Lebanese government declared a two-week state of emergency.[200] President Aoun said the government would provide support to displaced people, and the Ministry of Health would meet the expense of treatment for the wounded.[201] Marwan Abboud, the governor of Beirut, said he arrived at the scene to search for firefighters who were on the site attempting to control the fire that was raging before the second explosion. He broke down in tears on television, calling the event "a national catastrophe".[45] Hezbollah launched a blood donation campaign on 5 August.[202]

Multiple members of the Lebanese parliament resigned in protest, including Marwan Hamadeh,[203] Paula Yacoubian,[204] all three Kataeb Party MPs,[204] Neemat Frem,[205] Michel Moawad,[205] Dima Jamali,[206] and Henri Helou.[1] The Lebanese ambassador to Jordan Tracy Chamoun also resigned.[207][208] On the night of 6 August, the protests against the government that had been ongoing since the previous October resumed, with dozens of protestors near the parliament building calling for the resignation of Lebanese government officials.[208][209] On 8 August, Diab called for early elections, saying it would be the only way for the country to exit the crisis.[204]

On 9 August, the information minister of Lebanon, Manal Abdel Samad and then environment minister, Damianos Kattar [ar; fr] resigned, the first government resignations since the explosion.[210][211] On 10 August, the justice minister, Marie-Claude Najm, also resigned, followed by the resignation of the entire Lebanese cabinet.[1][212][213] Shortly after the resignation of the cabinet, Lebanese Prime Minister Hassan Diab stepped down from office.[214] President Michel Aoun accepted the resignation of the government and the Prime Minister, and asked the government to stay on in a caretaker capacity until a new cabinet may be formed.[215] A new government was eventually formed by former ambassador Mustapha Adib on August 31.[216]

International[edit]

Tel Aviv City Hall lit up with the colours of the Lebanese flag, 5 August 2020
Azadi Tower, Iran, 6 August, 2020

Representatives of multiple countries and the United Nations (UN),[115][217] offered condolences. In addition to those countries which provided aid, others offered to do so.[j] Notably, Israel offered aid via UN channels, as Israel and Lebanon have no diplomatic ties and are technically at war;[219][220][221] the offer was refused by the Lebanese government. Despite years of Israeli–Lebanese conflict, including the 2006 Lebanon War,[222] both Israel and senior Hezbollah officials ruled out Israeli involvement in the explosion, despite claims and allegations spread via social media.[223][224]

The International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated on 5 August, thus providing for widespread usage of various corporate, national, and international satellite assets on a humanitarian basis.[124] Several countries expressed solidarity by lighting up landmarks and monuments in the colours of the Lebanese flag, including the City Hall of Tel Aviv,[225][k] whereas the Eiffel Tower in Paris went dark at midnight,[235] and the Arab League flew its flag at its headquarters in Cairo at half-mast.[236] Some figures from the Israeli right-wing criticized the display of the flag of Lebanon, an "enemy state", in Tel Aviv.[225] There was also backlash inside Lebanon against the Israeli gesture.[237]

As a result of the explosion, concerns were raised about the storage of ammonium nitrate in other ports across the world.[238] Large quantities of the compound were removed from storage in Egypt, India, Romania, and Senegal.[239][240][l]

Aftermath[edit]

In late August 2020, the new general manager of the port, Bassem Al Qaisi, mentioned that the port became 100% operational, and that it had received 78,000 tonnes of grain, flour, wheat and corn in the past two weeks.[243]

Since the explosion, small fires have occurred within the damaged sections of the Port of Beirut.[244] On 10 September 2020, a large fire erupted in a cooking oil warehouse and food parcels belonging to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC),[245] then spread to a stock of rubber tires in the port's duty-free zone.[246][247] Following black smoke rising above the city's skyline, panic broke out due to the fear of another explosion, and motivated people to flee the city.[248][249] The fire was brought under control, by fire personnel on the ground and by Lebanese Air Force helicopters dropping water.[250]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The captain, Boris Prokoshev, wrote that Grechushkin had told him he had gone bankrupt, but noted that he did not believe Grechushkin.[31]
  2. ^ Ammonium nitrate has a long history of industrial disasters globally, and thus has been gradually phased out over concerns for misuse and safety.[38]
  3. ^ Because the explosion occurred on the earth's surface, the seismic waves generated by the blast are not as strong as they would have been had the equivalent amount of energy been released from underground sources.[49]
  4. ^ As a point of comparison, the Halifax Explosion in 1917 (which was not caused by ammonium nitrate) was the world's largest non-nuclear explosion, releasing the equivalent energy of roughly 2.9 kilotons of TNT (12,000 GJ).[61]
  5. ^ Other hazardous materials stored at the port included hydrofluoric acid oxidizer, benzoyl peroxide, calcium hypochlorite, picric acid, oils and several unknown chemicals.[64] On 3 September 2020, the Lebanese Army announced that they found an additional 4.35 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in the customs' "Detention Port", outside the seaport near entrance number 9.[65]
  6. ^ The five injured were connected to the Dutch embassy. The Dutch ambassador's wife, Hedwig Waltmans-Molier, was seriously injured and later died of her injuries.[100][101]
  7. ^ The Kazakhstani consul was wounded in his office.[111]
  8. ^ Among the dead were forty-three Syrian[76] thirteen Armenian,[77] five Bangladeshi,[78] four Filipino,[79] three Egyptian,[80][81] two Palestinian,[82] two Belgian,[83] two Canadian,[84] one German,[85] one Ethiopian,[86] one French,[87] one Italian,[88] one Australian,[89] one Pakistani,[90] one American,[91] one Greek,[92] and one Dutch national.[93] Among the injured were forty-two Filipino,[94] twenty-four French,[87] fifteen Sri Lankan,[95] ten Italian,[96] nine Ethiopian,[97] seven Jordanian,[98] six Turkish,[99] five Dutch,[f] five Greek,[102] five Indian,[103] five Sudanese,[104] four Belgian,[105] four Pakistani,[90] three Kenyan,[106] two Algerian,[107] one Nigerian,[108] one Chinese,[109] one Indonesian,[110] one Kazakhstani,[g] one Vietnamese,[112] and one Moroccan national.[113]
  9. ^ The palace had been restored over a twenty-year period following the civil war of 1975–1990.[139]
  10. ^ Sri Lanka donated 1,675 kilos of Ceylon tea to those affected by the Beirut blast; however, the gift was distributed to the families of the soldiers in the Presidential Guard Brigade.[218]
  11. ^ Others include the Belfast City Hall,[226] the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the Great Pyramid near Giza,[227] the King Road Tower in Jeddah,[228] the Kuwait Towers in Kuwait City,[229] the Los Angeles City Hall,[230] the headquarters of the Palestine Broadcasting Corporation in Ramallah,[231] the Sydney Opera House,[232] the Azadi Tower in Tehran,[233] and the National Assembly and Yerevan City Hall in Yerevan.[234]
  12. ^ Meanwhile, Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kadhimi ordered the formation a committee to remove hazardous inventory accumulated at the border ports.[241] Subsequently, hazardous material was removed from storage inside Umm Qasr Port.[242]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Bressan, David. "Beirut Explosion Generates Seismic Waves Equivalent Of A Magnitude 3.3 Earthquake". Forbes.
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  5. ^ "Beirut explosion 'one of the largest non-nuclear blasts in history'". Evening Standard. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  6. ^ Najjar, Ted Regencia, Arwa Ibrahim, Farah. "Second day of protests as anger over Beirut explosion grows: Live". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  7. ^ Hubbard, Ben; El-Naggar, Mona (8 August 2020). "Clashes Erupt in Beirut at Blast Protest as Lebanon's Anger Boils Over". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  8. ^ CNN, Ben Wedeman, Luna Safwan, Ghazi Balkiz and Tamara Qiblawi. "Lebanon protesters storm ministries as violent protests grip Beirut". CNN. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  9. ^ a b Balkiz, Ghazi; Qiblawi, Tamara; Wedeman, Ben (5 August 2020). "Beirut explosion shatters windows across Lebanese capital". CNN. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  10. ^ Sarah El Deeb (5 July 2020). "Crisis hits Lebanon's hospitals, among the best in Mideast". ABC News. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  11. ^ Qiblawi, Tamara (5 August 2020). "Beirut will never be the same again". CNN. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  12. ^ Trew, Bel (5 August 2020). "'The worst thing I've ever seen': Doctors treat wounded in rubble of destroyed hospitals after Beirut explosions". The Independent. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  13. ^ a b Azhari, Timour (4 August 2020). "Hundreds wounded as huge blast rips through Lebanon's Beirut". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  14. ^ a b c Grzeszczak, Jocelyn (4 August 2020). "What is the Port of Beirut? Everything We Know About the Site Following Deadly Explosion". Newsweek. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  15. ^ "Home". www.portdebeyrouth.com.
  16. ^ a b Oweis, Khaled Yacoub (10 August 2020). "Beirut explosion: Legendary Palestinian banker envisaged silos that shielded his adopted city from more destruction". The National. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  17. ^ a b c d e Dagher, Charbel; Maksoud, Christine (October 2015). "m/v Rhosus – Arrest and Personal Freedom of the Crew" (PDF). The Arrest News (11). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d e Azhari, Timour (5 August 2020). "Beirut blast: Tracing the explosives that tore the capital apart". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  19. ^ a b "How ship's deadly cargo ended up at Beirut port". BBC News. 6 August 2020.
  20. ^ a b Holroyd, Matthew (6 August 2020). "How did so much ammonium nitrate make it to Port of Beirut? | #TheCube". euronews.
  21. ^ "Russian captain recalls journey that led to deadly cargo being impounded". BBC News. 7 August 2020.
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